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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 138, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451937

RESUMO

Monascus azaphilone pigments, including red, orange, and yellow, are world-famous food colorants. However, the pigments produced by different Monascus species vary in yields and compositions. The underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, four wild-type Monascus strains, namely M. anka M7, M. purpureus M9, M. ruber C100, and M. aurantiacus M15, were selected as research objects according to the diversification of their pigments fermented in the same mediums and conditions. Twenty-three 3 kbp segments (300 bp overlap with adjacent segments) of the pigment gene cluster were amplified, sequenced, and assembled into the DNA sequences of the clusters. The DNA sequences of pigment biosynthetic gene clusters of the four strains showed 99.94% similarity according to the results of multiple alignment. The expression levels of 17 pigment biosynthetic genes of four strains were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR. The transcriptional regulation contributed more than the DNA sequence variation in Monascus pigments metabolism. Our result gives insight into the study of Monascus pigment biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Monascus/genética , Monascus/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/biossíntese , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cor , DNA Fúngico/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Monascus/química , Monascus/classificação , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
2.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126296, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421712

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are important factors in the response of organisms to oscillations in environmental conditions. Although Hsp have been studied for a long time, little is known about this protein class in Trichoderma species. Here we studied the expression of Hsp genes during T. asperellum growth, and mycoparasitism against two phytopathogens: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium oxysporum, as well as during thermal stress. The expression levels of these genes were observed by real-time PCR and they showed to be differentially expressed under these conditions. We verified that the TaHsp26c, TaHsp70b and TaHsp70c genes were differentially expressed over time, indicating that these genes can be developmentally regulated in T. asperellum. Except for TaHsp26a, all other genes analyzed were induced in the post-contact condition when T. asperellum was cultured in a confrontation plate assay against itself. Additionally, TaHsp26b, TaHsp26c, TaHsp90, TaHsp104a and TaHsp104b were induced during initial contact between T. asperellum hyphae, suggesting that these proteins must play a role in the organism´s self-recognition mechanism. When we examined gene expression during mycoparasitism, we observed that some genes were induced both by S. sclerotiorum and F. oxysporum, while others were not induced during interaction with either of the phytopathogens. Furthermore, we observed some genes induced only during confrontation against S. sclerotiorum, indicating that the expression of Hsp genes during mycoparasitism seems to be modulated by the phytopathogen. To assess whether such genes are expressed during temperature oscillations, we analyzed their transcription levels during thermal and cold shock. We observed that except for the TaHsp70c gene, all others presented high transcript levels when T. asperellum was submitted to high temperature (38 °C), indicating their importance in the response to heat stress. The TaHsp70c gene was significantly induced only in cold shock at 4 °C. Our results show the importance of Hsp proteins during self-recognition, mycoparasitism and thermal stress in T. asperellum.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/genética , Fusarium/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Hifas/genética , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Microbianas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126294, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421718

RESUMO

After exposure to with Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis, the expression of genes in Trichoderma asperellum were compared in four transcriptomes. The top 20 high expression genes included six heat shock proteins and three hydrophobins, indicating that Trichoderma can rapidly adapt to environment stresses and elicit a plant defense response. The genes, involved in the interaction between Trichoderma and plant, showed an increasing expression level, for example sugar transporters, EPL1s, endoxylanases, pectin lyases, and nitrilases. Interestingly, sugar transporters also showed high expression when T. asperellum was cultured on medium lacking a carbon substrate, which would contribute to T. asperellum's survival and domination in ecological niche competition. And the genes related to mycoparasitism were expressed abundantly following T. asperellum's interaction with PdPap, indicating the PdPap induction could enhance the mycoparasitic ability of T. asperellum. Twelve chitinases and five glucanases showed higher expression in transcriptome Cs, indicating that T. asperellum secretes both types of enzyme before interacting with pathogens, allowing T. asperellum to implement mycoparasitism and obtain more energy. Many novel transcripts were obtained in each transcriptome, which may play important roles in the biocontrol process of T. asperellum. Interestingly, T. asperellum undergo constitutive alternative splicing in the biocontrol process: Seven biocontrol genes were alternative spliced via intron retention. qRT-PCR analysis proved that intron retention is negatively associated with the expression of chitinase, oligopeptide transporters, and beta-lactamase. However, the percentage of MAPK intron retention was quite low, suggesting that intron retention has little effect on the function of MAPK.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126292, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421719

RESUMO

Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) represent agriculturally important and beneficial plant growth promoting options which contribute towards nutrient management and biocontrol, respectively. When Az and Tv are co-cultured, they form a biofilm, which has proved promising as an inoculant in several crops; however, the basic aspects related to regulation of biofilm formation were not investigated. Therefore, whole transcriptome sequencing (Illumina NextSeq500) and gene expression analyses were undertaken, related to biofilm formation vis a vis Tv and Az growing individually. Significant changes in the transcriptome profiles of biofilm were recorded and validated through qPCR analyses. In-depth evaluation also identified several genes (phoA, phoB, glgP, alg8, sipW, purB, pssA, fadD) specifically involved in biofilm formation in Az, Tv and Tv-Az. Genes coding for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, ABC transporters, translation elongation factor EF-1, molecular chaperones and double homeobox 4 were either up-regulated or down-regulated during biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the modulation of gene expression in an agriculturally beneficial association, as a biofilm. Our results provide insights into the regulatory factors involved during biofilm formation, which can help to improve the beneficial effects and develop more effective and promising plant- microbe associations.


Assuntos
Azotobacter/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Microbianas/genética , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação para Cima
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 111, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280424

RESUMO

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) immune systems in bacteria have been used as tools for genome engineering. Thus far, the CRISPR-Cas system has been used in various yeast, bacterial, and mammalian cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nonpathogenic yeast, classified under "generally recognized as safe", and has long been used to produce consumables such as alcohol or bread. Additionally, recombinant cells of S. cerevisiae have been constructed and used to produce various bio-based chemicals. Some types of CRISPR-Cas system for genetic manipulation have been constructed during the early developmental stages of the CRISPR-Cas system and have been mainly used for gene knock-in and knock-out manipulations. Thereafter, these systems have been used for various novel purposes such as metabolic engineering and tolerance engineering. In this review, we have summarized different aspects of the CRISPR-Cas in the yeast S. cerevisiae, from its basic principles to various applications. This review describes the CRISPR system in S. cerevisiae based on the differences in its origin and efficiency followed by its basic applications; for example, its involvement in gene knock-in and knock-out has been outlined. Finally, advanced applications of the CRISPR system in the bioproduction of useful chemicals have been summarized.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes/métodos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8986-8993, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347835

RESUMO

Trehalose plays a crucial role in response to freezing stress in baker's yeast. MAL62, a gene involved in the adenosine diphosphoglucose-dependent trehalose synthesis pathway, can increase trehalose content. However, the difference between MAL62-related trehalose synthesis and traditional uridine diphosphoglucose-dependent trehalose synthesis is not well-understood. MAL62 overexpression showed less effect in enhancing intracellular trehalose compared to TPS1 overexpression. However, MAL62 overexpression elicited trehalose synthesis before fermentation with enhanced maltose metabolism and had a similar effect on cell viability after freezing. Furthermore, MAL62 and TPS1 overexpression in the NTH1 deletion background further strengthened freezing tolerance and improved leavening ability. Our results suggest that the enhancement in freezing tolerance by MAL62 overexpression may involve multiple pathways rather than simply enhancing trehalose synthesis. The results reveal valuable insights into the relationship between maltose metabolism and freezing tolerance and may help to develop better yeast strains for enhancing fermentation characteristics of frozen dough.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Farinha/microbiologia , Congelamento , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Trealase/genética , Trealase/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética
7.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 55-64, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284945

RESUMO

Functional association between genomic loci and specific biological traits remains lacking in many fungi, including the African tree pathogen Ceratocystis albifundus. This is mainly because of the absence of suitable transformation systems for allowing genetic manipulation of this and other fungi. Here, we present an optimized protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of C. albifundus. Strain AGL-1 of A. tumefaciens and four binary T-DNA vectors (conferring hygromycin B or geneticin resistance and/or expressing the green fluorescent protein [GFP]) were used for transforming germinated conidia of three isolates of C. albifundus. Stable expression of these T-DNA-encoded traits was confirmed through sequential sub-culturing of fungal transformants on selective and non-selective media and by using PCR and sequence analysis. Single-copy integration of the respective T-DNAs into the genomes of these fungi was confirmed using Southern hybridization analysis. The range of experimental parameters determined and optimised included: (i) concentrations of hygromycin B and geneticin required for inhibiting growth of the wild type fungus and (ii) the dependence of transformation on acetosyringone for inducing the bacterium's virulence genes, as well as (iii) the duration of fungus-bacterium co-cultivation periods and (iv) the concentrations of fungal conidia and bacterial cells used for the latter. The system developed in this study is stable with a high-efficiency, yielding up to 400 transformants per 106 conidia. This is the first report of a transformation protocol for C. albifundus and its availability will be invaluable for functional studies in this important fungus.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Transformação Genética , Ascomicetos/citologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Southern Blotting , Carbenicilina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , DNA Bacteriano , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Higromicina B/farmacologia , Canamicina/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência , Virulência/genética
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 124, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346773

RESUMO

Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast that is considered to be an emergent pathogen since it is the second most prevalent cause of candidiasis. Contrary to most yeasts, this species carries only one plasma membrane potassium transporter named CgTrk1. We show in this work that the activity of this transporter is regulated at the posttranslational level, and thus Trk1 contributes to potassium uptake under very different external cation concentrations. In addition to its function in potassium uptake, we report a diversity of physiological effects related to this transporter. CgTRK1 contributes to proper cell size, intracellular pH and membrane-potential homeostasis when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, lithium influx experiments performed both in C. glabrata and S. cerevisiae indicate that the salt tolerance phenotype linked to CgTrk1 can be related to a high capacity to discriminate between potassium and lithium (or sodium) during the transport process. In summary, we show that CgTRK1 exerts a diversity of pleiotropic physiological roles and we propose that the corresponding protein may be an attractive pharmacological target for the development of new antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Candida glabrata/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2458, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165730

RESUMO

During stress, prompt export of stress-inducible transcripts is critical for cell survival. Here, we characterize a function of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) deubiquitylating module (DUBm) in monitoring messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) biogenesis to regulate non-canonical mRNA export of stress-inducible transcripts. Our genetic and biochemical analyses suggest that there is a functional relationship between Sgf73p of DUBm and the essential mRNA export factor, Yra1p. Under physiological conditions, Sgf73p is critical for the proper chromatin localization and RNA binding of Yra1p, while also quality controlling the biogenesis of mRNPs in conjunction with the nuclear exosome exonuclease, Rrp6p. Under environmental stress, when immediate transport of stress-inducible transcripts is imperative, Sgf73p facilitates the bypass of canonical surveillance and promotes the timely export of necessary transcripts. Overall, our results show that the Sgf73p-mediated plasticity of gene expression is important for the ability of cells to tolerate stress and regulate proteostasis to survive under environmental uncertainty.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Cromatina/metabolismo , Complexo Multienzimático de Ribonucleases do Exossomo/metabolismo , Proteostase , Transporte de RNA , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Transativadores/metabolismo
10.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(8): 1385-1401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159661

RESUMO

The koji mold Aspergillus oryzae has been used in traditional Japanese food and beverage fermentation for over a thousand years. Amylolytic enzymes are important in sake fermentation, wherein production is induced by starch or malto-oligosaccharides. This inducible production requires at least two transcription activators, AmyR and MalR. Among amylolytic enzymes, glucoamylase GlaB is produced exclusively in solid-state culture and plays a critical role in sake fermentation owing to its contribution to glucose generation from starch. A recent study demonstrated that glaB gene expression is regulated by a novel transcription factor, FlbC, in addition to AmyR in solid-state culture. Amylolytic enzyme production is generally repressed by glucose due to carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is mediated by the transcription factor CreA. Modifying CCR machinery, including CreA, can improve amylolytic enzyme production. This review focuses on the role of transcription factors in regulating A. oryzae amylolytic gene expression.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Maltose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2886, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253809

RESUMO

Glucosinolates accumulate mainly in cruciferous plants and their hydrolysis-derived products play important roles in plant resistance against pathogens. The pathogen Botrytis cinerea has variable sensitivity to glucosinolates, but the mechanisms by which it responds to them are mostly unknown. Exposure of B. cinerea to glucosinolate-breakdown products induces expression of the Major Facilitator Superfamily transporter, mfsG, which functions in fungitoxic compound efflux. Inoculation of B. cinerea on wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants induces mfsG expression to higher levels than on glucosinolate-deficient A. thaliana mutants. A B. cinerea strain lacking functional mfsG transporter is deficient in efflux ability. It accumulates more isothiocyanates (ITCs) and is therefore more sensitive to this compound in vitro; it is also less virulent to glucosinolates-containing plants. Moreover, mfsG mediates ITC efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, thereby conferring tolerance to ITCs in the yeast. These findings suggest that mfsG transporter is a virulence factor that increases tolerance to glucosinolates.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Botrytis/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucosinolatos/química , DNA Complementar , DNA Fúngico , Deleção de Genes , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Fúngico , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 293: 472-478, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151636

RESUMO

Water activity (aw) and temperature are two pivotal environmental factors affecting Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production. Here, we found that AFB1 production on polished rice can occur over a wider range of temperature × aw levels than that on paddies. For fungal growth on polished rice, the optimum conditions were aw 0.92-0.96 and 28-37 °C. The maximum amounts of AFB1 on polished rice was observed at 33 °C and aw 0.96. Compared to 33 °C, all tested genes of A. flavus on polished rice were significantly up-regulated at 25 °C under aw 0.96. The late structural genes of pathway were significantly down-regulated at 37 °C under aw 0.96, although aflR and aflS and most of early structural genes were up-regulated. Compared to aw 0.96, most of pathway genes were significantly down-regulated at aw 0.90 and 0.99 under 33 °C, although two regulatory genes were up-regulated at aw 0.90.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Aflatoxinas/análise , Aspergillus flavus/genética , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
13.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(Suppl 12): 322, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell size is a key characteristic that significantly affects many aspects of cellular physiology. There are specific control mechanisms during cell cycle that maintain the cell size within a range from generation to generation. Such control mechanisms introduce substantial variabilities to important properties of the cell cycle such as growth and division. To quantitatively study the effect of such variability in progression through cell cycle, detailed stochastic models are required. RESULTS: In this paper, a new hybrid stochastic model is proposed to study the effect of molecular noise and size control mechanism on the variabilities in cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proposed model provides an accurate, yet computationally efficient approach for simulation of an intricate system by integrating the deterministic and stochastic simulation schemes. The developed hybrid stochastic model can successfully capture several key features of the cell cycle observed in experimental data. In particular, the proposed model: 1) confirms that the majority of noise in size control stems from low copy numbers of transcripts in the G1 phase, 2) identifies the size and time regulation modules in the size control mechanism, and 3) conforms with phenotypes of early G1 mutants in exquisite detail. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid stochastic modeling approach can be used to provide quantitative descriptions for stochastic properties of the cell cycle within a computationally efficient framework.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular , Modelos Biológicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Fase G1 , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Ploidias , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Processos Estocásticos
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 79, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134410

RESUMO

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used in recombinant expression of eukaryotic proteins owing to the ability of post-translational modification, tightly regulated promoters, and high cell density fermentation. However, episomal plasmids for heterologous gene expression and the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing have not been well developed in P. pastoris. In the present study, a panel of episomal plasmids containing various autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) were constructed and their performance in transformation efficiency, copy numbers, and propagation stability were systematically compared. Among the five ARSs with different origins, panARS isolated from Kluyveromyces lactis was determined to have the best performance and used to develop an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing system. Compared with a previously reported system using the endogenous and most commonly used ARS (PARS1), the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing efficiency was increased for more than tenfold. Owing to the higher plasmid stability with panARS, efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing with a type III promoter (i.e. SER promoter) to drive the expression of the single guide RNA (sgRNA) was achieved for the first time. The constructed episomal plasmids and developed CRISPR/Cas9 system will be important synthetic biology tools for both fundamental studies and industrial applications of P. pastoris.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Pichia/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Transformação Genética , Replicação do DNA , Escherichia coli/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Instabilidade Genômica , Microbiologia Industrial , Kluyveromyces/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Guia , Biologia Sintética
15.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(6): 84, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134444

RESUMO

Pectin is a type of complex hydrophilic polysaccharide widely distributed in plant resources. Thermal stable pectinase has its advantage in bioapplication in the fields of food processing, brewing, and papermaking, etc. In this study, we enzymatically characterized a putative endo-polygalacturonase TcPG from a Talaromyces cellulolyticus, realized its high-level expression in Pichia pastoris by in vitro constructing of a series of multi-copy expression cassettes and real time quantitative PCR screening. The secretive expression level of TcPG was nonlinear correlated to the gene dosage. Recombinants with five-copy TcPG gene in the host genome showed the highest expression. After cultivation in a bioreactor for about 96 h, the enzyme activity reached 7124.8 U/mL culture. TcPG has its optimal temperature of 70 °C. Under the optimized parameters, the pectin could be efficiently hydrolyzed into oligosaccharides.


Assuntos
Dosagem de Genes , Pectinas/metabolismo , Pichia/genética , Poligalacturonase/biossíntese , Poligalacturonase/genética , Talaromyces/enzimologia , Talaromyces/genética , Reatores Biológicos , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Hidrólise , Pichia/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Microbiol ; 57(5): 396-404, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062286

RESUMO

Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that contaminates crops with carcinogenic aflatoxin. In the present work, the antifungal effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against A. flavus were investigated. VOCs from 8-day-old wheat bran culture of S. alboflavus TD-1 displayed strong inhibitory effects against mycelial growth, sporulation, and conidial germination of A. flavus. Severely misshapen conidia and hyphae of A. flavus were observed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to VOCs for 6 and 12 h, respectively. Rhodamine 123 staining of mitochondria indicated that mitochondria may be a legitimate antifungal target of the VOCs from S. alboflavus TD-1. Furthermore, the VOCs effectively inhibited aflatoxin B1 production by downregulating genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Dimethyl trisulfide and benzenamine may play important roles in the suppression of A. flavus growth and production of aflatoxin. The results indicate that VOCs from S. alboflavus TD-1 have tremendous potential to be developed as a useful bio-pesticide for controlling A. flavus.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/biossíntese , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1/genética , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
17.
mSphere ; 4(3)2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068436

RESUMO

Regulation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis is critical to maintain cell wall integrity in dynamic fungal infection microenvironments. Genes involved in this response that impact fungal fitness and host immune responses remain to be fully defined. In this study, we observed that a yeast ssd1 homolog, ssdA, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is involved in trehalose and cell wall homeostasis. An ssdA null mutant strain exhibited an increase in trehalose levels and a reduction in fungal colony growth rate. In contrast, overexpression of ssdA perturbed trehalose biosynthesis and reduced germination of conidia. The ssdA null mutant strain was more resistant to cell wall-perturbing agents, while overexpression of ssdA increased sensitivity. Overexpression of ssdA significantly increased chitin levels, and both loss and overexpression of ssdA altered subcellular localization of the class V chitin synthase CsmA. Strikingly, overexpression of ssdA abolished adherence to abiotic surfaces and severely attenuated the virulence of A. fumigatus in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Despite the severe in vitro fitness defects observed upon loss of ssdA, neither surface adherence nor murine survival was impacted. In conclusion, A. fumigatus SsdA plays a critical role in cell wall homeostasis impacting A. fumigatus-host interactions.IMPORTANCE The incidence of life-threatening infections caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is increasing along with an increase in the number of fungal strains resistant to contemporary antifungal therapies. The fungal cell wall and the associated carbohydrates required for its synthesis and maintenance are attractive drug targets given that many genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis and integrity are absent in humans. Importantly, genes and associated cell wall biosynthesis and homeostasis regulatory pathways remain to be fully defined in A. fumigatus In this report, we identify SsdA as an important component of trehalose and fungal cell wall biosynthesis in A. fumigatus that consequently impacts the host immune response and fungal virulence in animal models of infection.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Trealose/biossíntese , Animais , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva , Camundongos , Mutação , Esporos Fúngicos , Virulência
18.
J Microbiol ; 57(8): 688-693, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079330

RESUMO

There are presently no studies on the genes for sexual development of Aspergillus fumigatus in situ using mating culture, primarily because of challenging experimental conditions that require a significantly long period of induction and produce developmentally heterogenous culture, harboring very few sexual organs. In order to overcome these challenges, we developed an efficient and convenient procedure called 'vegetative mass mating (VeM)' for study at a molecular level. The VeM method enabled production of a developmentally homogenous A. fumigatus culture, harboring many sexual organs in a plate within a short period of two weeks. Feasibility of the use of VeM for functional study of genes during A. fumigatus sexual development was evaluated by analyzing the transcription pattern of genes involved in pheromone signal transduction and regulation of sexual development. Here, we present for the first time, an in situ expression pattern of sexual genes during the mating process, induced by the VeM method, which will enable and promote the sexual development study of A. fumigatus at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 350, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3) are widely perceived to be opposing and often mutually exclusive chromatin modifications. However, both are needed for certain light-activated genes in Neurospora crassa (Neurospora), including frequency (frq) and vivid (vvd). Except for these 2 loci, little is known about how H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 impact and contribute to light-regulated gene expression. RESULTS: In this report, we performed a multi-dimensional genomic analysis to understand the role of H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 using the Neurospora light response as the system. RNA-seq on strains lacking H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase (KMT2/SET-1) and histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (KMT1/DIM-5) revealed some light-activated genes had altered expression, but the light response was largely intact. Comparing these 2 mutants to wild-type (WT), we found that roughly equal numbers of genes showed elevated and reduced expression in the dark and the light making the environmental stimulus somewhat ancillary to the genome-wide effects. ChIP-seq experiments revealed H3K4me3 and H3K9me3 had only minor changes in response to light in WT, but there were notable alterations in H3K4me3 in Δkmt1/Δdim-5 and H3K9me3 in Δkmt2/Δset-1 indicating crosstalk and redistribution between the modifications. Integrated analysis of the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq highlighted context-dependent roles for KMT2/SET1 and KMT1/DIM-5 as either co-activators or co-repressors with some overlap as co-regulators. At a small subset of loci, H3K4 methylation is required for H3K9me3-mediated facultative heterochromatin including, the central clock gene frequency (frq). Finally, we used sequential ChIP (re-ChIP) experiment to confirm Neurospora contains K4/K9 bivalent domains. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data indicate there are obfuscated regulatory roles for H3K4 methylation and H3K9 methylation depending on genome location with some minor overlap and co-dependency.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Heterocromatina , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Neurospora crassa/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Luz , Neurospora crassa/enzimologia
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 337, 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese cordyceps, also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis, syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is of particular interest for its cryptic life cycle and economic and ecological importance. The large-scale artificial cultivation was succeeded recently after several decades of efforts and attempts. However, the induction of primordium, sexual development of O. sinensis and the molecular basis of its lifestyle still remain cryptic. RESULTS: The developmental transcriptomes were analyzed for six stages covering the whole developmental process, including hyphae (HY), sclerotium (ST), primordium (PR), young fruiting body (YF), developed fruiting body (DF) and mature fruiting body (MF), with a focus on the expression of sexual development-related genes. Principal component analysis revealed that the gene expression profiles at the stages of primordium formation and fruiting body development are more similar than those of the undifferentiated HY stage. The PR and MF stages grouped together, suggesting that primordium differentiation and sexual maturation have similar expression patterns. Many more DEGs were identified between the ST and HY stages, covering 47.5% of the O. sinensis genome, followed by the comparisons between the ST and PR stages. Using pairwise comparisons and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, modules of coexpressed genes and candidate hub genes for each developmental stage were identified. The four mating type loci genes expressed during primordium differentiation and sexual maturation; however, spatiotemporal specificity of gene expression indicated that they also expressed during the anamorphic HY stage. The four mating type genes were not coordinately expressed, suggesting they may have divergent roles. The expression of the four mating type genes was highest in the fertile part and lowest in the sclerotium of the MF stage, indicating that there is tissue specificity. Half of genes related to mating signaling showed as the highest expression in the ST stage, indicating fruiting was initiated in the ST stage. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide a new perspective to understanding of the key pathways and hub genes, and sexual development-related gene profile in the development of Chinese cordyceps. It will be helpful for underlying sexual reproduction, and add new information to existing models of fruiting body development in edible fungi.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Carpóforos/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Desenvolvimento Sexual , Transcriptoma , Cordyceps/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento
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