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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200013, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159624

RESUMO

The 24-hour recall (R24h) has been the method for dietary assessment in surveys. Technological advances have allowed the development of a program for the collection of R24h data. International Agency for Research on Cancer-World Health Organization (IARC-WHO) developed a standardized interview and computer-based 24-hour dietary recall program called GloboDiet, aimed at using it in research and nutrition surveillance. Brazil was included in a project for the global expansion of this methodology for developing and adapting a version for national use. The adaptation followed the procedures established by the IARC-WHO that considered the translation and adaptation of approximately 70 databases. For the development of the food list, national databases of food consumption from national surveys were consulted obtaining a final list of 2113 foods and recipes. GloboDiet program guides an interview in five steps: general information of the participant; quick list of foods and recipes; details of food / recipes and quantities consumed using mainly a picture book; control of the amount of food and nutrients; and information on dietary supplements. The Brazilian version of the GloboDiet program will provide a more accurate assessment of food intake based on a standardized method for nutrition surveillance and investigation of the relationship between diet and health outcomes, as well as comparisons of dietary intakes within and between countries.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Software , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While it is widely perceived that the diet consumed by Japanese is healthy, empirical evidence supporting this notion is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the overall diet quality of Japanese using the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), and compared diet quality scores between Japanese and Americans. METHODS: We used 1-d dietary record data from 19,719 adults (aged ≥20 y) in the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 and the first 24-h dietary recall data from 4614 adults in the US NHANES 2011-2012. RESULTS: As expected, a higher total score of the HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 was associated with favorable patterns of overall diet in the Japanese population. The range of total score was wide enough for both HEI-2015 (5th percentile 37.2; 95th percentile 67.2) and NRF9.3 (5th percentile 257; 95th percentile 645). Both HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 distinguished known differences in diet quality between sex, age, and smoking status. The mean total scores of HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 were similar between Japanese (51.9 and 448, respectively) and US adults (52.8 and 435, respectively). However, component scores between the 2 populations were considerably different. For HEI-2015, Japanese had higher scores for whole fruits, total vegetables, green and beans, total protein foods, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, added sugars, and saturated fats, but lower scores for total fruits, whole grains, dairy, refined grains, and sodium. For NRF9.3, the intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, potassium, added sugars, and saturated fats were more favorable in Japanese, while those of dietary fiber, vitamin A, calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium were less favorable. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the usefulness of HEI-2015 and NRF9.3 for assessing the diet quality of Japanese, as well as for highlighting different nutritional concerns between Japan and the US.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Estados Unidos
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(4): 366-374, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835963

RESUMO

Ultra-endurance athletes accumulate an energy deficit throughout their events and those competing in self-sufficient multi-stage races are particularly vulnerable due to load carriage considerations. Whilst urinary ketones have previously been noted in ultra-endurance exercise and attributed to insufficient carbohydrate (CHO) availability, not all studies have reported concomitant CHO intake. Our aim was to determine changes in blood glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations over five days (240 km) of a self-sufficient multi-stage ultramarathon in combination with quantification of energy and macronutrient intakes, estimated energy expenditure and evaluation of energy balance. Thirteen runners (8 male, 5 female, mean age 40 ± 8 years) participated in the study. Glucose and ß-hydroxybutyrate were measured every day immediately post-running, and food diaries completed daily. CHO intakes of 301 ± 106 g·day-1 (4.3 ± 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1) were not sufficient to avoid ketosis (5-day mean ß-hydroxybutyrate: 1.1 ± 0.6 mmol.L-1). Furthermore, ketosis was not attenuated even when CHO intake was high (9 g·kg-1·day-1). This suggests that competing in a state of ketosis may be inevitable during multi-stage events where load reduction is prioritised over energy provisions. Attenuating negative impacts associated with such a metabolic shift in athletes unaccustomed to CHO and energy restriction requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Cetose/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Registros de Dieta , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suporte de Carga
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 329-339, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have explored the role of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy expenditure. However, the link between BAT and appetite regulation needs to be more rigorously examined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations of BAT volume and 18F-fluordeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake after a personalized cold exposure with energy intake and appetite-related sensations in young healthy humans. METHODS: A total of 102 young adults (65 women; age: 22.08 ± 2.17 y; BMI: 25.05 ± 4.93 kg/m 2) took part in this cross-sectional study. BAT volume, BAT 18F-FDG uptake, and skeletal muscle 18F-FDG uptake were assessed by means of static 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography and computed tomography scans after a 2-h personalized exposure to cold. Energy intake was estimated via an objectively measured ad libitum meal and three nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Appetite-related sensations (i.e., hunger and fullness) were recorded by visual analog scales before and after a standardized breakfast (energy content = 50% of basal metabolic rate) and the ad libitum meal. Body composition was assessed by a whole-body DXA scan. RESULTS: BAT volume and 18F-FDG uptake were not associated with quantified ad libitum energy intake (all P > 0.088), nor with habitual energy intake estimated from the 24-h dietary recalls (all P  > 0.683). Lean mass was positively associated with both the energy intake from the ad libitum meal (ß: 17.612, R2 = 0.213; P < 0.001) and the habitual energy intake (ß: 16.052, R2 = 0.123; P = 0.001). Neither the interaction BAT volume × time elapsed after meal consumption nor that of BAT 18F-FDG uptake × time elapsed after meal consumption had any significant influence on appetite-related sensations after breakfast or after meal consumption (all P > 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Neither BAT volume, nor BAT 18F-FDG uptake after cold stimulation, are related to appetite regulation in young adults. These results suggest BAT plays no important role in the regulation of energy intake in humans.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02365129.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 59, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: British Army Phase One training exposes men and women to challenging distances of 13.5 km·d- 1 vs. 11.8 km·d- 1 and energy expenditures of ~ 4000 kcal·d- 1 and ~ 3000 kcal·d- 1, respectively. As such, it is essential that adequate nutrition is provided to support training demands. However, to date, there is a paucity of data on habitual dietary intake of British Army recruits. The aims of this study were to: (i) compare habitual dietary intake in British Army recruits undergoing Phase One training to Military Dietary Reference Values (MDRVs), and (ii) establish if there was a relative sex difference in dietary intake between men and women. METHOD: Researcher led weighed food records and food diaries were used to assess dietary intake in twenty-eight women (age 21.4 ± 3.0 yrs., height: 163.7 ± 5.0 cm, body mass 65.0 ± 6.7 kg), and seventeen men (age 20.4 ± 2.3 yrs., height: 178.0 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.6 ± 8.1 kg) at the Army Training Centre, Pirbright for 8-days in week ten of training. Macro and micronutrient content were estimated using dietary analysis software (Nutritics, Dublin) and assessed via an independent sample t-test to establish if there was a sex difference in daily energy, macro or micronutrient intakes. RESULTS: Estimated daily energy intake was less than the MDRV for both men and women, with men consuming a greater amount of energy compared with women (2846 ± 573 vs. 2207 ± 585 kcal·day- 1, p < 0.001). Both sexes under consumed carbohydrate (CHO) when data was expressed relative to body mass with men consuming a greater amount than women (4.8 ± 1.3 vs. 3.8 ± 1.4 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.025, ES = 0.74). Both sexes also failed to meet MDRVs for protein intake with men consuming more than women (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p > 0.030, ES = 0.67). There were no differences in dietary fat intake between men and women (1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5 g·kg- 1·day- 1, p = 0.483, ES = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Daily EI in men and women in Phase One training does not meet MDRVs. Interventions to increase macronutrient intakes should be considered along with research investigating the potential benefits for increasing different macronutrient intakes on training adaptations.


Assuntos
Dieta , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783477

RESUMO

As there are few food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to assess the dietary intake of preschool children, this study examined the validity and reliability of an FFQ for this purpose. A total of 210 preschoolers aged 4 to 6 years participated in the validation study, while a subsample of 66 participants joined the reliability study. The FFQ is modified from the ToyBox-study and South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS), and comprised 108 food items from 13 food groups. A three-day estimated dietary record (3DR) was used as reference and reliability was assessed through a second administration of the FFQ (FFQ2), four weeks after the first administration (FFQ1). For the validation study, Spearman's correlation coefficients showed moderate to high correlations (p < 0.001) between FFQ and 3DR. Cross-classification of quartile analysis showed moderate agreement between the two methods. As for reliability, Spearman's correlation coefficients showed moderate to high correlations (p < 0.001) between FFQ1 and FFQ2. Cronbach's alpha values (0.708 to 0.824) and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.710 to 0.826) showed good agreement between repeated FFQs. The results suggest that the FFQ has acceptable validity and good reliability. Hence, the FFQ can be used to assess preschool children's food intake.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783560

RESUMO

The association of dietary cholesterol intake with dyslipidemia and subtypes is controversial. This study aimed to examine the association of dietary cholesterol intake with dyslipidemia and subtypes in Chinese adults. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2015, the present study selected 4383 participants aged 18-59 years who were free of diabetes, apoplexy, and myocardial infarction disease. Information was obtained on dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and blood laboratory measurements. Dietary cholesterol intake was calculated based on the data collected by consecutive 3 days 24 h recalls combined with the weighing of household seasonings and categorized by 11 levels: The first 10 levels in ranges of 50 mg/day and the 11th level at ≥500 mg/day. Dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-hypercholesterolemia, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-hypocholesterolemia were defined based on the Chinese adult dyslipidemia prevention guide (2016 edition). Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the association of dietary cholesterol intake levels with dyslipidemia and subtypes. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 37.5% among Chinese adults in 2015 (hypercholesterolemia 9.6%, HDL-hypocholesterolemia 21.1%, LDL-hypercholesterolemia 12.7%, and hypertriglyceridemia 15.2%). The lowest prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and LDL-hypercholesterolemia was 6.7% and 9.4%, respectively, which was relative to a dietary cholesterol intake level of 100.0 to <150.0 mg/day. After adjusting for all potential confounders, adults with the highest dietary cholesterol intake level of ≥500 mg/day compared with the dietary cholesterol intake of 100.0 to <150.0 mg/day showed one-time higher odds of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratios (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3-3.3), as well as LDL-hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0), but a null association of dietary cholesterol intake with dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and HDL-hypocholesterolemia. The study suggested that a dietary cholesterol intake level of 500 mg/day and above may be a threshold point for high odds of hypercholesterolemia and LDL-hypercholesterolemia.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783608

RESUMO

Dietary intake data are crucial for developing or evaluating nutrition interventions to improve the nutritional status of populations. The collection of accurate and reliable dietary data in developing countries, however, remains challenging. The emergence of new technologies, which facilitate electronic data capture, might address some of these challenges. This paper aims to describe an application developed to collect a multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall, using electronic data capture, and compare the results to those estimated using a paper-based method. In this study, a tablet-based application was developed, in the CommCare platform, to evaluate the effectiveness, for improving dietary adequacy, of a package of behavior change interventions to reduce stunting and anemia among 6-23-month-old children in East Java, Indonesia (Baduta project). Dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated using electronic data capture in the cohort study of the Baduta project (n = 680). We compared these results with those estimated using paper-based data capture in the project's end-line cross-sectional study (n = 2740). We found a higher percentage of children classified as acceptable energy reporters (reported energy intake within the 95% CI of Total Energy Expenditure) with the electronic data capture compared with paper-based data capture (i.e., 60.8%, 72.4% and 80.7% for 6-8-, 9-11- and 12-23-month-old children, respectively, vs. 40.9%, 56.9%, and 54.3%, respectively). The estimated mean energy and nutrient intakes were not significantly different between these dietary data capture methods. These results suggest dietary data collection, using a tablet-based application, is feasible and can improve the quality of dietary data collected in developing countries.


Assuntos
Computadores de Mão , Dieta , Rememoração Mental , Avaliação Nutricional , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/instrumentação , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 38(1): 47, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are dietary surveys widely used in studies of nutritional epidemiology because they are inexpensive, easy to complete and provide significant information on dietary intake over a long period of time. FFQs should be written specifically for each study group since diet may be influenced by ethnicity, culture, economic status and environmental factors. The aim of the authors on this work was to design and validate a food frequency questionnaire for the Peruvian Amazon population. METHODS: Three hundred three individuals were selected and completed three 24-h recalls (R24). Two FFQs were conducted on two different occasions (FFQ.1 and FFQ.2). The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing the relationship between the average daily nutrient intake estimated by the FFQs and that obtained by the three R24. The reproducibility was measured by comparing the mean nutrient intake of the two FFQs carried out. The correlations were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Lin correlation coefficient (CCC) and the Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: The results obtained to establish the validity showed a high correlation, with an average Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.70, a CCI of 0.65 and a CCC of 0.60. Approximately 60% of the nutrients had a CCC above 0.60. In terms of reproducibility, better results were obtained, with an average Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.67, 0.64 for CCI and 0.58 for CCC. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation coefficients show good validity and reproducibility, and therefore, the FFQ we have developed may be considered a useful and valid tool to estimate the dietary intake of the Peruvian Amazon population.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878004

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation plays a role in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and diet might modulate chronic inflammation. This study aims to evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and CLL. A total of 366 CLL cases and 1643 controls of the Spanish multicase-control (MCC) Spain study were included. The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) based on 30 items from a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Overall, a modest, non-statistically significant, positive association was observed between CLL and E-DII scores (OR for a one-unit increase in E-DII: 1.05 (CI 95%: 0.99, 1.12), p-value = 0.09 and by tertiles: ORT2vsT1: 1.20 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.59); OR T3vsT1: 1.21 (CI 95%: 0.90, 1.62), p trend = 0.21). These results were independent from disease severity (p-het: 0.70), time from diagnosis (p-het: 0.67) and CLL treatment received (p-het: 0.56). No interactions were detected. In conclusion, the consumption of a diet with high pro-inflammatory components was not significantly associated with CLL. Changes towards a more pro-inflammatory dietary pattern in younger generations not included here warrant future research.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841548

RESUMO

The microbiota composition of the offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication, is still little known. We investigated whether the GDM offspring gut microbiota composition is associated with the maternal nutritional habits, metabolic variables or pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we compared the GDM offspring microbiota to the microbiota of normoglycemic-mother offspring. Fecal samples of 29 GDM infants were collected during the first week of life and assessed by 16S amplicon-based sequencing. The offspring's microbiota showed significantly lower α-diversity than the corresponding mothers. Earlier maternal nutritional habits were more strongly associated with the offspring microbiota (maternal oligosaccharide positively with infant Ruminococcus, maternal saturated fat intake inversely with infant Rikenellaceae and Ruminococcus) than last-trimester maternal habits. Principal coordinate analysis showed a separation of the infant microbiota according to the type of feeding (breastfeeding vs formula-feeding), displaying in breast-fed infants a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium. A few Bacteroides and Blautia oligotypes were shared by the GDM mothers and their offspring, suggesting a maternal microbial imprinting. Finally, GDM infants showed higher relative abundance of pro-inflammatory taxa than infants from healthy women. In conclusion, many maternal conditions impact on the microbiota composition of GDM offspring whose microbiota showed increased abundance of pro-inflammatory taxa.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Diabetes Gestacional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847188

RESUMO

The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) is a free dietary recall system that outputs fewer nutrients than the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR). NDSR uses the Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food and Nutrient Database, both of which require a license. Manual lookup of ASA24 foods into NDSR is time-consuming but currently the only way to acquire NCC-exclusive nutrients. Using lactose as an example, we evaluated machine learning and database matching methods to estimate this NCC-exclusive nutrient from ASA24 reports. ASA24-reported foods were manually looked up into NDSR to obtain lactose estimates and split into training (n = 378) and test (n = 189) datasets. Nine machine learning models were developed to predict lactose from the nutrients common between ASA24 and the NCC database. Database matching algorithms were developed to match NCC foods to an ASA24 food using only nutrients ("Nutrient-Only") or the nutrient and food descriptions ("Nutrient + Text"). For both methods, the lactose values were compared to the manual curation. Among machine learning models, the XGB-Regressor model performed best on held-out test data (R2 = 0.33). For the database matching method, Nutrient + Text matching yielded the best lactose estimates (R2 = 0.76), a vast improvement over the status quo of no estimate. These results suggest that computational methods can successfully estimate an NCC-exclusive nutrient for foods reported in ASA24.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros de Dieta , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Avaliação Nutricional , Humanos , Lactose/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Software
13.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861789

RESUMO

Trend analyses suggest that free sugar (FS) intake-while still exceeding 10%E-has decreased among German children and adolescents since 2005, yet that intakes may shift from sugars naturally occurring in foods to added sugars as children age. Thus, we analysed time and age trends in FS intake (%E) from food groups among 3-18 year-olds (1985-2016) using 10,761 3-day dietary records from 1312 DONALD participants (660 boys, 652 girls) by use of polynomial mixed-effects regression models. Among girls, FS from sugar & sweets decreased from 1985 to 2016 (linear trend p < 0.0001), but not among boys (p > 0.05). In the total sample, FS intake from juices increased until 2000 and decreased since 2005 (linear, quadratic trend p < 0.0001). FS from sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) decreased non-linearly from 1985 to 2016 (girls: linear, quadratic, cubic trend p < 0.0001; boys: linear, quadratic, cubic trend p < 0.02). Younger children consumed more FS from juices than older ones, who had a higher FS intake from SSB. FS intake from sugar & sweets increased until early adolescence and decreased afterwards. Since sugar & sweets represent the main source of FS intake and the source with the least pronounced decline in intake, public health measures should focus on these products.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731722

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) intake is an important indication of an individual's Mg status, but no validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess intake currently exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the validity of a semi-quantitative Mg food frequency questionnaire (MgFFQ) against a 14-day food diary to assess average daily Mg intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 135 adults aged 18 to 75 completed the 33-item MgFFQ and a 14-day food diary to assess their Mg intakes. Coefficients of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and/or Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used to determine the relationship between the MgFFQ and the average Mg intake from the 14-day food diary among all participants, men, women, age groups, and body mass index (BMI) groups. The correlation between the MgFFQ and the 14-day food diary was significant (p < 0.05) for all participants (r = 0.798), men (r = 0.855), women (r = 0.759), normal weight (r = 0.762), overweight (r = 0.858), and obese (r = 0.675) weight statuses, and in all age groups. The calcium to magnesium intake (Ca:Mg) ratio in all participants was higher than optimal, 3.39 (2.11). Our results suggest that the MgFFQ is a valid method to capture Mg intake over an extended period of time, therefore acting as a valuable tool to quickly determine Mg intake.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Magnésio/análise , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683814

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of strategies of handling misestimation of energy intake (EI) on observed associations between dietary patterns and cancer risk. Data from Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants (n = 9,847 men and 16,241 women) were linked to the Alberta Cancer Registry. The revised-Goldberg method was used to characterize EI misestimation. Four strategies assessed the influence of EI misestimation: Retaining individuals with EI misestimation in the cluster analysis (Inclusion), excluding before (ExBefore) or after cluster analysis (ExAfter), or reassigning into ExBefore clusters using the nearest neighbor method (InclusionNN). Misestimation of EI affected approximately 50% of participants. Cluster analysis identified three patterns: Healthy, Meats/Pizza and Sweets/Dairy. Cox proportional hazard regression models assessed associations between the risk of cancer and dietary patterns. Among men, no significant associations (based on an often-used threshold of p < 0.05) between dietary patterns and cancer risk were observed. In women, significant associations were observed between the Sweets/Dairy and Meats/Pizza patterns and all cancer risk in the ExBefore (HR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04-1.58)) and InclusionNN (HR (95% CI): 1.14 (1.00-1.30)), respectively. Thus, strategies to address misestimation of EI can influence associations between dietary patterns and disease outcomes. Identifying optimal approaches for addressing EI misestimation, for example, by leveraging biomarker-based studies could improve our ability to characterize diet-disease associations.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alberta , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
16.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683892

RESUMO

High whole grain intake is beneficial for health. However, adolescents consume low levels of whole grain and the understanding of the underpinning reasons for this is poor. Using a visual, participatory method, we carried out a pilot feasibility study to elicit in-depth accounts of young people's whole grain consumption that were sensitive to their dietary, familial and social context. Furthermore, we explored barriers and suggested facilitators to whole grain intake and assessed the feasibility of using SenseCam to engage adolescents in research. Eight British adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) wore a SenseCam device which auto-captured images every twenty seconds for three consecutive days. Participants then completed traditional 24-hour dietary recalls followed by in-depth interviews based on day three SenseCam images. Interview data were subjected to thematic analysis. Findings revealed that low adolescent whole grain intake was often due to difficulty in identifying whole grain products and their health benefits; and because of poor availability in and outside of the home. The images also captured the influence of parents and online media on adolescent daily life and choices. Low motivation to consume whole grains, a common explanation for poor diet quality, was rarely mentioned. Participants proposed that adolescent whole grain consumption could be increased by raising awareness through online media, improved sensory appeal, increased availability and variety, and tailoring of products for young people. SenseCam was effective in engaging young people in dietary research and capturing data relevant to dietary choices, which is useful for future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Preferências Alimentares , Grãos Integrais , Adolescente , Conscientização , Criança , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Reino Unido
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694143

RESUMO

Dietary habits amongst the Spanish population are currently a relevant cause for concern, as macronutrient profiles and micronutrient intakes seem to be inadequate and globally moving away from the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. However, recent food consumption patterns have not been fully assessed. In the present study, our aim was therefore to describe the current food consumption from the "anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain" (ANIBES) study population by assessing data defined by age and gender. The ANIBES study is a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population. A three-day dietary record was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption. The sample comprised 2009 individuals aged 9-75 years, plus a boost sample for the youngest age groups (9-12, 13-17, and 18-24 years, n = 200 per age group). The most consumed food group across all age segments were non-alcoholic beverages followed by milk and dairy products and vegetables. Consumption of cereals and derivatives, milk and dairy products, sugars and sweets, and ready-to-eat meals by children was significantly higher than those by the adult and older adult populations (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, intakes of vegetables, fruits, and fish and shellfish were significantly higher in adults and older adults (p ≤ 0.05). In order to comply with recommendations, adherence to the Mediterranean dietary patterns should be strengthened, especially amongst younger population groups. Therefore, substantial nutritional interventions may be targeted to improve the Spanish population's dietary patterns nowadays.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Dieta/métodos , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698715

RESUMO

Besides food quantity and quality, food timing and frequency may contribute to weight regulation. It is unclear if these factors during pregnancy can influence maternal weight retention after childbirth. We thus aimed to examine the associations of maternal circadian eating pattern and diet quality in pregnancy with substantial postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 18 months in an Asian cohort. We assessed circadian eating pattern and diet quality of 687 women using 24-h dietary recalls at 26-28 weeks' gestation. We calculated PPWR by subtracting maternal weight in the first trimester from weight at 18-month postpartum and defined substantial PPWR as ≥5 kg weight retention. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed. Overall, 16% of women had substantial PPWR. After the confounders adjustment, night eating, defined by greater night-time caloric intake (odds ratio 1.95; 95% confidence interval 1.05, 3.62), and lower diet quality, classified by median score of the Healthy Eating Index (1.91; 1.17, 3.10), were independently associated with higher odds of substantial PPWR. No associations with substantial PPWR were observed for night fasting duration and number of eating episodes. In conclusion, alignment of eating time with day-night cycles and diet quality during pregnancy may play a role in PPWR, with possible implications for long-term obesity risk.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Humanos , Refeições , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 19(6): 460-467, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The University of Virginia neonatal intensive care unit is a 51-bed unit with approximately 600 to 700 admissions per year. Despite evidenced-based clinical care, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and feeding intolerance remained problematic. PURPOSE: In September 2016, the neonatal intensive care unit implemented an exclusive human milk diet (EHMD) for infants born 1250 g or less with the goal of reducing NEC, feeding intolerance, parenteral nutrition use, and late-onset sepsis. Length of stay, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and retinopathy of prematurity were also evaluated. METHODS: A work group developed systems for charging and documenting products used in an EHMD. Outcomes were compared with a control group of similar infants born prior to the availability of the EHMD. RESULTS: Infants who received an EHMD had significantly fewer late-onset sepsis evaluations (P = .0027) and less BPD (P = .018). While not statistically significant, less surgical NEC was also demonstrated (4 cases vs 1 case, which was 57% of total NEC cases vs 14.3%) while maintaining desirable weight gain and meeting financial goals. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A multidisciplinary team that implements financial and documentation systems can provide a sustainable clinical practice that improves patient outcomes. Ongoing evaluations of clinical and financial data provide valuable information to guide future clinical practices related to the EHMD. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH: Future research on the anti-inflammatory effect of an EHMD is needed to provide direction regarding a potential dose-dependent response for reduced BPD rates and severity. The role of human milk and prevention or mitigation of sepsis is not fully understood, but the reduction of the number of late-onset sepsis evaluations may support the relationship between an EHMD and infection protection. Exploring clinical and financial outcomes for implementing the EHMD in infants born more than 1250 g remains a key area for research.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante , Doenças do Prematuro , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Leite Humano , Sepse Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Registros de Dieta , Enterocolite Necrosante/dietoterapia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/dietoterapia , Doenças do Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/métodos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
20.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726711

RESUMO

The relationship between dietary intake and body composition changes during cancer treatment has not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake at diagnosis and end of treatment in relation to changes in muscle mass and adiposity in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Dietary intakes (three-day food record) and body composition using computed tomography (CT) were assessed at diagnosis (baseline) and after treatment completion (post-treatment). Skeletal muscle (SM) loss was explored as a consequence of energy and protein intake in relation to the minimum and maximum European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) guidelines. Higher energy intakes (kcal/kg/day) and increases in energy intake (%) from baseline to post-treatment were correlated with attenuated muscle loss (r = 0.62, p < 0.01; r = 0.47, p = 0.04, respectively). Post-treatment protein intake demonstrated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.44, p = 0.05) with muscle loss, which did not persist when controlling for covariates. Meeting minimum ESPEN energy guidelines (25 kcal/kg/day) did not attenuate SM loss, whereas intakes >30 kcal/kg/day resulted in fewer participants losing muscle. Greater baseline adiposity correlated with greater SM loss (p < 0.001). Energy intakes of 30 kcal/kg/day may be required to protect against SM loss during treatment in HNC patients. The influence of adiposity on SM loss requires further exploration.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Caquexia/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Energia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Perda de Peso , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Caquexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Registros de Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
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