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1.
Gene ; 806: 145928, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455027

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 (CYP19) is a crucial enzyme to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. However, the regulatory mechanism of goose CYP19 gene remains poorly understood. The present study attempted to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) and 5'-flanking sequence of CYP19 gene, to investigate its expression and distribution profiles in different sized follicles, and to analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP19 gene in goose. Results showed that its CDS consisted of 1512 nucleotides and the encoded amino acid sequence contained a classical P450 structural domain. Homology analysis showed that there were high homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between goose and other avian species. Its promoter sequence spanned from -1925 bp to the transcription start site (ATG) and several transcriptional factors were predicted in this region. Further analysis from luciferase assay showed that the luciferase activity was the highest spanning from -118 to -1 bp by constructing deletion promoter reporter vector. In addition, result from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the mRNA level of CYP19 gene were highly expressed in theca layer of the fifth largest follicle, and the cellular location was in the theca externa cells by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, it could be concluded that the transcription activity of CYP19 gene was activated by transcriptional factors in its proximal region of promoter to promote the synthesis of estrogens, regulating the selection of pre-hierarchical into hierarchical follicle in goose.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gansos/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Feminino , Gansos/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445292

RESUMO

The genes involved in implantation and placentation are tightly regulated to ensure a healthy pregnancy. The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) gene is associated with preeclampsia (PE). Our studies have determined that an isoform of ERAP2-arginine (N), expressed in trophoblast cells (TC), significantly activates immune cells, and ERAP2N-expressing TCs are preferentially killed by both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and Natural Killer cells (NKCs). To understand the cause of this phenomenon, we surveyed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ERAP2N expressing and non-expressing TCs. Our RNAseq data revealed 581 total DEGs between the two groups. 289 genes were up-regulated, and 292 genes were down-regulated. Interestingly, most of the down-regulated genes of significance were pro-survival genes that play a crucial role in cell survival (LDHA, EGLN1, HLA-C, ITGB5, WNT7A, FN1). However, the down-regulation of these genes in ERAP2N-expressing TCs translates into a propensity for cell death. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that 64 DEGs were significantly enriched in nine pathways, including "Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum" and "Antigen processing and presentation", suggesting that the genes may be associated with peptide processes involved in immune recognition during the reproductive cycle.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases/genética , Morte Celular/genética , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminopeptidases/metabolismo , Arginina/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Trofoblastos/patologia , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443613

RESUMO

Adipogenesis is a complex process in which cell commitment and mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) are in-sequence crucial events leading to terminal adipocyte differentiation. The molecules able to block some key signals in this cascade can hamper adipogenesis becoming promising agents to counteract hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipose tissue. Mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acid isomers are biologically active polyphenols, displaying in vitro and in vivo antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. Among these isomers, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) has been reported to inhibit lipid accumulation in adipose cells more successfully than others. Thus, we investigated DCQA effects and molecular mechanisms on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced to differentiate with a hormonal cocktail (MDI). Oil Red O incorporation assessed that DCQA pre-treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells induced to differentiate for 10 days. At this time, an increased phosphorylation of both AMP-activated kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, as well as a strong decrease in fatty acid synthase protein level, were registered by immunoblotting, thereby suggesting that DCQA treatment can reduce fatty acid anabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assay, performed 48 h after hormonal stimulation, revealed that DCQA treatment was also able to hinder the 3T3-L1 cell proliferation during the MCE, which is an essential step in the adipogenic process. Thus, we focused our attention on early signals triggered by the differentiation stimuli. In the first hours after hormonal cocktail administration, the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases, or CREB and STAT3 transcription factors, was not affected by DCQA pre-treatment. Whereas 24 h after MDI induction, DCQA pre-treated cells showed increased level of the transcription factor Nrf2, that induced the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). In control samples, the expression level of HO-1 was reduced 24 h after MDI induction in comparison with the higher amount of HO-1 protein found at 2 h. The HO-1 decrease was functional by allowing reactive oxygen species to boost and allowing cell proliferation induction at the beginning of MCE phase. Instead, in DCQA-treated cells the HO-1 expression was maintained at high levels for a further 24 h; in fact, its expression decreased only 48 h after MDI stimulation. The longer period in which HO-1 expression remained high led to a delay of the MCE phase, with a subsequent inhibition of both C/EBP-α expression and adipocyte terminal differentiation. In conclusion, DCQA counteracting an excessive adipose tissue expansion may become an attractive option in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Camundongos
4.
Adv Biol Regul ; 81: 100820, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419773

RESUMO

The article describes the possible pathophysiological origin of COVID-19 and the crucial role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), providing several "converging" evidence in support of this hypothesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to initially upregulate ACE2 systemic activity (early phase), which can subsequently induce compensatory responses leading to upregulation of both arms of the RAS (late phase) and consequently to critical, advanced and untreatable stages of COVID-19 disease. The main and initial actors of the process are ACE2 and ADAM17 zinc-metalloproteases, which, initially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, work together in increasing circulating Ang 1-7 and Ang 1-9 peptides and downstream (Mas and Angiotensin type 2 receptors) pathways with anti-inflammatory, hypotensive and antithrombotic activities. During the late phase of severe COVID-19, compensatory secretion of renin and ACE enzymes are subsequently upregulated, leading to inflammation, hypertension and thrombosis, which further sustain ACE2 and ADAM17 upregulation. Based on this hypothesis, COVID-19-phase-specific inhibition of different RAS enzymes is proposed as a pharmacological strategy against COVID-19 and vaccine-induced adverse effects. The aim is to prevent the establishment of positive feedback-loops, which can sustain hyperactivity of both arms of the RAS independently of viral trigger and, in some cases, may lead to Long-COVID syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/biossíntese , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , COVID-19/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteína ADAM17/antagonistas & inibidores , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Cima
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445342

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) is associated with synaptic plasticity and memory formation, and its aberrant expression has been linked to cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to investigate the role of class IIa HDAC expression in AD and monitor it in vivo using a novel radiotracer, 6-(tri-fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]TFAHA). A human neural cell culture model with familial AD (FAD) mutations was established and used for in vitro assays. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [18F]TFAHA was performed in a 3xTg AD mouse model for in vivo evaluation. The results showed a significant increase in HDAC4 expression in response to amyloid-ß (Aß) deposition in the cell model. Moreover, treatment with an HDAC4 selective inhibitor significantly upregulated the expression of neuronal memory-/synaptic plasticity-related genes. In [18F]TFAHA-PET imaging, whole brain or regional uptake was significantly higher in 3xTg AD mice compared with WT mice at 8 and 11 months of age. Our study demonstrated a correlation between class IIa HDACs and Aßs, the therapeutic benefit of a selective inhibitor, and the potential of using [18F]TFAHA as an epigenetic radiotracer for AD, which might facilitate the development of AD-related neuroimaging approaches and therapies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacocinética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Radioisótopos de Flúor/química , Radioisótopos de Flúor/farmacocinética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Histona Desacetilases/classificação , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445389

RESUMO

DyP-type peroxidases are a family of heme peroxidases named for their ability to degrade persistent anthraquinone dyes. DyP-type peroxidases are subclassified into three classes: classes P, I and V. Based on its genome sequence, Streptomyces avermitilis, eubacteria, has two genes presumed to encode class V DyP-type peroxidases and two class I genes. We have previously shown that ectopically expressed SaDyP2, a member of class V, indeed has the characteristics of a DyP-type peroxidase. In this study, we analyzed SaDyP1, a member of the same class V as SaDyP2. SaDyP1 showed high amino acid sequence identity to SaDyP2, retaining a conserved GXXDG motif and catalytic aspartate. SaDyP1 degraded anthraquinone dyes, which are specific substrates of DyP-type peroxidases but not azo dyes. In addition to such substrate specificity, SaDyP1 showed other features of DyP-type peroxidases, such as low optimal pH. Furthermore, immunoblotting using an anti-SaDyP2 polyclonal antibody revealed that SaDyP1 and/or SaDyP2 is expressed in mycelia of wild-type S. avermitilis.


Assuntos
Peroxidases/genética , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Streptomyces/enzimologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antraquinonas/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Peroxidases/química , Conformação Proteica , Streptomyces/genética , Termodinâmica
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356057

RESUMO

The virus responsible for the COVID-19 global health crisis, SARS-CoV-2, has been shown to utilize the ACE2 protein as an entry point to its target cells. The virus has been shown to rely on the actions of TMPRSS2 (a serine protease), as well as FURIN (a peptidase), for the critical priming of its spike protein. It has been postulated that variations in the sequence and expression of SARS-CoV-2's receptor (ACE2) and the two priming proteases (TMPRSS2 and FURIN) may be critical in contributing to SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. This study aims to examine the different expression levels of FURIN in various tissues and age ranges in light of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels using the LungMAP database. Furthermore, we retrieved expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of the three genes and their annotation. We analyzed the frequency of the retrieved variants in data from various populations and compared it to the Egyptian population. We highlight FURIN's potential interplay with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and showcase a myriad of variants of the three genes that are differentially expressed across populations. Our findings provide insights into potential genetic factors that impact SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in different populations and shed light on the varying expression patterns of FURIN.


Assuntos
Alelos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Furina , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/biossíntese , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Furina/biossíntese , Furina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360587

RESUMO

In the present study, we analyzed the activity of several aminopeptidases (angiotensinases) involved in the metabolism of various angiotensin peptides, in pituitary and adrenal glands of untreated Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or treated with the antihypertensive drugs captopril and propranolol or with the L-Arginine hypertensive analogue L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME). Intra- and inter-gland correlations between angiotensinase activities were also calculated. Membrane-bound alanyl-, cystinyl-, and glutamyl-aminopeptidase activities were determined fluorometrically using aminoacyl-ß-naphthylamide as substrates. Depending on the type of angiotensinase analyzed, the results reflect a complex picture showing substantial differences between glands, strains, and treatments. Alanyl-aminopeptidase responsible for the metabolism of Ang III to Ang IV appears to be the most active angiotensinase in both pituitary and adrenals of WKY and particularly in SHR. Independently of treatment, most positive correlations are observed in the pituitary gland of WKY whereas such positive correlations are predominant in adrenals of SHR. Negative inter-gland correlations were observed in control SHR and L-NAME treated WKY. Positive inter-gland correlations were observed in captopril-treated SHR and propranolol-treated WKY. These results may reflect additional mechanisms for increasing or decreasing systolic blood pressure in WKY or SHR.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipotensão/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Hipófise/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Captopril/farmacologia , Endopeptidases/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/patologia , Masculino , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407143

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 requires serine protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), and cysteine proteases, cathepsins B, L (CTSB/L) for entry into host cells. These host proteases activate the spike protein and enable SARS-CoV-2 entry. We herein performed genomic-guided gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to identify upstream regulatory elements altering the expression of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L. Further, medicinal compounds were identified based on their effects on gene expression signatures of the modulators of TMPRSS2 and CTSB/L genes. Using this strategy, estradiol and retinoic acid have been identified as putative SARS-CoV-2 alleviation agents. Next, we analyzed drug-gene and gene-gene interaction networks using 809 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The network results indicate that estradiol interacts with 370 (45%) and retinoic acid interacts with 251 (31%) human proteins. Interestingly, a combination of estradiol and retinoic acid interacts with 461 (56%) of human proteins, indicating the therapeutic benefits of drug combination therapy. Finally, molecular docking analysis suggests that both the drugs bind to TMPRSS2 and CTSL with the nanomolar to low micromolar affinity. The results suggest that these drugs can simultaneously target both the entry pathways of SARS-CoV-2 and thus can be considered as a potential treatment option for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Catepsina B/genética , Catepsina L/genética , Estradiol/farmacologia , Genômica/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Catepsina B/química , Catepsina L/química , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21774, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324734

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), one of the most challenging global pandemics of the modern era. Potential treatment strategies against COVID-19 are yet to be devised. It is crucial that antivirals that interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle be identified and developed. 3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is an attractive antiviral drug target against SARS-CoV-2, and coronaviruses in general, because of its role in the processing of viral polyproteins. Inhibitors of 3CLpro activity are screened in enzyme assays before further development of the most promising leads. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common additive used in such assays and enhances the solubility of assay components. However, it may also potentially affect the stability and efficiency of 3CLpro but, to date, this effect had not been analyzed in detail. Here, we investigated the effect of DMSO on 3CLpro-catalyzed reaction. While DMSO (5%-20%) decreased the optimum temperature of catalysis and thermodynamic stability of 3CLpro, it only marginally affected the kinetic stability of the enzyme. Increasing the DMSO concentration up to 20% improved the catalytic efficiency and peptide-binding affinity of 3CLpro. At such high DMSO concentration, the solubility and stability of peptide substrate were improved because of reduced aggregation. In conclusion, we recommend 20% DMSO as the minimum concentration to be used in screens of 3CLpro inhibitors as lead compounds for the development of antiviral drugs against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Simulação por Computador , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/genética , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Estabilidade Proteica
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204357

RESUMO

Heme biosynthesis is essential for almost all living organisms. Despite its conserved function, the pathway's enzymes can be located in a remarkable diversity of cellular compartments in different organisms. This location does not always reflect their evolutionary origins, as might be expected from the history of their acquisition through endosymbiosis. Instead, the final subcellular localization of the enzyme reflects multiple factors, including evolutionary origin, demand for the product, availability of the substrate, and mechanism of pathway regulation. The biosynthesis of heme in the apicomonad Chromera velia follows a chimeric pathway combining heme elements from the ancient algal symbiont and the host. Computational analyses using different algorithms predict complex targeting patterns, placing enzymes in the mitochondrion, plastid, endoplasmic reticulum, or the cytoplasm. We employed heterologous reporter gene expression in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to experimentally test these predictions. 5-aminolevulinate synthase was located in the mitochondria in both transfection systems. In T. gondii, the two 5-aminolevulinate dehydratases were located in the cytosol, uroporphyrinogen synthase in the mitochondrion, and the two ferrochelatases in the plastid. In P. tricornutum, all remaining enzymes, from ALA-dehydratase to ferrochelatase, were placed either in the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplastidial space.


Assuntos
Alveolados/fisiologia , Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Heme/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Transporte Biológico , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209226

RESUMO

As neurotransmitter, GABA is fundamental for physiological processes in the developing retina. Its synthesis enzymes are present during retinal development, although the molecular regulatory mechanisms behind the changes in expression are not entirely understood. In this study, we revealed the expression patterns of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67(GAD67) and its coding gene (GAD1) and its potential miRNA-dependent regulation during the first three postnatal weeks in rat retina. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms, miRNA-sequencing supported by RT-qPCR and in situ hybridization were carried out. GAD1 expression shows an increasing tendency, peaking at P15. From the in silico-predicted GAD1 targeting miRNAs, only miR-23 showed similar expression patterns, which is a known regulator of GAD1 expression. For further investigation, we made an in situ hybridization investigation where both GAD67 and miR-23 also showed lower expression before P7, with the intensity of expression gradually increasing until P21. Horizontal cells at P7, amacrine cells at P15 and P21, and some cells in the ganglion cell layer at several time points were double labelled with miR-23 and GAD67. Our results highlight the complexity of these regulatory networks and the possible role of miR-23 in the regulation of GABA synthesizing enzyme expression during postnatal retina development.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato Descarboxilase/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Glutamato Descarboxilase/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2312: 287-300, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228297

RESUMO

Artificial metalloenzymes, constructed by incorporating a synthetic catalyst into the internal spaces of a protein scaffold, can perform noncanonical chemical transformations that are not possible using natural enzymes. The addition of cell-permeable modules to artificial metalloenzymes allows for noncanonical catalysis to be implemented as a function of mammalian cells. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for controlling cellular function through a cascade consisting of an artificial metalloenzyme and a gene-circuit engineered via synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Engenharia Celular , Enzimas/metabolismo , Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas , Biologia Sintética , Biotina/química , Catálise , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Enzimas/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metaloproteínas/genética , Estreptavidina/química , Especificidade por Substrato , Transfecção
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 494-512, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197854

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is the cause of an ongoing health crisis in several regions of the world, particularly in tropical and neotropical countries. This scenario creates an urgent necessity for new practical solutions to address the limitations of current therapies. The current study investigated the isolation, phytochemical characterization, and myotoxicity inhibition mechanism of gallic acid (GA), a myotoxin inhibitor obtained from Anacardium humile. The identification and isolation of GA was achieved by employing analytical chromatographic separation, which exhibited a compound with retention time and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra compatible with GA's commercial standard and data from the literature. GA alone was able to inhibit the myotoxic activity induced by the crude venom of Bothrops jararacussu and its two main myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and interaction studies by molecular docking suggested that GA forms a complex with BthTX-I and II. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) kinetics assays showed that GA has a high affinity for BthTX-I with a KD of 9.146 × 10-7 M. Taken together, the two-state reaction mode of GA binding to BthTX-I, and CD, FS and DLS assays, suggest that GA is able to induce oligomerization and secondary structure changes for BthTX-I and -II. GA and other tannins have been shown to be effective inhibitors of snake venoms' toxic effects, and herein we demonstrated GA's ability to bind to and inhibit a snake venom PLA2, thus proposing a new mechanism of PLA2 inhibition, and presenting more evidence of GA's potential as an antivenom compound.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Miotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Venenos de Serpentes/enzimologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Gálico/química , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Miotoxicidade/enzimologia , Miotoxicidade/etiologia , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/química , Fosfolipases A2/química , Caules de Planta/química , Proteínas de Répteis/química , Proteínas de Répteis/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 949-958, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237366

RESUMO

Acyclic terpenes, commonly found in plants, are of high physiological importance and commercial value, and their diversity was controlled by different terpene synthases. During the screen of sesquiterpene synthases from Tripterygium wilfordii, we observed that Ses-TwTPS1-1 and Ses-TwTPS2 promiscuously accepted GPP, FPP, and GGPP to produce corresponding terpene alcohols (linalool/nerolidol/geranyllinalool). The Ses-TwTPS1-2, Ses-TwTPS3, and Ses-TwTPS4 also showed unusual substrate promiscuity by catalyzing GGPP or GPP in addition to FPP as substrate. Furthermore, key residues for the generation of diterpene product, (E, E)-geranyllinalool, were screened depending on mutagenesis studies. The functional analysis of Ses-TwTPS1-1:V199I and Ses-TwTPS1-2:I199V showed that Val in 199 site assisted the produce of diterpene product geranyllinalool by enzyme mutation studies, which indicated that subtle differences away from the active site could alter the product outcome. Moreover, an engineered sesquiterpene high-yielding yeast that produced 162 mg/L nerolidol in shake flask conditions was constructed to quickly identify the function of sesquiterpene synthases in vivo and develop potential applications in microbial fermentation. Our functional characterization of acyclic sesquiterpene synthases will give some insights into the substrate promiscuity of diverse acyclic terpene synthases and provide key residues for expanding the product portfolio.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Tripterygium/enzimologia , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Domínio Catalítico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Terpenos/metabolismo , Tripterygium/genética
16.
Gene ; 800: 145836, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280510

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy can result from a range of physiological conditions, including denervation, immobilization, hindlimb unweighting, and aging. To better characterize the molecular genetic events of atrophy, a microarray analysis revealed that FGGY carbohydrate kinase domain containing (Fggy) is expressed in skeletal muscle and is induced in response to denervation. Bioinformatic analysis of the Fggy gene locus revealed two validated isoforms with alternative transcription initiation sites that we have designated Fggy-L-552 and Fggy-S-387. Additionally, we cloned two novel alternative splice variants, designated Fggy-L-482 and Fggy-S-344, from cultured muscle cells suggesting that at least four Fggy splice variants are expressed in skeletal muscle. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using RNA isolated from muscle cells and primers designed to distinguish the four alternative Fggy transcripts and found that the Fggy-L transcripts are more highly expressed during myoblast differentiation, while the Fggy-S transcripts show relatively stable expression in proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that the Fggy-L variants appear to localize evenly throughout the cytoplasm, while the Fggy-S variants produce a more punctuate cytoplasmic localization pattern in proliferating muscle cells. Finally, ectopic expression of Fggy-L-552 and Fggy-S-387 resulted in inhibition of muscle cell differentiation and attenuation of the MAP kinase and Akt signaling pathways. The identification and characterization of novel genes such as Fggy helps to improve our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that lead to atrophy and may eventually result in the identification of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscle wasting.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Citoplasma/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 16904-16921, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228637

RESUMO

Abnormal ATPase H+ Transporting Accessory Protein 1 (ATP6AP1) expression may promote carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of ATP6AP1 with breast cancer (BC) and COVID-19. The Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, Human Protein Atlas and Kaplan-Meier plotter databases were used to evaluate the expression and prognostic value of ATP6AP1 in BC. ATP6AP1 was upregulated in BC tissues, and higher ATP6AP1 expression was associated with poorer outcomes. Data from the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource, Tumor-Immune System Interaction Database and Kaplan-Meier plotter indicated that ATP6AP1 expression correlated with immune infiltration, and that its prognostic effects in BC depended on tumor-infiltrating immune cell subtype levels. Multiple databases were used to evaluate the association of ATP6AP1 with clinicopathological factors, assess the mutation and methylation of ATP6AP1, and analyze gene co-expression and enrichment. The ATP6AP1 promoter was hypomethylated in BC tissues and differentially methylated between different disease stages and subtypes. Data from the Gene Expression Omnibus indicated that ATP6AP1 levels in certain cell types were reduced after SARS-CoV-2 infections. Ultimately, higher ATP6AP1 expression was associated with a poorer prognosis and with higher or lower infiltration of particular immune cells in BC. BC patients may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infections, which may alter their prognoses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , COVID-19/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/imunologia , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/análise , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/imunologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207153

RESUMO

Aerobic denitrification is considered as a promising biological method to eliminate the nitrate contaminants in waterbodies. However, the molecular mechanism of this process varies in different functional bacteria. In this study, the nitrogen removal characteristics for a newly isolated aerobic denitrifier Bacillus subtilis JD-014 were investigated, and the potential functional genes involved in the aerobic denitrification process were further screened through transcriptome analysis. JD-014 exhibited efficient denitrification performance when having sodium succinate as the carbon source with the range of nitrate concentration between 50 and 300 mg/L. Following the transcriptome data, most of the up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with cell motility, carbohydrate metabolism, and energy metabolism. Moreover, gene nirsir annotated as sulfite reductase was screened out and further identified as a regulator participating in the nitrogen removal process within JD-014. The findings in present study provide meaningful information in terms of a comprehensive understanding of genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism, especially for Bacillus strains.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitrificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209768

RESUMO

Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II) is an allosteric catabolic enzyme that hydrolyzes IMP, GMP, and AMP. The enzyme can assume at least two different structures, being the more active conformation stabilized by ATP and the less active by inorganic phosphate. Therefore, the variation in ATP concentration can control both structure and activity of cN-II. In this paper, using a capillary electrophoresis technique, we demonstrated that a partial silencing of cN-II in a pulmonary carcinoma cell line (NCI-H292) is accompanied by a decrease in adenylate pool, without affecting the energy charge. We also found that cN-II silencing decreased proliferation and increased oxidative metabolism, as indicated by the decreased production of lactate. These effects, as demonstrated by Western blotting, appear to be mediated by both p53 and AMP-activated protein kinase, as most of them are prevented by pifithrin-α, a known p53 inhibitor. These results are in line with our previous observations of a shift towards a more oxidative and less proliferative phenotype of tumoral cells with a low expression of cN-II, thus supporting the search for specific inhibitors of this enzyme as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of tumors.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/genética , Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide/metabolismo , Carcinoma Mucoepidermoide/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
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