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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064833

RESUMO

As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related restrictions, food systems have undergone unprecedented changes, with the potential to affect dietary behavior. We aimed to investigate workers' dietary changes resulting from the introduction of regulations to combat COVID-19 in a Japanese factory cafeteria. Objective data on daytime dietary intake were automatically collected from electronic purchase system records. The dataset included the weekly data of 890 men from 1 July 2019 to 30 September 2020. The cafeteria regulations came into effect on 10 April 2020; in this context, the purchase of dishes and estimated dietary intake were monitored. The number of cafeteria visits decreased slightly after the introduction of the regulations. The purchase of main and side dishes also decreased, but the purchase of grain dishes was less affected. When compared with summer 2019 (pre-pandemic, no regulations: 1 July to 29 September 2019), in summer 2020 (during the pandemic and with regulations: 29 June to 30 September 2020), the estimated mean grain, meat, fish, and total energy intake was stable; however, vegetable intake decreased by 11%. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, workplace cafeteria regulations need to be monitored to avoid unfavorable dietary changes in employees.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803566

RESUMO

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes (n = 9 males, n = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; and males < 25 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Overall, 78% of females were "at risk" for LEA using the LEAF-Q, and 67% reported birth control use, with three of these participants reporting menstrual dysfunction. BMD was clinically low in the hip (<-2 z-score) for 56% of female and 25% of male athletes (4) Conclusions: Based on calculated EA, the risk for RED-S appears to be low, but hormonal outcomes suggest that RED-S risk is high in this para-athlete population. This considerable discrepancy in various EA and RED-S assessment tools suggests the need for further investigation to determine the true prevalence of RED-S in para-athlete populations.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Deficiência Energética Relativa no Esporte/etiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Antropometria , Densidade Óssea , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Paratletas , Fatores de Risco , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923157

RESUMO

Few studies provide a detailed description of dietary habits during pregnancy, despite the central role of nutrition for the health of the mother and offspring. This paper describes the dietary habits, energy and nutrient intake in pregnant women from four countries belonging to the Mediterranean PHIME cohort (Croatia, Greece, Italy and Slovenia) and evaluates their adherence to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. A total of 1436 women were included in the present analysis. Maternal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean macro and micronutrient intakes were estimated and compared with the dietary reference values (DRVs). The percentage distribution of the 16 food groups in the total intake of each macronutrient was estimated. All women shared a similar diet during pregnancy; almost all the women in the four countries exceeded the DRV for sugars, and the total fat intake was above the DRV in most women in all the countries, as was the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to the total energy intake. In all four countries, we observed an increased risk of micronutrient deficiency for iron, folate and vitamin D. Shared guidelines, implemented at both the national and European level, are essential to improve the maternal nutritional status during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Croácia , Dieta , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Itália , Gravidez , Eslovênia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808209

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the relative validity of intake of energy, nutrients and food groups assessed with MijnEetmeter food diary as compared to 24-h dietary recalls, and if this differed between experienced and new users. One hundred men and women aged 18-70 y participated, of whom 47 had prior experience with the tool. Participants kept MijnEetmeter on three days. Trained dietitians called them three times for a 24-h dietary recall interview, once recalling food consumption on the same day as the food recording in MijnEetmeter. Systematic differences and correlations were assessed, and Bland-Altman plots were created; both for 3-day mean intakes and for intakes on the same day. Relative to 24-h dietary recalls, MijnEetmeter underestimated consumption of drinks, added fat, cereal products, and potatoes. Relative underestimation was observed for energy intake (6%) and about half of the nutrients. Experienced MijnEetmeter users underestimated intake the least. For intake of energy and six key nutrients, correlations between 3-day mean intakes were above 0.7 except for sodium intake. In conclusion, MijnEetmeter moderately underestimates intakes of energy and some nutrients and food groups. To improve the self-monitoring of dietary intake, it is recommended that the users record food consumption for several days and that the apps probes for easily forgotten foods and drinks.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta/normas , Alimentos/classificação , Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Idoso , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924834

RESUMO

This study reports on the dietary intake of recipients of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), comparing this with dietary guidelines, and investigates the relationship between dietary intake and clinical outcomes. Males and females aged ≥ 16 years with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease undergoing FMT were invited to complete validated symptom and quality of life (QOL) questionnaires and three-day weighed food diaries. Descriptive statistics were calculated for symptom scores, QOL scores, nutrients, and food group servings, and compared to Australian population norms, nutrient reference values, and dietary guidelines. The relationship between dietary intake, symptoms, and QOL was assessed. Participants (n = 18) reported baseline symptoms of urgency, abdominal pain, nausea, and bloating and reduced QOL. Of the participants who completed food diaries, 8/14 met the recommended 30 g of fibre when including supplements. Participants met the recommendations for micronutrients and food groups except calcium, fruit, and dairy/dairy alternatives. There was a non-significant trend towards lower symptom severity scores in participants who met the fibre target. The high degree of variability in participant fibre intakes highlights diet as a key variable that has not been previously controlled for in FMT intervention studies. Future studies examining FMT should include dietary analysis of habitual intake of the recipients and donors.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta/métodos , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801995

RESUMO

The impact of diet on inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) in girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate, in PCOS girls, whether certain macronutrient intakes can be associated with these disturbances. For this purpose, 59 PCOS participants (aged 14-18 years) were recruited to this study and divided into two subgroups: overweight/obese-Ov/Ob group (n = 22) and normal weight-N group (n = 37). Nutrition was assessed using a 3-day food record. The studied markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6). We found plant protein intake inversely correlated with IL-6 (p = 0.007; r = -0.557), TNF-α (p = 0.006; r = -0.564), MDA (p = 0.01; r = -0.539) in the Ov/Ob group and with TAC (p = 0.021; r = -0.38) in the N group. Inverse correlations in the Ov/Ob group were observed between protein intake and IL-6 (p = 0.031; r = -0.461), TNF- α (p = 0.043; r = -0.435); carbohydrates and IL-6 (p = 0.037; r = -0.448), MDA (p = 0.045; r = -0.431); fiber and IL-6 (p = 0.025; r = -0.475). A positive relationship between cholesterol intake and CRP concentration (p = 0.038; r = 0.342) was also found in the N group. These findings revealed that inflammation and OS are increased in Ov/Ob girls with decreased plant protein intake and low carbohydrates in the diet. Moreover, inflammation may be increased by cholesterol intake in slim PCOS girls. On the other hand, decreased intake of fiber and total protein intake increased inflammation. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04738409.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Inflamação/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Citocinas/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/imunologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable behavior of interest in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, measures of diet in persons with MS have not been vetted for feasibility, acceptability, and validity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined the Automated Self-Administered 24-H (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool in 30 persons with MS and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Participants were prompted to complete six ASA24 recalls and undergo a standard doubly labeled water (DLW) protocol. Acceptability of ASA24 was assessed using an online questionnaire. Total energy expenditure (TEE) from DLW was compared with ASA24-reported energy intake for assessing validity. RESULTS: All participants completed four or more ASA24 recalls, indicating feasibility of ASA24. Regarding acceptability, the hardest part of completing the ASA24 was remembering everything eaten the previous day. Pearson correlation coefficients between DLW TEE and ASA24 kcal/day were not significant among HC (r = 0.40; p = 0.14) or MS (r = 0.26; p = 0.16) participants. The absolute mean error between DLW TEE and ASA24 among HC participants was 694.96 ± 506.25 mean kcal/day and among MS participants was 585.37 ± 529.02 mean kcal/day; this represents a mean difference of 30 and 25%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study established the feasibility and acceptability of ASA24 in persons with MS and provides a foundation regarding the need for further validation research examining appropriate outcomes for supporting dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Óxido de Deutério/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Deutério/metabolismo , Óxido de Deutério/urina , Registros de Dieta , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925486

RESUMO

The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids consumption and sleep disorders or duration are controversial. Therefore, we used the data of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2016 in this cross-sectional study to explore their relationships. ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids consumption was assessed using two 24 h dietary recall interviews. Sleep disorders and sleep duration were based on self-reported data. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline analyses were used. Compared with tertile one, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of sleep disorders for the second tertile of ω-6 fatty acid intake and the highest tertile of ω-6:ω-3 ratio were 1.30 (1.04-1.62) and 1.36 (1.08-1.70), respectively. Inverse U-shaped and linear dose-response relationships were observed between dietary ω-6 fatty acid intake and ω-6:ω-3 ratio and sleep disorders, respectively. In addition, ω-3 fatty acid consumption was adversely related to sleep disorders in men and the OR (95% CI) was 0.68 (0.49-0.95). Compared with normal sleep duration, ω-3 fatty acid consumption was negatively related to very short, short, and long sleep duration risk. The relative risk ratios (RRRs) were 0.53 (0.35-0.81), 0.79 (0.67-0.93), and 0.81 (068-0.98), respectively. The RRR of very short sleep for ω-6 fatty acid consumption was 0.57 (0.45-0.73). Our study indicates that ω-6 fatty acid consumption and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio are positively associated with the risk of sleep disorders, while the negative association between ω-3 fatty acids and sleep disorders may exist only in men. Furthermore, ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acid consumption are negatively related to the risk of non-normal sleep duration.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915922

RESUMO

Measuring dietary intakes in a multi-ethnic and multicultural setting, such as Malaysia, remains a challenge due to its diversity. This study aims to develop and evaluate the relative validity of an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in assessing the habitual dietary exposure of The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) participants. We developed a nutrient database (with 203 items) based on various food consumption tables, and 803 participants were involved in this study. The output of the FFQ was then validated against three-day 24-h dietary recalls (n = 64). We assessed the relative validity and its agreement using various methods, such as Spearman's correlation, weighed Kappa, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficient ranged from 0.24 (vitamin C) to 0.46 (carbohydrate), and almost all nutrients had correlation coefficients above 0.3, except for vitamin C and sodium. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from -0.01 (calcium) to 0.59 (carbohydrates), and weighted Kappa exceeded 0.4 for 50% of nutrients. In short, TMC's FFQ appears to have good relative validity for the assessment of nutrient intake among its participants, as compared to the three-day 24-h dietary recalls. However, estimates for iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923638

RESUMO

Valid and useful dietary assessment methods for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are needed. In this study, we compared an image-based method with a written food diary for dietary intake estimation among adolescents with T1D and evaluated the adolescents' experiences of the methods. Adolescents with T1D aged 13 to 18 years (n = 13) photographed their meals (n = 264) with a mobile phone camera and simultaneously kept a written food diary for four consecutive days. The participants filled out electronic background and feedback questionnaires. The agreement between the methods was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plot analyses. The agreement between the methods was moderate to excellent for the energy intake (ICC = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66 to 0.97, p < 0.001) and good to excellent for total carbohydrate intake (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.99, p < 0.001). The adolescents considered photographing easier and faster than keeping a food diary. In conclusion, the image-based method appeared comparable to the food diary for dietary intake estimation among adolescents with T1D. The photographing of meals may become a useful dietary assessment tool for adolescents with T1D, but must be further developed and validated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fotografação , Adolescente , Telefone Celular , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670108

RESUMO

Acrylamide, which is present in many daily foods, is a probable human carcinogen. In 2002, it was identified in several common foods. Subsequently, western epidemiologists began to explore the relationship between dietary acrylamide exposure and cancer risk; however, limited suggestive associations were found. This prospective study aimed to examine the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of hematological malignancies, including malignant lymphoma (ML), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. We enrolled 85,303 participants in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective study on diet and cancer as from 1995. A food frequency questionnaire that included data on acrylamide in all Japanese foods was used to assess dietary acrylamide intake. We applied multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to reckon hazard ratios (HRs) for acrylamide intake for both categorical variables (tertiles) and continuous variables. After 16.0 median years of follow-up, 326 confirmed cases of ML, 126 cases of MM, and 224 cases of leukemia were available for final multivariable-adjusted analysis. HRs were 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-1.18) for ML, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.38-1.05) for MM, and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.71-1.45) for leukemia. Our results implied that acrylamide may not be related to the risk of hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/administração & dosagem , Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate and reliable measurement of nutrient intake is the first and foremost step in order to optimise infant nutrition and evaluate its impact on health outcomes. However, research on the validity of dietary assessment tools used during the weaning period is limited, especially in lower-middle income countries. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate relative validity of a 24-h recall method (24-HR) using a 3-day food record (3-DFR). A secondary aim was to investigate association between protein intake from 3-DFR and plasma amino acids as a potential protein biomarker. Methods A multicentre, prospective cohort study was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand from June 2018 to May 2019. Food consumption data were collected in healthy infants using 24-HR and 3-DFR at 9 and 12 months of age. Blood samples were obtained at 12 months (M). Plasma amino acids were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Results Of 145 infants, 49% were female. At group level, paired t-tests/Wilcoxon signed rank tests did not show significant differences between average nutrient intakes from the 2 dietary assessment methods, except for vitamin A and vitamin C. Weighted kappa (Kw) was acceptable for all nutrients, except for vitamin A intake at 9 M (Kw = 0.15). The Bland-Altman analyses were unbiased for most nutrients with variable limits of agreement. At individual level, correlation coefficients (r) ranged from acceptable to excellent (r = 0.37-0.87) while cross-classifications showed acceptable outcomes, except for vitamin A. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between protein intake at 12 M from the 3-DFR and plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and essential amino acids (EAA), even after adjusting for gender, milk feeding type and energy intake. Conclusions For infants aged 9-12 M, a 24-HR can be used as a more practical alternative to a 3-DFR for most nutrients although caution is required for some micronutrients, especially vitamin A. A repeated interview might further improve the accuracy. Furthermore, protein intake, particularly animal-based protein, significantly predicted plasma BCAA and EAA concentrations regardless of gender, type of milk feeding and energy consumption.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Lactente , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tailândia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672996

RESUMO

Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) are at high risk of malnutrition and subsequent related mortality when starting dialysis. However, there have been few clinical studies on the effect of nutritional interventions on long-term patient survival. A 2-year longitudinal study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2016. A total of 186 patients with non-dialysis ESKD started the nutritional education program (NEP), and 169 completed it. A total of 128 patients participated in a NEP over 6 months (personalized diet, education and oral supplementation, if needed). The control group (n = 45) underwent no specific nutritional intervention. The hospitalization rate was significantly lower for the patients with NEP (13.7%) compared with the control patients (26.7%) (p = 0.004). The mortality odds ratio for the patients who did not receive NEP was 2.883 (95% CI 0.993-8.3365, p = 0.051). The multivariate analysis showed an independent association between mortality and age (OR, 1.103; 95% CI 1.041-1.169; p = 0.001) and between mortality and the female sex (OR, 3.332; 95% CI 1.054-10.535; p = 0.040) but not between mortality and those with NEP (p = 0.051). Individualized nutrition education has long-term positive effects on nutritional status, reduces hospital admissions and increases survival among patients with advanced CKD who are starting dialysis programs.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(4): 924-938, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading steadily, resulting in overwhelmed health-care systems and numerous deaths worldwide. To counter these outcomes, many countries, including France, put in place strict lockdown measures, requiring the temporary closure of all but essential places and causing an unprecedented disruption of daily life. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to explore potential changes in dietary intake, physical activity, body weight, and food supply during the COVID-19 lockdown and how these differed according to individual characteristics. METHODS: The analyses included 37,252 adults from the French web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort who completed lockdown-specific questionnaires in April-May 2020. Nutrition-related changes and their sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-status correlates were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models. Clusters of participants were defined using an ascending hierarchical classification of change profiles derived from multiple correspondence analyses. RESULTS: During the lockdown, trends of unfavorable changes were observed: decreased physical activity (reported by 53% of the participants), increased sedentary time (reported by 63%), increased snacking, decreased consumption of fresh food (especially fruit and fish), and increased consumption of sweets, cookies, and cakes. Yet, the opposite trends were also observed: increased home cooking (reported by 40%) and increased physical activity (reported by 19%). Additionally, 35% of the participants gained weight (mean weight gain in these individuals, 1.8 kg ± SD 1.3 kg) and 23% lost weight (2 kg ± SD 1.4 kg weight loss). All of these trends displayed associations with various individual characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nutrition-related changes occurred during the lockdown in both unfavorable and favorable directions. The observed unfavorable changes should be considered in the event of a future lockdown, and should also be monitored to prevent an increase in the nutrition-related burden of disease, should these diet/physical activity changes be maintained in the long run. Understanding the favorable changes may help extend them on a broader scale. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03335644.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso
15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672629

RESUMO

Several tools assessing diet quality have been developed over the last decades, but their use in public health and clinical practice is limited because they necessitate detailed quantitative assessment of food intake. Our goal was to develop and validate a score (Score d'Alimentation Saine, SCASA) based on a short self-administrated online questionnaire to assess overall diet quality. SCASA targets the adult population in French-speaking Switzerland, but it was designed in a way enabling its adaptation for other regions. The choice of the items involved experts and lay volunteers. Construct validation and inter-method reliability were assessed by screening meal plans and by comparing the self-rated scores with food-record derived scores (kappa and Bland-Altman). SCASA (17 components) discriminated adequately balanced from imbalanced meal plans (93-95% and 44-46% of maximal score). Agreement between self-assessed and food record-based scores ranged between >90% (3 items), 80-89% (3 items), 70-79% (4 items), and <70% (5 items). The Bland-Altman plot showed a mean difference of -1.60 (95% CI -2.36 to -0.84), indicating a slight overestimation of the self-assessed diet quality compared to the food record. SCASA offers a reliable way to assess overall diet quality without requiring burdensome data collection or nutrient calculations.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suíça
16.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562015

RESUMO

The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9-19 years (n = 549-338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA) < 1:2, (2) intake of SAFA < 10% of total energy intake, (3) fiber intake ≥ 80th age-specific percentile, and (4) sucrose intake ≤ 20th age-specific percentile. Metabolic biomarkers were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics. Better adherence to the dietary targets, regardless of study group allocation, was assoiated with higher serum proportion of PUFAs, lower serum proportion of SAFAs, and a higher degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Achieving ≥ 1 dietary target resulted in higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, lower circulating LDL subclass lipid concentrations, and lower circulating lipid concentrations in medium and small high-density lipoprotein subclasses compared to meeting 0 targets. Attaining more dietary targets (≥2) was associated with a tendency to lower lipid concentrations of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, adherence to dietary targets is favorably associated with multiple circulating fatty acids and lipoprotein subclass lipid concentrations, indicative of better cardio-metabolic health.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol na Dieta/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Registros de Dieta , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Saudável/normas , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/sangue , Feminino , Finlândia , Frutas , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Lactente , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica , Política Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Verduras , Grãos Integrais , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557067

RESUMO

Some studies suggest that dairy foods may be linked with less chronic inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the separate effects of different types of dairy on inflammation. Therefore, the current study aims to examine the separate prospective impacts of milk, yogurt and cheese on biomarkers of chronic inflammation in 1753 community-dwelling participants of the Framingham Offspring Study (FOS). Mean intakes of dairy foods were derived from two sets of three-day diet records. Six inflammatory biomarkers were assessed approximately seven years later at exam 7. Results showed that those who consumed yogurt (vs. those who did not) had statistically significantly lower levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (mean log-transformed levels of 1.31 and 1.26 in consumers/non-consumers, respectively, p = 0.02) and fibrin (mean log-transformed levels of 5.91 and 5.89 in consumers/non-consumers, respectively, p = 0.03). The inverse association between IL-6 and yogurt consumption was similar in participants who were of normal weight and those who were overweight. For fibrin, the effects were stronger in overweight individuals. No statistically significant associations were observed between any of these inflammation biomarkers and milk or cheese intakes. Overall, our study compared the separate impacts of three types of dairy foods on chronic inflammation and found that only yogurt intake was linked with lower levels of chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Iogurte , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 12, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproducibility of FFQs measures the consistency of the same subject at different time points. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the reproducibility of FFQs and factors related to reproducibility of FFQs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic literature review was performed before July 2020 using PubMed and Web of Science databases. Pooled intraclass and Spearman correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) were calculated to assess the reproducibility of FFQs. Subgroup analyses based on characteristics of study populations, FFQs, or study design were performed to investigate factors related to the reproducibility of FFQs. A total of 123 studies comprising 20,542 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled crude intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.499 to 0.803 and 0.499 to 0.723 for macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Energy-adjusted intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.420 to 0.803 and 0.507 to 0.712 for macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. The pooled crude and energy-adjusted Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.548 to 0.851 and 0.441 to 0.793, respectively, for macronutrients; and from 0.573 to 0.828 and 0.510 to 0.744, respectively, for micronutrients. FFQs with more food items, 12 months as dietary recall interval (compared to less than 12 months), and a shorter time period between repeated FFQs resulted in superior FFQ reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, FFQs with correlation coefficients greater than 0.5 for most nutrients may be considered a reliable tool to measure dietary intake. To develop FFQs with higher reproducibility, the number of food items and dietary recall interval should be taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435453

RESUMO

A strict gluten-free diet is extremely difficult to maintain. Protracted ingestion of gluten traces (>10 mg/day) is sufficient to cause significant damage in the architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in patients on treatment for celiac disease. The aim of this study was to directly measure the level of contaminating gluten in the daily diet of celiac children following a gluten-free diet. From April 2019 to December 2019, celiac disease children (2-18 years old) on a gluten-free diet for ≥6 months were offered to participate in this prospective-observational study. Patients and their caregivers were invited to provide a representative portion (about 10 g) of all meals consumed during a 24-h period. Participants were requested to weigh all ingested food and report items in a 24-h food diary. The gluten content was quantified by the R5 sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Sixty-nine children completed the protocol. Overall, 12/448 (2.7%) food samples contained detectable amounts of gluten; of them, 11 contained 5-20 ppm and 1 >20 ppm. The 12 contaminated food samples belonged to 5/69 enrolled patients. In these 5 children, the daily gluten intake was well below the safety threshold of 10 mg/day. The present findings suggest that in a country characterized by high celiac disease awareness, the daily unintended exposure to gluten of treated celiac children on regular follow-up is very low; reassuringly, the presence of gluten traces did not lead to exceed the tolerable threshold of 10 mg/day of gluten intake in the gluten-free diet.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Contaminação de Alimentos , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente
20.
J Nutr ; 151(3): 636-648, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valid assessment of dietary intake in diverse populations is important for studies of chronic disease risk in the United States. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) modified for the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3) prospective cohort, among a racially/ethnically diverse subgroup. METHODS: The Diet Assessment Substudy included 677 CPS-3 participants (64% women; 61% non-Hispanic white, 24% non-Hispanic black, 15% Hispanic), aged 31-70 y, who completed 2 FFQs 1 y apart (FFQ1, FFQ2), 4-6 telephone-administered 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs), and 2 fasting blood samples and 24-h urine collections ∼6 mo apart in the interim. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to evaluate FFQ reproducibility and validity compared with 24HRs for 67 nutrient exposures. For 18 of these nutrients, we used the method of triads to calculate validity coefficients (VCs, ρ) from pairwise correlations of FFQ2, 24HRs, and biomarkers. Analyses were stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and BMI. RESULTS: Mean (range) FFQ reproducibility correlations were ρ = 0.65 (0.50-0.91) for men and ρ = 0.63 (0.37-0.89) for women; mean (range) energy-adjusted, deattenuated correlations of FFQ2 with 24HRs were ρ = 0.60 (0.33-0.84) for men and ρ = 0.55 (0.21-0.79) for women. FFQ2 VCs (ρ) among men ranged from 0.42 for ß-cryptoxanthin to 0.91 for omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and, among women, from 0.41 for sodium to 0.79 for total vitamin D. Mean FFQ reproducibility and validity were highest among whites (ρ = 0.68, ρ = 0.58, respectively) and slightly lower among blacks (ρ = 0.57, ρ = 0.49, respectively) and Hispanics (ρ = 0.59, 0.55, respectively). FFQ reproducibility and validity were slightly lower among those with less than a 4-y college degree, and those with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducibility and validity of the CPS-3 FFQ were comparable with similar studies for most nutrients, among all subgroups. These findings support future dietary analyses in the contemporary CPS-3 cohort and other similar cohorts.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Rememoração Mental , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Coleta de Dados , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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