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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 406, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family members play important roles in development and stress tolerance through regulation of organellar gene expression. However, their molecular functions have yet to be clearly defined. RESULTS: Here an mTERF gene V14 was identified by fine mapping using a conditional albino mutant v14 that displayed albinism only in the first two true leaves, which was confirmed by transgenic complementation tests. Subcellular localization and real-time PCR analyses indicated that V14 encodes a chloroplastic protein ubiquitously expressed in leaves while spiking in the second true leaf. Chloroplastic gene expression profiling in the pale leaves of v14 through real-time PCR and Northern blotting analyses showed abnormal accumulation of the unprocessed transcripts covering the rpoB-rpoC1 and/or rpoC1-rpoC2 intercistronic regions accompanied by reduced abundance of the mature rpoC1 and rpoC2 transcripts, which encode two core subunits of the plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP). Subsequent immunoblotting analyses confirmed the reduced accumulation of RpoC1 and RpoC2. A light-inducible photosynthetic gene psbD was also found down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, such stage-specific aberrant posttranscriptional regulation and psbD expression can be reversed by high temperatures (30 ~ 35 °C), although V14 expression lacks thermo-sensitivity. Meanwhile, three V14 homologous genes were found heat-inducible with similar temporal expression patterns, implicating their possible functional redundancy to V14. CONCLUSIONS: These data revealed a critical role of V14 in chloroplast development, which impacts, in a stage-specific and thermo-sensitive way, the appropriate processing of rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 precursors and the expression of certain photosynthetic proteins. Our findings thus expand the knowledge of the molecular functions of rice mTERFs and suggest the contributions of plant mTERFs to photosynthesis establishment and temperature acclimation.


Assuntos
Oryza/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 403, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Winter freezing temperature impacts alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and seasonal yield and can lead to the death of the plant. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of alfalfa freezing tolerance (FT) using high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping is crucial to select suitable germplasm and develop winter-hardy cultivars. Several clones of an alfalfa F1 mapping population (3010 x CW 1010) were tested for FT using a cold chamber. The population was genotyped with SNP markers identified using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FT were mapped on the parent-specific linkage maps. The ultimate goal is to develop non-dormant and winter-hardy alfalfa cultivars that can produce extended growth in the areas where winters are often mild. RESULTS: Alfalfa FT screening method optimized in this experiment comprises three major steps: clone preparation, acclimation, and freezing test. Twenty clones of each genotype were tested, where 10 samples were treated with freezing temperature, and 10 were used as controls. A moderate positive correlation (r ~ 0.36, P < 0.01) was observed between indoor FT and field-based winter hardiness (WH), suggesting that the indoor FT test is a useful indirect selection method for winter hardiness of alfalfa germplasm. We detected a total of 20 QTL associated with four traits; nine for visual rating-based FT, five for percentage survival (PS), four for treated to control regrowth ratio (RR), and two for treated to control biomass ratio (BR). Some QTL positions overlapped with WH QTL reported previously, suggesting a genetic relationship between FT and WH. Some favorable QTL from the winter-hardy parent (3010) were from the potential genic region for a cold tolerance gene CBF. The BLAST alignment of a CBF sequence of M. truncatula, a close relative of alfalfa, against the alfalfa reference showed that the gene's ortholog resides around 75 Mb on chromosome 6. CONCLUSIONS: The indoor freezing tolerance selection method reported is useful for alfalfa breeders to accelerate breeding cycles through indirect selection. The QTL and associated markers add to the genomic resources for the research community and can be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for alfalfa cold tolerance improvement.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Congelamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Medicago sativa/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 646, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for commercial F1 hybrid seeds production. CMS is primarily caused by chimeric genes in mitochondrial genomes. However, which specific stages of anther development in cabbage are affected by the chimeric genes remain unclear. RESULTS: In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced and assembled for the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage lines. The genome size of the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage are 219,962 bp and 236,648 bp, respectively. There are 67 and 69 unknown function ORFs identified in the maintainer and Ogura CMS cabbage mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Four orfs, orf102a, orf122b, orf138a and orf154a were specifically identified in the Ogura CMS mitochondrial genome, which were likely generated by recombination with Ogura type radish during breeding process. Among them, ORF138a and ORF154a possessed a transmembrane structure, and orf138a was co-transcribed with the atp8 and trnfM genes. orf154a is partially homologous to the ATP synthase subunit 1 (atpA) gene. Both these genes were likely responsible for the CMS phenotype. In addition, cytological sections showed that the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells might be the immediate cause of cytoplasmic male-sterility in Ogura CMS cabbage lines. RNA-seq results showed that orf138a and orf154a in Ogura CMS might influence transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of orf138a and orf154a lead to increased of ATPase activity and ATP content by affecting the transcript levels of genes in energy metabolic pathways, which could provide more energy for the abnormal proliferation of tapetal cells. Our data provides new insights into cytoplasmic male-sterility from whole mitochondrial genomes, cytology of anther development and transcriptome data.


Assuntos
Brassica , Genoma Mitocondrial , Infertilidade , Brassica/genética , Citoplasma/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética
4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495147

RESUMO

Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Regulon , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulon/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
5.
Planta ; 254(4): 67, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495419

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Transcriptomic and volatile component analyses showed that high expression levels of genes from the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway and the monoterpene metabolic pathway can strengthen the floral fragrance of tree peony. Floral fragrance is a crucial ornamental trait whose improvement is one of the primary objectives of tree peony breeding. So far, exploration of the floral fragrance of tree peony has focused on the identification of its volatile components, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their formation remain unclear. Here, we identified 128 volatile components from the petals of tree peony and found that they consisted primarily of terpenes, alcohols, and esters. Based on the distribution pattern of these major fragrance components, 24 tree peony cultivars were classified into 4 types: grassy scent (ocimene), woody scent (longifolene), lily of the valley scent (linalool), and fruity scent (2-ethyl hexanol). We used RNA-seq to explore the mechanistic basis of terpenoid metabolism in tree peony petals with various scents. The expression levels of AACT, HMGR, PMK, DXS, DXR, HDS, HDR, and GGPS, which encode key enzymes of terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, were upregulated in 'Huangguan' (strong fragrance) compared to 'Fengdan' (faint fragrance). Moreover, the transcript abundance of LIS and MYS, two monoterpene synthase genes, was also enhanced in petals of 'Huangguan' compared to those of 'Fengdan'. Together, these results demonstrate that differences in the expression of genes from the monoterpene synthesis and terpenoid backbone pathways are associated with differences in the fragrance of tree peony. This research provides crucial genetic resources for fragrance improvement and also lays a foundation for further clarification of the mechanisms that underlie tree peony fragrance.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Paeonia/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Terpenos , Transcriptoma/genética , Árvores
6.
Planta ; 254(4): 69, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498125

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Indole 3-hexanoic acid is a novel auxin and regulates plant growth and development. Auxin is a signaling molecule that influences most aspects of plant development. Although many small bioactive molecules have been developed as auxin analogues, naturally occurring auxin and the detailed mechanisms of its specific actions in plants remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, to screen auxin responses, we used a novel picolinate synthetic auxin, 3-indole hexanoic acid (IHA), which is similar in structure to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). IHA showed classical auxin activity in the regulation of root growth, gene expression, and PIN-FORMED abundance. Physiological and genetic analyses indicated that IHA may be perceived by the auxin receptor TIR1 and transported by the G-class ATP-binding cassette protein ABCG36 and its homolog ABCG37. Importantly, IHA was detected in planta and converted into IBA depending on the peroxisomal ß-oxidation. Together, these findings reveal a novel auxin pathway component and suggest possible undiscovered modes of auxin metabolism regulation in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Caproatos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Indóis , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 638, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LncRNAs are extensively involved in plant biological processes. However, the lack of a comprehensive lncRNA landscape in moso bamboo has hindered the molecular study of lncRNAs. Moreover, the role of lncRNAs in secondary cell wall (SCW) biosynthesis of moso bamboo is elusive. RESULTS: For comprehensively identifying lncRNA throughout moso bamboo genome, we collected 231 RNA-Seq datasets, 1 Iso-Seq dataset, and 1 full-length cDNA dataset. We used a machine learning approach to improve the pipeline of lncRNA identification and functional annotation based on previous studies and identified 37,009 lncRNAs in moso bamboo. Then, we established a network of potential lncRNA-coding gene for SCW biosynthesis and identified SCW-related lncRNAs. We also proposed that a mechanism exists in bamboo to direct phenylpropanoid intermediates to lignin or flavonoids biosynthesis through the PAL/4CL/C4H genes. In addition, we identified 4 flavonoids and 1 lignin-preferred genes in the PAL/4CL/C4H gene families, which gained implications in molecular breeding. CONCLUSIONS: We provided a comprehensive landscape of lncRNAs in moso bamboo. Through analyses, we identified SCW-related lncRNAs and improved our understanding of lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Parede Celular , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Poaceae , RNA Longo não Codificante , Parede Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Poaceae/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 642, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA polymerase II plays critical roles in transcription in eukaryotic organisms. C-terminal Domain Phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) regulates the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II subunit B1, which is critical in determining RNA polymerase II activity. CPL1 plays an important role in miRNA biogenesis, plant growth and stress responses. Although cpl1 mutant showes delayed-flowering phenotype, the molecular mechanism behind CPL1's role in floral transition is still unknown. RESULTS: To study the role of CPL1 during the floral transition, we first tested phenotypes of cpl1-3 mutant, which harbors a point-mutation. The cpl1-3 mutant contains a G-to-A transition in the second exon, which results in an amino acid substitution from Glu to Lys (E116K). Further analyses found that the mutated amino acid (Glu) was conserved in these species. As a result, we found that the cpl1-3 mutant experienced delayed flowering under both long- and short-day conditions, and CPL1 is involved in the vernalization pathway. Transcriptome analysis identified 109 genes differentially expressed in the cpl1 mutant, with 2 being involved in floral transition. Differential expression of the two flowering-related DEGs was further validated by qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Flowering genetic pathways analysis coupled with transciptomic analysis provides potential genes related to floral transition in the cpl1-3 mutant, and a framework for future studies of the molecular mechanisms behind CPL1's role in floral transition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Flores/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 408, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a warm-season legume crop and belongs to the papilionoid subfamily of the Fabaceae family. China is the leading producer of mung bean in the world. Mung bean has significant economic and health benefits and is a promising species with broad adaptation ability and high tolerance to environmental stresses. OSCA (hyperosmolality-gated calcium-permeable channel) gene family members play an important role in the modulation of hypertonic stress, such as drought and salinity. However, genome-wide analysis of the OSCA gene family has not been conducted in mung bean. RESULTS: We identified a total of 13 OSCA genes in the mung bean genome and named them according to their homology with AtOSCAs. All the OSCAs were phylogenetically split into four clades. Phylogenetic relationship and synteny analyses showed that the VrOSCAs in mung bean and soybean shared a relatively conserved evolutionary history. In addition, three duplicated VrOSCA gene pairs were identified, and the duplicated VrOSCAs gene pairs mainly underwent purifying selection pressure during evolution. Protein domain, motif and transmembrane analyses indicated that most of the VrOSCAs shared similar structures with their homologs. The expression pattern showed that except for VrOSCA2.1, the other 12 VrOSCAs were upregulated under treatment with ABA, PEG and NaCl, among which VrOSCA1.4 showed the largest increased expression levels. The duplicated genes VrOSCA2.1/VrOSCA2.2 showed divergent expression, which might have resulted in functionalization during subsequent evolution. The expression profiles under ABA, PEG and NaCl stress revealed a functional divergence of VrOSCA genes, which agreed with the analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions of VrOSCA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provided a systematic analysis of the VrOSCA gene family in mung bean. Our results establish an important foundation for functional and evolutionary analysis of VrOSCAs and identify genes for further investigation of their ability to confer abiotic stress tolerance in mung bean.


Assuntos
Osmorregulação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vigna/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Soja/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Sintenia , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigna/genética
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 407, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family, which is involved in inflorescence meristem development and represses flowering in several plant species. In the present study, four TFL1 genes were cloned from the mango (Mangifera indica L.) variety 'SiJiMi' and named MiTFL1-1, MiTFL1-2, MiTFL1-3 and MiTFL1-4. RESULTS: Sequence analysis showed that the encoded MiTFL1 proteins contained a conserved PEBP domain and belonged to the TFL1 group. Expression analysis showed that the MiTFL1 genes were expressed in not only vegetative organs but also reproductive organs and that the expression levels were related to floral development. Overexpression of the four MiTFL1 genes delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 changed the flower morphology in some transgenic plants. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) analysis showed that several stress-related proteins interacted with MiTFL1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The four MiTFL1 genes exhibited a similar expression pattern, and overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in delayed flowering. Additionally, MiTFL1-1 and MiTFL1-3 overexpression affected floral organ development. Furthermore, the MiTFL1 proteins could interact with bHLH and 14-3-3 proteins. These results indicate that the MiTFL1 genes may play an important role in the flowering process in mango.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Mangifera/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 409, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periderm is a protective barrier crucial for land plant survival, but little is known about genetic factors involved in its development and regulation. Using a transcriptomic approach in the cork oak (Q. suber) periderm, we previously identified an RS2-INTERACTING KH PROTEIN (RIK) homologue of unknown function containing a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, as a regulatory candidate gene in the periderm. RESULTS: To gain insight into the function of RIK in the periderm, potato (S. tuberosum) tuber periderm was used as a model: the full-length coding sequence of RIK, hereafter referred to as StRIK, was isolated, the transcript profile analyzed and gene silencing in potato performed to analyze the silencing effects on periderm anatomy and transcriptome. The StRIK transcript accumulated in all vegetative tissues studied, including periderm and other suberized tissues such as root and also in wounded tissues. Downregulation of StRIK in potato by RNA interference (StRIK-RNAi) did not show any obvious effects on tuber periderm anatomy but, unlike Wild type, transgenic plants flowered. Global transcript profiling of the StRIK-RNAi periderm did show altered expression of genes associated with RNA metabolism, stress and signaling, mirroring the biological processes found enriched within the in silico co-expression network of the Arabidopsis orthologue. CONCLUSIONS: The ubiquitous expression of StRIK transcript, the flower associated phenotype and the differential expression of StRIK-RNAi periderm point out to a general regulatory role of StRIK in diverse plant developmental processes. The transcriptome analysis suggests that StRIK might play roles in RNA maturation and stress response in the periderm.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tubérculos/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tubérculos/anatomia & histologia , Tubérculos/citologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solanum tuberosum/citologia
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 410, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water deficit is an abiotic stress that retards plant growth and destabilizes crop production. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding endogenous RNAs that participate in diverse cellular processes and stress responses in plants. lncRNAs could function as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA) and represent a novel layer of gene regulation. However, the regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs as ceRNA in drought stress response is yet unclear. RESULTS: In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide identification of drought-responsive lncRNAs in rice. Thereafter, we constructed a lncRNA-mediated ceRNA network by analyzing competing relationships between mRNAs and lncRNAs based on ceRNA hypothesis. A drought responsive ceRNA network with 40 lncRNAs, 23 miRNAs and 103 mRNAs was obtained. Network analysis revealed TCONS_00021861/miR528-3p/YUCCA7 regulatory axis as a hub involved in drought response. The miRNA-target expression and interaction were validated by RT-qPCR and RLM-5'RACE. TCONS_00021861 showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.7102) with YUCCA7 and negative correlation with miR528-3p (r = -0.7483). Overexpression of TCONS_00021861 attenuated the repression of miR528-3p on YUCCA7, leading to increased IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid) content and auxin overproduction phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: TCONS_00021861 could regulate YUCCA7 by sponging miR528-3p, which in turn activates IAA biosynthetic pathway and confer resistance to drought stress. Our findings provide a new perspective of the regulatory roles of lncRNAs as ceRNAs in drought resistance of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Desidratação/genética , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Células do Mesofilo/ultraestrutura , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 412, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is a compendium of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal strains. Pathogenic strains may cause vascular wilt disease and produce considerable losses in commercial tomato plots. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating resistance to Fol in tomato, the aim of our study was to characterize the transcriptional response of three cultivars (CT1, CT2 and IAC391) to a pathogenic (Fol-pt) and a non-pathogenic (Fo-npt) strain of Fo. RESULTS: All cultivars exhibited differentially expressed genes in response to each strain of the fungus at 36 h post-inoculation. For the pathogenic strain, CT1 deployed an apparent active defense response that included upregulation of WRKY transcription factors, an extracellular chitinase, and terpenoid-related genes, among others. In IAC391, differentially expressed genes included upregulated but mostly downregulated genes. Upregulated genes mapped to ethylene regulation, pathogenesis regulation and transcription regulation, while downregulated genes potentially impacted defense responses, lipid transport and metal ion binding. Finally, CT2 exhibited mostly downregulated genes upon Fol-pt infection. This included genes involved in transcription regulation, defense responses, and metal ion binding. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that CT1 mounts a defense response against Fol-pt. IAC391 exhibits an intermediate phenotype whereby some defense response genes are activated, and others are suppressed. Finally, the transcriptional profile in the CT2 hints towards lower levels of resistance. Fo-npt also induced transcriptional changes in all cultivars, but to a lesser extent. Results of this study will support genetic breeding programs currently underway in the zone.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Colômbia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 411, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene controls many processes in plant development and acts as a key signaling molecule in response to biotic and abiotic stresses: it is rapidly induced by flooding, wounding, drought, and pathogen attack as well as during abscission and fruit ripening. In kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), fruit ripening is characterized by two distinct phases: an early phase of system-1 ethylene biosynthesis characterized by absence of autocatalytic ethylene, followed by a late burst of autocatalytic (system-2) ethylene accompanied by aroma production and further ripening. Progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional regulation of kiwifruit fruit ripening but the regulation of system-1 ethylene biosynthesis remains largely unknown. The aim of this work is to better understand the transcriptional regulation of both systems of ethylene biosynthesis in contrasting kiwifruit organs: fruit and leaves. RESULTS: A detailed molecular study in kiwifruit (A. chinensis) revealed that ethylene biosynthesis was regulated differently between leaf and fruit after mechanical wounding. In fruit, wound ethylene biosynthesis was accompanied by transcriptional increases in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), ACC oxidase (ACO) and members of the NAC class of transcription factors (TFs). However, in kiwifruit leaves, wound-specific transcriptional increases were largely absent, despite a more rapid induction of ethylene production compared to fruit, suggesting that post-transcriptional control mechanisms in kiwifruit leaves are more important. One ACS member, AcACS1, appears to fulfil a dominant double role; controlling both fruit wound (system-1) and autocatalytic ripening (system-2) ethylene biosynthesis. In kiwifruit, transcriptional regulation of both system-1 and -2 ethylene in fruit appears to be controlled by temporal up-regulation of four NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) TFs (AcNAC1-4) that induce AcACS1 expression by directly binding to the AcACS1 promoter as shown using gel-shift (EMSA) and by activation of the AcACS1 promoter in planta as shown by gene activation assays combined with promoter deletion analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in kiwifruit the NAC TFs AcNAC2-4 regulate both system-1 and -2 ethylene biosynthesis in fruit during wounding and ripening through control of AcACS1 expression levels but not in leaves where post-transcriptional/translational regulatory mechanisms may prevail.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Etilenos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 414, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adventitious root formation is considered a major developmental step during the propagation of difficult to root plants, especially in horticultural crops. Recently, adventitious roots induced through plant tissue culture methods have also been used for production of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthraquinones. It is rather well understood which horticultural species will easily form adventitious roots, but the factors affecting this process at molecular level or regulating the induction process in in vitro conditions are far less known. The present study was conducted to identify transcripts involved in in vitro induction and formation of adventitious roots using Arnebia euchroma leaves at different time points (intact leaf (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 15 d). A. euchroma is an endangered medicinal Himalayan herb whose root contains red naphthoquinone pigments. These phytoconstituents are widely used as an herbal ingredient in Asian traditional medicine as well as natural colouring agent in food and cosmetics. RESULTS: A total of 137.93 to 293.76 million raw reads were generated and assembled to 54,587 transcripts with average length of 1512.27 bps and N50 of 2193 bps, respectively. In addition, 50,107 differentially expressed genes were identified and found to be involved in plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification and wound induced mitogen activated protein kinase signalling. The data exhibited dominance of auxin responsive (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8, IAA13, GRETCHEN HAGEN3.1) and sucrose translocation (BETA-31 FRUCTOFURANOSIDASE and MONOSACCHARIDE-SENSING protein1) genes during induction phase. In the initiation phase, the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16, EXPANSIN-B15, ENDOGLUCANASE25 and LEUCINE-rich repeat EXTENSION-like proteins was increased. During the expression phase, the same transcripts, with exception of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 were identified. Overall, the transcriptomic analysis revealed a similar patterns of genes, however, their expression level varied in subsequent phases of in vitro adventitious root formation in A. euchroma. CONCLUSION: The results presented here will be helpful in understanding key regulators of in vitro adventitious root development in Arnebia species, which may be deployed in the future for phytochemical production at a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Boraginaceae/genética , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Boraginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Indóis/farmacologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3806-3813, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472253

RESUMO

Phytohormones play an important role at all stages of plant growth, influencing plant growth and development and regulating plant secondary metabolism, such as the synthesis of flavone, flavonol, anthocyanin, and other flavonoids. Flavonoids, a group of important secondary metabolites ubiquitous in plants, have antioxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have a wide range of potential applications in Chinese medicine and food nutrition. With the development of biotechnology, phytohormones' regulation on flavonoids has become a research focus in recent years. This study reviewed the research progress on the mechanism of common phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, gibberellin, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid, in regulating flavonoid metabolism, and discussed the molecular mechanism of the synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids, aiming at clarifying the key role of phytohormones in modulating flavonoid metabolism. The result is of guiding significance for improving the content of flavonoids in plants through rational use of phytohormones and of reference value for exploring the mechanism of hormones in regulating flavonoid metabolism.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3838-3845, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472257

RESUMO

The longevity mechanism of ginseng(Panax ginseng) is related to its strong meristematic ability. In this paper, this study used bioinformatic methods to identify the members of the ginseng TCP gene family in the whole genome and analyzed their sequence characteristics. Then, quantitative real-time fluorescent PCR was performed to analyze the TCP genes containing elements rela-ted to meristem expression in the taproots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves. According to the data, this study further explored the expression specificity of TCP genes in ginseng tissues, which facilitated the dissection of the longevity mechanism of ginseng. The ginseng TCP members were identified and analyzed using PlantTFDB, ExPASy, MEME, PLANTCARE, TBtools, MEGA and DNAMAN. The results demonstrated that there were 60 TCP gene family members in ginseng, and they could be divided into two classes: Class Ⅰ and Class Ⅱ, in which the Class Ⅱ possessed two subclasses: CYC-TCP and CIN-TCP. The deduced TCP proteins in ginseng had the length of 128-793 aa, the isoelectric point of 4.49-9.84 and the relative molecular mass of 14.2-89.3 kDa. They all contained the basic helix-loop-helix(bHLH) domain. There are a variety of stress response-related cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of ginseng TCP genes, and PgTCP20-PgTCP24 contained the elements associated with meristematic expression. The transcription levels of PgTCP20-PgTCP24 were high in fibrous roots and leaves, but low in stems, indicating the tissue-specific expression of ginseng TCP genes. The Class Ⅰ TCP members which contained PgTCP20-PgTCP23, may be important regulators for the growth and development of ginseng roots.


Assuntos
Panax , Fatores de Transcrição , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2658-2667, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472286

RESUMO

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipídeos , Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2845-2855, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472302

RESUMO

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Assuntos
Amido , Tabaco , Biomassa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
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