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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109216, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810488

RESUMO

In our previous study, an antimutagenic compound from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.), ethoxy-substituted phylloquinone (ESP) was isolated and characterized. The current study deals with elucidation of the possible mechanism of antimutagenicity of ESP against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) deploying model systems such as human lymphoblast (TK+/- or TK6) cell line (thymidine kinase gene mutation assay) and Escherichia coli MG1655 (rifampicin resistance assay). Findings of the study ruled out the possibility of direct inactivation of EMS by ESP. DAPI competitive binding assay indicated the DNA minor groove binding activity of ESP. Interestingly, ESP did not display major groove binding or intercalating abilities. Further, proteomics study using 2-D gel electrophoresis in E. coli and subsequent studies involving single gene knockout strains revealed the possible role of tnaA (tryptophanase) and dgcP (diguanylate cyclase) genes in observed antimutagenicity. These genes have been reported to be involved in indole and cyclic-di-GMP biosynthesis, respectively, which eventually lead to cell division inhibition. In case of TK+/- cell line system, ADCY genes (adenylate cyclase), a functional analogue of dgcP gene, were found to be transcriptionally up-regulated. The generation/doubling time were significantly higher in E. coli or TK+/- cells treated with ESP than control cells. The findings indicated inhibition of cell proliferation by ESP through gene regulation as a possible mechanism of antimutagenicity across the biological system. Cell division inhibition actually provides additional time for the repair of damaged DNA leading to antimutagenicity.


Assuntos
Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Spinacia oleracea/química , Vitamina K 1/química , Vitamina K 1/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Liases/metabolismo , Vitamina K 1/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5005-5016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764932

RESUMO

Background and Aim: With the wide applications of chitosan and gold nanoparticles in drug delivery and many consumer products, there is limited available information about their effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). Changes in DMEs could result in serious drug interactions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to chitosan or gold nanoparticles on hepatic Phase I and II DMEs, liver function and integrity, oxidative damage and liver architecture in male rats. Methods: Animals were divided into three equal groups: a control group, a group treated with chitosan nanoparticles (200 mg/kg, 50±5 nm) and a group treated with gold nanoparticles (4 mg/kg, 15±5 nm). Rats were orally administered their respective doses daily for 10 days. Results: Both chitosan and gold nanoparticles decreased the body weights by more than 10%. Gold nanoparticles reduced the activities of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), and reduced glutathione level and elevated the malondialdehyde level in the liver. Gold nanoparticles caused significant reductions in CYP1A1, CYP2E1, quinone oxidoreductase1, and glutathione S-transferase and elevated CYP2D6 and N-acetyl transferase2. Chitosan elevated CYP2E1 and CYP2D6 and reduced UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Both nanoparticles disturbed the architecture of the liver, but the deleterious effects after gold nanoparticles treatment were more prominent. Conclusion: Taken together, gold nanoparticles severely perturbed the DMEs and would result in serious interactions with many drugs, herbs, and foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Ouro/farmacocinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 1018-1022, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of blocking the activation of ERK pathway on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the formation of cerebral edema in SD rats after brain injury. METHODS: Ninety SD rats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, including a sham-operated group, modified Feeney's traumatic brain injury model group, and ERK inhibition group where the ERK inhibitor SCH772984 (500 µg/kg) was injected via the femoral vein 15 min before brain trauma. At 2 h and 2 days after brain trauma, the permeability of blood-brain barrier was assessed by Evans blue method, the water content of the brain tissue was determined, and the phosphorylation level of ERK and the expression level of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the sham-operated group, the rats with brain trauma exhibited significantly increased level of ERK phosphorylation at 2 h and significantly increased expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury (P < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of ERK after the injury (P < 0.01), suppressed over-expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein 2 days after the injury (P < 0.01). The permeability of blood-brain barrier increased significantly 2 h after brain trauma (P < 0.05) and increased further at 2 days (P < 0.01); the water content of the brain did not change significantly at 2 h (P > 0.05) but increased significantly 2 d after the injury (P < 0.01). Treatment with the ERK inhibitor significantly lowered the permeability of blood-brain barrier and brain water content after brain trauma (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Blocking the activation of ERK pathway significantly reduced the over-expression of MMP-9 and alleviates the damage of blood-brain barrier and traumatic brain edema, suggesting that ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in traumatic brain edema by regulating the expression of MMP-9.


Assuntos
Edema Encefálico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Animais , Edema Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Indazóis/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(9): 1076-1087, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691884

RESUMO

The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) domain inhibitor JQ1 exerts potent anticancer activity in various cancer cells. However, the resistance to BET inhibitors in leukemia stem cells limits its implication in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High concentration of triptolide (TPL) presents anticancer activities but with adverse effects. Here, we investigated whether the combination of low-dose TPL with JQ1 could help to circumvent the dilemma of drug resistance and side effect in treating AML. AML cell lines, primary cells from 10 AML patients with different status, as well as AML mice model were subjected to different treatments and apoptotic related protein expression were evaluated. Data showed that low-dose TPL combined with JQ1 effectively killed AML cell lines and primary cells from AML patients without exerting significantly greater lethal activity against normal cells. Mechanism study revealed that low-dose TPL combined with JQ1 triggered reactive oxygen species production and induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in AML cells, in which the inhibition of RNA polymerase II to downregulate c-Myc was mainly responsible for the enhanced activity of TPL in combination with JQ1. In vivo study presented that cotreatment with low-dose TPL and JQ1 significantly reduced tumor burden of the NOD/SCID mice engrafted with MOLM-13 cells. In conclusion, low-dose TPL enhanced the antitumor effect of JQ1 on AML without increasing the side effects, supporting a potential option for AML treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Azepinas/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , RNA Polimerase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Triazóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Proliferação de Células , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/enzimologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Prognóstico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555710

RESUMO

Sepsis is characterized by organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated immune response to infection. Currently, no effective treatment for sepsis exists. Platelets are recognized as mediators of the immune response and may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of sepsis. We previously demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome activation in sepsis-induced activated platelets was associated with multi-organ injury in the cecal-ligation puncture (CLP) rat model of sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NLRP3 would inhibit platelet activation and attenuate multi-organ injury in the CLP rat. CLP (n = 10) or Sham (n = 10) surgery were performed in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. A subset of CLP rats were treated with MCC950 (50mg/kg/d), a specific NLRP3 inhibitor (CLP+MCC950, n = 10). At 72 hrs. post-CLP, blood and organs were harvested for analysis of platelet activation, NLRP3 activation, inflammation and end organ damage. Platelet activation increased from 8±0.8% in Sham to 16±1% in CLP, and was reduced to 9±1% in CLP+M rats (p<0.05). NLRP3 activation was also increased in platelets of CLP vs Sham. NLRP3 expression was unchanged in kidney and lung after CLP, but Caspase 1 expression and IL-1ß were increased. MCC950 treatment attenuated NLRP3 activation in platelets. Plasma, kidney, and lung levels of NLRP3 inflammasome associated cytokines, IL-1ß and IL-18, were significantly increased in CLP compared to Sham rats. Inhibition of NLRP3 normalized cytokine levels. Glomerular injury, pulmonary edema, and endothelial dysfunction markers were increased in CLP rats vs Sham. MCC950 treatment significantly decreased renal and pulmonary injury and endothelial dysfunction in CLP+M. Our results demonstrate a role for NLRP3 in contributing to platelet activation and multi-organ injury in sepsis.


Assuntos
Ceco/cirurgia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Punções/efeitos adversos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2689, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483206

RESUMO

The antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) has improved survival in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop Enz resistance that may involve inducing the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (ARv7). Here we report that high expression of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is associated with positive ARv7 detection in CRPC patients following Enz treatment. Targeting MAO-A with phenelzine or clorgyline, the FDA-approved drugs for antidepression, resensitize the Enz resistant (EnzR) cells to Enz treatment and further suppress EnzR cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest that Enz-increased ARv7 expression can transcriptionally enhance MAO-A expression resulting in Enz resistance via altering the hypoxia HIF-1α signals. Together, our results show that targeting the Enz/ARv7/MAO-A signaling with the antidepressants phenelzine or clorgyline can restore Enz sensitivity to suppress EnzR cell growth, which may indicate that these antidepression drugs can overcome the Enz resistance to further suppress the EnzR CRPC.


Assuntos
Clorgilina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenelzina/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115111, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553695

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants that are metabolized to carcinogenic dihydrodiol epoxides (PAHDE) by cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). This metabolism occurs in bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which sustain hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). In BM, CYP1B1-mediated metabolism of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) suppresses HSPC colony formation within 6 h, whereas benzo(a)pyrene (BP) generates protective cytokines. MSC, enriched from adherent BM cells, yielded the bone marrow stromal, BMS2, cell line. These cells express elevated basal CYP1B1 that scarcely responds to Ah receptor (AhR) inducers. BMS2 cells exhibit extensive transcriptome overlap with leptin receptor positive mesenchymal stem cells (Lepr+ MSC) that control the hematopoietic niche. The overlap includes CYP1B1 and the expression of HSPC regulatory factors (Ebf3, Cxcl12, Kitl, Csf1 and Gas6). MSC are large, adherent fibroblasts that sequester small HSPC and macrophage in the BM niche (Graphic abstract). High basal CYP1B1 expression in BMS2 cells derives from interactions between the Ah-receptor enhancer and proximal promoter SP1 complexes, boosted by autocrine signaling. PAH effects on BMS2 cells model Lepr+MSC niche activity. CYP1B1 metabolizes DMBA to PAHDE, producing p53-mediated mRNA increases, long after the in vivo HSPC suppression. Faster, direct p53 effects, favored by stem cells, remain possible PAHDE targets. However, HSPC regulatory factors remained unresponsive. BP is less toxic in BMS2 cells, but, in BM, CYP1A1 metabolism stimulates macrophage cytokines (Il1b > Tnfa> Ifng) within 6 h. Although absent from BMS2 and Lepr+MSC, their receptors are highly expressed. The impact of this cytokine signaling in MSC remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109088, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360554

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common degenerative joint diseases in aging people. The activation of chondrocytes and their dysregulation are closely related to the pathogenesis of OA. GPR55 is an unique orphan G-receptor which binds to cannabinoids. In this study, we explored the role of GPR55 in advanced glycation end productions (AGEs)- induced chondrocytes activation in cultured cells. We showed that AGEs dose dependently induced GPR55 expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes. The blockage of GPR55 by its newly discovered antagonist-CID16020046 mitigated AGEs- induced increase in cellular ROS and decrease in antioxidant NRF2. Moreover, CID16020046 showed a dose-response suppressive effect on AGEs- induced expression of the major inflammatory mediators, including COX-2 and iNOS, and the production of NO and PGE2. CID16020046 also dose responsively inhibited AGEs- induced key effectors of cartilage degradation such as MMP-3 and MMP-13. In consequence, CID16020046 showed robust inhibition on AGEs- induced type II collagen degradation. Mechanistically, our data demonstrated that CID16020046 mediated GPR55 blockage ameliorated AGEs- induced NF-κB activation as revealed by its inhibition on IκBα, nuclear p65 translocation and NF-κB promoter activity. Collectively, our study demonstrates that GPR55 signaling mediates AGEs- induced chondrocyte activation, and the targeted blockage of GPR55 pathway could be therapeutic choice in the treatment of osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Compostos Azabicíclicos/farmacologia , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Condrócitos/citologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/farmacologia , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109115, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380060

RESUMO

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a family of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes that catalyze glucuronidation of numerous endogenous and exogenous substrates. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is widely used to develop liver injuries mimicking human liver diseases. However, effects of CCl4 on the expression and activities of UGTs and the mechanism have not been fully elucidated. The present study aims to elucidate the dysregulation patterns of major UGTs induced by CCl4. Biochemical and histopathological results showed that CCl4 exerted hepatotoxicity in rats. The mRNA levels of UGTs were all significantly reduced in acute liver injury rats. However, mRNA levels of UGT1A1, 1A6, 2B1 and 2B2 were up-regulated while the UGT2B3, 2B6 and 2B12 levels were reduced in chronic CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats. The protein expression of UGT1A1, 1A6 and 2B were decreased in acute liver injury rats. UGT1A1 and 1A6 proteins were increased, whereas UGT2B protein was reduced in liver fibrosis rats. In addition, CCl4 inhibited the enzyme activities of UGTs in rats. Moreover, the dysregulation of UGTs was accompanied by the decreased mRNA expression of Nrf2, CAR, FXR, PXR, PPAR-α and their corresponding target genes, except for Nrf2, HO-1, AhR and CYP1A1 in liver fibrosis rats. These findings suggest that dysregulation of UGTs under CCl4 exposure is isoform-specific, which could have a complex impact on drug efficacy and endogenous metabolism. Different exposure durations of CCl4 (single vs multiple doses) could have differential effects on rat hepatic UGTs expression.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fibrose , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Leuk Res ; 94: 106383, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460059

RESUMO

Metformin is an anti-diabetic drug known to have anticancer activity by inhibiting mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR); however, other molecular mechanisms may also be involved. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK) family, which have important roles in leukemia cell growth. The results indicated that metformin suppressed the in vitro growth of four leukemia cell lines, OCI/AML2, OCI/AML3, THP-1, and K562, in a dose-dependent manner, which corresponded to the downregulation of the expression and phosphorylation of AXL and inhibition of its downstream targets such as phosphorylation of STAT3. Furthermore, metformin augmented the suppressive effects of a small-molecule AXL inhibitor TP-0903 on the growth of OCI/AML3 and K562 cells and prevented doxorubicin-induced AXL activation in K562 cells, which induces chemoresistance in leukemia cells, thus potentiating doxorubicin anti-proliferative effects. Given that metformin also downregulated expression of TYRO3 and phosphorylation of MERTK, these findings indicate that anti-leukemic effects exerted by metformin could be partly due to the inhibition of TAM kinases. Thus, metformin has a clinical potential for patients with leukemia cells positive for AXL and the other TAM proteins as well as activated mTOR.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia , Metformina/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/biossíntese , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/biossíntese , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/enzimologia , Leucemia/patologia , Células THP-1
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 244-253, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438067

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a skeletal deformity disease in broilers that occurs when vascularization in the growth plate (GP) is below normal. Although, blood vessels have been reported to contribute significantly in bone formation. Therefore, in the current study, we have examined the mRNA expression of angiogenesis-related genes in erythrocytes of thiram induced TD chickens by qRT-PCR and performed histopathological analysis to determine regulatory effect of recombinant Glutathione-S-Transferase A3 (rGSTA3) protein in response to the destructive effect of thiram following the injection of rGSTA3 protein. Histopathology results suggested that, blood vessels of GPs were damaged in thiram induced TD chicken group (D), it also affected the area and density of blood vessels. In the 20 and 50 µg·kg-1 of rGSTA3 protein-administered groups, E and F vessels appeared to be normal and improved on day 6 and 15. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results showed that rGSTA3 protein significantly (P < .05) up-regulated the expression of the most important angiogenesis-related integrin family genes ITGA2, ITGA5, ITGB2, ITGB3, ITGAV. The expression level of other genes including TBXA2R, FYN, IQGAP2, IL1R1, GIT1, RAP1B, RPL17, RAC2, MAML3, PTPN11, VAV1, PTCH1, NCOR2, CLU and ITGB3 up-regulated on dosage of rGSTA3 protein. In conclusion, angiogenesis is destroyed in thiram induced TD broilers, and rGSTA3 protein injection improved the vascularization of GPs by upregulating the angiogenesis related genes most importantly integrin family genes ITGAV, ITGA2, ITGB2, ITGB3, ITGA5.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Glutationa Transferase/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Tiram/toxicidade , Animais , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/química , Lâmina de Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrinas/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Osteocondrodisplasias/induzido quimicamente , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Tíbia/patologia
13.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1738-1748, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive dietary selenium (Se; 3 mg/kg) or fat (>25%) intakes and overproduction of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) adversely affect body lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to reveal impacts and mechanisms of a moderately high Se and a high fat intake on lipid metabolism in Gpx1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. METHODS: The KO and WT mice (males, 12-wk-old, body weight = 24.8 ± 0.703 g) were allotted to 4 groups each (n = 5) and fed a sucrose-torula yeast basal diet (5% corn oil) supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg (+Se) Se/kg (as sodium selenite) and 0% or 25% [high-fat (HF)] lard for 6 wk. Multiple physiological and molecular biomarkers (68) related to lipid metabolism and selenogenome expression in plasma, liver, and/or adipose tissue were analyzed by 2-way (+Se by HF) ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the control diet, the +Se diet decreased (P < 0.05) body-weight gain and plasma and liver concentrations of lipids (22-66%) but elevated (≤1.5-fold, P < 0.05) adipose tissue concentrations of lipids in the WT mice. The +Se diet up- and downregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA and/or protein concentrations of factors related to lipogenesis, selenogenome, and transcription, stress, and cell cycle in the liver (26% to 176-fold) and adipose tissues (14% to 1-fold), respectively, compared with the control diet in the WT mice. Many of these +Se diet effects were different (P < 0.05) from those of the HF diet and were eliminated or altered (P < 0.05) by the KO. CONCLUSIONS: The +Se and HF diets exerted tissue-specific and GPX1 expression-dependent impacts on lipid metabolism and related gene expression in the young-adult mice. Our findings will help reveal metabolic potential and underlying mechanisms of supplementing moderately high Se to subjects with HF intakes.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Selênio/administração & dosagem
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5514-5524, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278554

RESUMO

Approximately 15 to 50% of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) reach the ruminant small intestine. Previous research suggests that activation of small intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by propionate has beneficial effects on energy homeostasis. However, the regulatory effect of propionate on key gluconeogenic genes in enterocytes of the bovine small intestine remains less known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the long-term cultures of bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIEC) from bovine jejunum tissue using SV40T (1:200; Santa Cruz, Shanghai, China) and investigate the regulatory effect of propionate on the key gluconeogenic genes in BIEC. Our study showed that long-term BIEC cultures were established by SV40T-induced immortalization. Immortal BIEC were distinguished by the expression of cytokeratin 18, villin, fatty acid binding protein 2, and small intestine peptidase. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the SCFA transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 4, and Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms 1 were significantly elevated with 20 mM SCFA compared with untreated controls. In addition, BIEC exhibited significant uptake of propionate and butyrate from the culture medium. Remarkably, 3 mM propionate induced profound changes in mRNA level of key genes involved in gluconeogenesis, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, pyruvate carboxylase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α. Additionally, 3 mM propionate enhanced the expression of PGC1A mRNA at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation. These findings suggest that propionate controls the mRNA expression of genes involved in key enzymes for gluconeogenesis in the enterocytes of bovines.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Feminino , Gluconeogênese/genética , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Piruvato Carboxilase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9497-9507, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300005

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a critical mediator of vascular function. eNOS is tightly regulated at various levels, including transcription, co- and posttranslational modifications, and by various protein-protein interactions. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and mass spectrometry (MS), we identified several eNOS interactors, including the protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), PAI-1 and eNOS colocalize and proximity ligation assays demonstrate a protein-protein interaction between PAI-1 and eNOS. Knockdown of PAI-1 or eNOS eliminates the proximity ligation assay (PLA) signal in endothelial cells. Overexpression of eNOS and HA-tagged PAI-1 in COS7 cells confirmed the colocalization observations in HUVECs. Furthermore, the source of intracellular PAI-1 interacting with eNOS was shown to be endocytosis derived. The interaction between PAI-1 and eNOS is a direct interaction as supported in experiments with purified proteins. Moreover, PAI-1 directly inhibits eNOS activity, reducing NO synthesis, and the knockdown or antagonism of PAI-1 increases NO bioavailability. Taken together, these findings place PAI-1 as a negative regulator of eNOS and disruptions in eNOS-PAI-1 binding promote increases in NO production and enhance vasodilation in vivo.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Ligação Proteica , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , para-Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia
16.
Diabetes ; 69(6): 1149-1163, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312870

RESUMO

Clinical studies have shown a link between hyperuricemia (HU) and diabetes, while the exact effect of soluble serum urate on glucose metabolism remains elusive. This study aims to characterize the glucose metabolic phenotypes and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms using a novel spontaneous HU mouse model in which the uricase (Uox) gene is absent. In an attempt to study the role of HU in glycometabolism, we implemented external stimulation on Uox knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) males with a high-fat diet (HFD) and/or injections of multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) to provoke the potential role of urate. Notably, while Uox-KO mice developed glucose intolerance in the basal condition, no mice spontaneously developed diabetes, even with aging. HFD-fed Uox-KO mice manifested similar insulin sensitivity compared with WT controls. HU augmented the existing glycometabolism abnormality induced by MLD-STZ and eventually led to diabetes, as evidenced by the increased random glucose. Reduced ß-cell masses and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl TUNEL-positive ß-cells suggested that HU-mediated diabetes was cell death dependent. However, urate-lowering therapy (ULT) cannot ameliorate the diabetes incidence or reverse ß-cell apoptosis with significance. ULT displayed a significant therapeutic effect of HU-crystal-associated kidney injury and tubulointerstitial damage in diabetes. Moreover, we present transcriptomic analysis of isolated islets, using Uox-KO versus WT mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic WT (STZ-WT) versus diabetic Uox-KO (STZ-KO) mice. Shared differentially expressed genes of HU primacy revealed Stk17ß is a possible target gene in HU-related ß-cell death. Together, this study suggests that HU accelerates but does not cause diabetes by inhibiting islet ß-cell survival.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Urato Oxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Homeostase , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Urato Oxidase/genética
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5561-5574, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278565

RESUMO

Inflammation is critical in the progression from benign hepatic lipidosis to pathological hepatic steatosis. The objective of this study was to examine the potential role of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in the etiology of hepatic steatosis in dairy cows during early lactation. Using a nested case-control design, we compared blood and liver samples from 10 healthy cows and 10 age-matched cows with moderate fatty liver. Cows with moderate fatty liver had high liver triacylglycerols, elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate, and low concentrations of glucose. Cows with moderate fatty liver had overactivated inflammatory pathways in the liver, as indicated by increased abundance of phosphorylated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 inflammasome protein, and elevated plasma concentrations and hepatic mRNA abundance of their molecular targets IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In the cell culture model, we were able to replicate our findings in cows with moderate fatty liver: 1.2 mM exogenous FFA decreased the abundance of MFN2 and upregulated phosphorylation levels of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) α and NF-κB p65, the IκB kinase ß activity, and the abundance of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Whereas MFN2 knockdown potentiated the FFA-induced activation of these inflammatory pathways, overexpression of MFN2 attenuated the detrimental effect of excess exogenous FFA by improving mitochondrial function and decreasing the release of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that MFN2 may be a potential therapeutic target for FFA-induced hepatic inflammation in dairy cows during early lactation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/veterinária , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161959

RESUMO

Accumulating evidences indicate that plant extracts and probiotics are effective antioxidant substitutes which play important roles in animal production. However, the comparative study of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant property of Illicium verum extracts (IVE) and probiotics with added glucose oxidase (PGO) on piglets remains to be explored. This study evaluated the difference and the interaction effect of IVE and PGO on serum, liver, and jejunum antioxidant capacity of weaned piglets. A total of 32 weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) at the age of 28 d with an average body weight of 14.96 ± 0.32 kg were randomly divided into four treatments with eight replicates per treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments included basal diet (IVE-PGO-), basal diet + 1,000 mg/kg PGO (IVE-PGO+), basal diet + 500 mg/kg IVE (IVE+PGO-), and basal diet + 500 mg/kg IVE + 1,000 mg/kg PGO (IVE+PGO+). All the piglets were housed individually for the 42-d trial period after 7-d adaptation. The piglets were euthanized at the end of the experiment and the liver and jejunum samples were taken and subjected to immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, as well as antioxidant and qRT-PCR analysis. Significant interactions were observed between IVE and PGO for total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum (42 d), liver, and jejunum; malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum (21 d); and mRNA and protein expression of kelch sample related protein-1 (Keap1) and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (Nrf2)/Keap1 in the liver and jejunum (P < 0.05). Both IVE and PGO improved (P < 0.05) T-SOD and GSH-Px in the serum (42 d), liver, and jejunum, and the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 and Nrf2/Keap1 in the liver and jejunum, but decreased (P < 0.05) MDA in the serum (21 d) and the mRNA and protein expression of Keap1 in the liver and jejunum. Immunohistochemical results confirmed that IVE and PGO enhanced the positive reactions of Nrf2 but weakened Keap1 in both the liver and jejunum. In conclusion, the results confirmed that IVE (500 mg/kg) and PGO (1,000 mg/kg) can improve the antioxidant capacity of weaned piglets and that the interaction effect between IVE and PGO is significant. At the same time, the fact that IVE and PGO activate the Nrf2/Keap1 in the liver and jejunum signaling pathway suggests that they play an important role in the ameliorative antioxidant capacity of weaned piglets. Therefore, the combination of IVE and PGO could be recommended as a new potential alternative to antibiotics in piglets' diets.


Assuntos
Illicium , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose Oxidase/administração & dosagem , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Desmame
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120263

RESUMO

5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), coded by the ALOX5 gene, is expressed in leukocytes and catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes, pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. Leukotrienes are central to immune responses, but are also involved in inflammatory disorders and 5-LO expression is associated with leukemia stem cell survival. It is therefore important to understand mechanisms that control 5-LO expression. This study investigated the control of 5-LO expression and leukotriene biosynthesis following the maturation of human monocytic cells. MonoMac-1 (MM1) and THP-1 cells were incubated for up to 72 h with or without LPS and TGF-ß. LPS, but not TGF-ß, increased CD14 expression in both MM1 and THP-1 cells. Incubation with LPS (100 ng/ml) and TGF-ß (1 ng/ml) synergistically increased the capacity of MM1 cells to produce 5-LO products from undetectable levels to 40±5 pmol/106 cells. 5-LO product biosynthesis in THP-1 cells increased 25-fold. A synergistic effect of LPS and TGF-ß was measured with increases in 5-LO mRNA of 54- and 13-fold in MM1 and THP-1 cells, respectively. 5-LO protein expression increased significantly in both MM1 and THP-1 cells. ALOX5 promoter activity was significantly elevated >2-fold in both cell lines following LPS treatment, but TGF-ß was without effect. The main 5-LO products were cysteinyl-leukotrienes, however LPS and TGF-ß did not impact on the capacity of the cells to metabolize leukotriene A4. Overall, this study demonstrates that receptor-mediated stimulation of MM1 and THP-1 cells by LPS is associated with increased 5-LO expression. This represents a new mechanism by which leukotriene biosynthesis can be modulated by pathological agents.


Assuntos
Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/genética , Araquidonato 5-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
20.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(3-4): 113-120, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191627

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, are very important gelatinases that are overexpressed during tumor metastasis. Up to date, several MMP inhibitors have been developed from natural sources as well as organic synthesis. In the present study, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory effects of 3,5-dicaffeoyl-epi-quinic acid (DCEQA), a caffeoylquinic acid derivative isolated from Atriplex gmelinii, were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Gelatin zymography and immunoblotting showed that DCEQA significantly inhibited the PMA-induced activation and expression of MMP-9 but was not able to show any effect against MMP-2. DCEQA treatment was also shown to upregulate the protein expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 along with decreased MMP-9 protein levels. Moreover, the effect of DCEQA on phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), analyzed by immunoblotting, indicated the DCEQA inhibited the MMP-9 by downregulation of MAPK pathway. Collectively, current results suggested that DCEQA is a potent MMP-9 inhibitor and can be utilized as lead compound for treatment of pathological complications involving enhanced MMP activity such as cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Atriplex/química , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Ésteres de Forbol/efeitos adversos , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Quínico/química , Ácido Quínico/farmacologia
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