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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127479, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688181

RESUMO

Calcium treatment effects on malate metabolism and the GABA pathway in 'Cripps Pink' apple fruit during storage were investigated. Postharvest apple fruit treated with 1% and 4% calcium chloride solutions were stored at 25 ± 1 °C. The 4% calcium treatment suppressed declines in titratable acidity and malate content and increased succinate and oxalate concentrations. Calcium treatment also reduced the respiration rate and decreased ethylene production peak during storage. Moreover, 4% calcium treatment significantly enhanced cyNAD-MDH and PEPC activities and upregulated MdMDH1, MdMDH2, MdPEPC1 and MdPEPC2 expression while inhibiting cyNADP-ME and PEPCK activities and downregulating MdME1, MdME4 and MdPEPCK2 expression. Surprisingly, calcium treatment changed the content of some free amino acids (GABA, proline, alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate), two of which (glutamate and GABA) are primary metabolites of the GABA pathway. Furthermore, calcium application enhanced GABA pathway activity by increasing MdGAD1, MdGAD2, MdGABA-T1/2 and MdSSADH transcript levels.


Assuntos
Cálcio/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127636, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805513

RESUMO

Deposition of both lignin and cellulose accompanied by juice sac granulation is widespread in harvested citrus fruit. Hence, measures to suppress postharvest granulation of 'Majiayou' pummelo is of great importance. The fruit was treated with 1.5% chitosan and then stored at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C) for 150 d. As compared to the control fruits, chitosan coating significantly suppressed granulation index and maintained good quality. Chitosan coating inhibited lignification by suppressing the activities and expression levels of lignin synthesis-related enzymes (PAL, CAD and POD). By contrast, chitosan treatment enhanced the activities and expression levels of cell wall degrading enzymes, including PME, PG, Cx, XTH and ß-Gal, which might contribute to the decrease in cellulose. In a nutshell, chitosan coating can effectively suppress juice sac granulation and fruit senescence of pummelo fruits, and play a crucial role in maintaining the cell wall modification.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238381, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881942

RESUMO

Small fructans improve plant tolerance for cold stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that the small fructan tetrasaccharide nystose improves the cold stress tolerance of primary rice roots. Roots developed from seeds soaked in nystose showed lower browning rate, higher root activity, and faster growth compared to seeds soaked in water under chilling stress. Comparative proteomics analysis of nystose-treated and control roots identified a total of 497 differentially expressed proteins. GO classification and KEGG pathway analysis documented that some of the upregulated differentially expressed proteins were implicated in the regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity, abscisic acid-activated signaling, removal of superoxide radicals, and the response to oxidative stress and defense responses. Western blot analysis indicated that nystose promotes the growth of primary rice roots by increasing the level of RSOsPR10, and the cold stress-induced change in RSOsPR10levelis regulated by jasmonate, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid signaling pathways in rice roots. Furthermore, OsMKK4-dependentmitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades may be involved in the nystose-induced cold tolerance of primary rice roots. Together, these results indicate that nystose acts as an immunostimulator of the response to cold stress by multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1610-1619, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924359

RESUMO

Autophagy is one of the most common protective mechanisms during plant stress response. We studied the effect of exogenous Cd on autophagy in celery, by using transcriptome sequencing technique to analyze the differentially expressed genes under different Cd concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L). Eight differentially expressed autophagy-related genes were screened and identified by qRT-PCR. Cd had obvious toxic effect on celery, in a dose-dependent manner. Eight differentially expressed autophagy-related genes were screened, among which ATG8a, ATG8f, ATG13, AMPK-1 and AMPK-2 were up-regulated, whereas ATG12, VPS30 and VPS34 were first up-regulated and then decreased. The up-regulated expression of differential genes may resist Cd toxicity by increasing autophagosome structures; however, 8 mg/L Cd exceeded the autophagosome tolerance limit of celery, resulting in decreased expression of multiple autophagy-related genes. The above results can provide help for subsequent functional study of autophagy-related genes, and provide a reference for further exploring the tolerance mechanism of celery to Cd toxicity.


Assuntos
Apium , Autofagia , Cádmio , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Apium/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Reguladores/genética , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111007, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888586

RESUMO

Soil acidification is one of the crucial global environmental problems, affecting sustainable land use, crop yield, and ecosystem stability. Previous research reported the tolerance of crops to acid soil stress. However, the molecular response of woody plant to acid conditions remains largely unclear. Rhododendron L. is a widely distributed woody plant genus and prefers to grow in acidic soils. Herein, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was performed on R. protistum var. giganteum seedlings subjected to five pH treatments (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0), and their ecophysiological characteristics were determined for the identification of their molecular responses to acidic environments. Through pairwise comparison, 855 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with photosynthesis, cell wall, and phenylpropanoid metabolism were identified. Most of the DEGs related to photosynthesis and cell wall were up-regulated after pH 4.5 treatment. Results implied that the species improves its photosynthetic abilities and changes its cell wall characteristics to adapt to acidic conditions. Weighted gene co-expression network analyses showed that most of the hub genes were annotated to the biosynthetic pathways of ribosomal proteins and photosynthesis. Expression pattern analysis showed that genes encoding subunit ribosomal proteins decreased at pH 7.0 treatment, suggesting that pH 7.0 treatment led to cell injury in the seedlings. The species regulates protein synthesis in response to high pH stress (pH 7.0). The present study revealed the molecular response mechanism of woody plant R. protistum var. giganteum to acid environments. These findings can be useful in enriching current knowledge of how woody species adapt to soil acidification under global environmental changes.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Solo/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Madeira/genética , Madeira/metabolismo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21757-21765, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817510

RESUMO

An evolutionarily ancient plant hormone receptor complex comprising the α/ß-fold hydrolase receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) and the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2) mediates a range of developmental responses to smoke-derived butenolides called karrikins (KARs) and to yet elusive endogenous KAI2 ligands (KLs). Degradation of SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) after ligand perception is considered to be a key step in KAR/KL signaling. However, molecular events which regulate plant development downstream of SMAX1 removal have not been identified. Here we show that Lotus japonicus SMAX1 is specifically degraded in the presence of KAI2 and MAX2 and plays an important role in regulating root and root hair development. smax1 mutants display very short primary roots and elongated root hairs. Their root transcriptome reveals elevated ethylene responses and expression of ACC Synthase 7 (ACS7), which encodes a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. smax1 mutants release increased amounts of ethylene and their root phenotype is rescued by treatment with ethylene biosynthesis and signaling inhibitors. KAR treatment induces ACS7 expression in a KAI2-dependent manner and root developmental responses to KAR treatment depend on ethylene signaling. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis, KAR-induced root hair elongation depends on ACS7 Thus, we reveal a connection between KAR/KL and ethylene signaling in which the KAR/KL signaling module (KAI2-MAX2-SMAX1) regulates the biosynthesis of ethylene to fine-tune root and root hair development, which are important for seedling establishment at the beginning of the plant life cycle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lotus/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Etilenos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/fisiologia , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Lotus/genética , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20943-20949, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817465

RESUMO

The reiterative process of lateral root (LR) formation is widespread and underlies root system formation. However, early LR primordium (LRP) morphogenesis is not fully understood. In this study, we conducted both a clonal analysis and time-lapse experiments to decipher the pattern and sequence of pericycle founder cell (FC) participation in LR formation. Most commonly, LRP initiation starts with the specification of just one FC longitudinally. Clonal and anatomical analyses suggested that a single FC gradually recruits neighboring pericycle cells to become FCs. This conclusion was validated by long-term time-lapse live-imaging experiments. Once the first FC starts to divide, its immediate neighbors, both lengthwise and laterally, are recruited within the hour, after which they recruit their neighboring cells within a few hours. Therefore, LRP initiation is a gradual, multistep process. FC recruitment is auxin-dependent and is abolished by treatment with a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Furthermore, FC recruitment establishes a morphogenetic field where laterally peripheral cells have a lower auxin response, which is associated with a lower proliferation potential, compared to centrally located FCs. The lateral boundaries of the morphogenetic field are determined by phloem-adjacent pericycle cells, which are the last cells to be recruited as FCs. The proliferation potential of these cells is limited, but their recruitment is essential for root system formation, resulting in the formation of a new vascular connection between the nascent and parent root, which is crucial for establishing a continuous and efficient vascular system.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Meristema/metabolismo , Morfogênese/genética , Organogênese Vegetal/fisiologia , Floema/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785249

RESUMO

The induction of general plant defense responses following the perception of external elicitors is now regarded as the first level of the plant immune response. Depending on the involvement or not of these molecules in pathogenicity, this induction of defense is called either Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Triggered Immunity or Pattern Triggered Immunity-both abbreviated to PTI. Because PTI is assumed to be a widespread and stable form of resistance to infection, understanding the mechanisms driving it becomes a major goal for the sustainable management of plant-pathogen interactions. However, the induction of PTI is complex. Our hypotheses are that (i) the recognition by the plant of PAMPs vs non-PAMP elicitors leads to specific defense profiles and (ii) the responses specifically induced by PAMPs target critical life history traits of the pathogen that produced them. We thus analyzed, using a metabolomic approach coupled with transcriptomic and hormonal analyses, the defense profiles induced in potato foliage treated with either a Concentrated Culture Filtrate (CCF) from Phytophthora infestans or two non-PAMP preparations, ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and an Ulva spp. Extract, used separately. Each elicitor induced specific defense profiles. CCF up-regulated sesquiterpenes but down-regulated sterols and phenols, notably α-chaconine, caffeoyl quinic acid and rutin, which decreased spore production of P. infestans in vitro. CCF thus induces both defense and counter-defense responses. By contrast, the Ulva extract triggered the synthesis of a large-spectrum of antimicrobial compounds through the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways, while BABA targeted the primary metabolism. Hence, PTI can be regarded as a heterogeneous set of general and pathogen-specific responses triggered by the molecular signatures of each elicitor, rather than as a uniform, non-specific and broad-spectrum set of general defense reactions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/imunologia , Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Esteróis/metabolismo , Ulva/química
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1365-1377, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748594

RESUMO

With the expanded application of heavy metal cadmium, soil cadmium pollution is more and more serious. In this study, using Salix matsudana as a phytoremediation candidate, we observed changes of gene expression and metabolic pathway after 1, 7 and 30 days under 2.5 mg/L and 50 mg/L cadmium stress. The result of transcriptome sequencing showed that we obtained 102 595 Unigenes; 26 623 and 32 154 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the same concentration and different stress time; 8 550, 3 444 and 11 428 DEG with different concentrations at the same time; 25 genes closely related to cadmium stress response were screened. The changes of genes expression (such as metallothionein, ABC transporter, zinc and manganese transporter) depended on both concentration of cadmium and exposure time. The expression of several genes was obviously up-regulated after cadmium stress, for example 3,6-deoxyinosinone ketolase (ROT3) in brassinolide synthesis pathway and flavonoid synthase (FLS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) in the synthesis pathway of brassinolide. In addition, GO analysis shows that GO entries were mainly enriched in metabolic processes including cellular processes, membranes, membrane fractions, cells, cellular fractions, catalytic activation and binding proteins in response to cadmium stress, whose number would increase along with cadmium concentration and exposure time. The reliability of transcriptome information was verified by qPCR and physiological experimental data. Response mechanisms of S. matsudana after cadmium stress were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, which provided theoretical guidance for remediation of cadmium pollution in soil by S. matsudana.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Salix , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salix/efeitos dos fármacos , Salix/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110851, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673966

RESUMO

Arsenic is a harmful and toxic substance to the growth and development of plants. Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a signaling molecule, plays pivotal roles in the overall growth and development of plants under various environmental stresses. Artemisinin extracted from the leaves of A. annua helps in malarial treatment. The present investigation is aimed to find out the possible ameliorative role of exogenously-applied salicylic acid (SA) on two varieties of Artemisia annua L., namely 'CIM-Arogya' and 'Jeevan Raksha' under arsenic (As) stress conditions. For this, growth, physiological and biochemical characterization, and artemisinin production was assessed. The various treatments applied on the plants were Control, 10-6 M SA, 10-5 M SA, 45 mg kg-1As, 45 mg kg-1 As + 10-6 M SA, and 45 mg kg-1 As + 10-5 M SA. Arsenic at 45 mg kg-1 of soil, reducing the overall performance of both varieties at 90 and 120 DAP. However, the levels of antioxidants were enhanced in As-stressed plants, and the supplementation of SA further increased these antioxidants in SA-treated plants. It has been observed that minimum reduction in growth and yield occurs with enhanced production of artemisinin in the case of 'CIM-Arogya' compared to 'Jeevan Raksha' under As stress (45 mg kg-1 of soil). Leaf-applied SA significantly increased the content (49.0% & 43.4%) and yield (53.3% & 46.3%) of artemisinin in both tolerant and sensitive varieties as compared to their respective controls. Thus, the variety 'CIM-Arogya' showed tolerant behavior over 'Jeevan Raksha' and is much adapted to higher As stress.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Artemisia annua/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Artemisia annua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Artemisininas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Solo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730292

RESUMO

Grapevines, although adapted to occasional drought or salt stress, are relatively sensitive to growth- and yield-limiting salinity stress. To understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and identify genes commonly regulated by both stresses in grapevine, we investigated transcript profiles in leaves of the salt-tolerant grapevine rootstock 1616C under salt- and ER-stress. Among 1643 differentially expressed transcripts at 6 h post-treatment in leaves, 29 were unique to ER stress, 378 were unique to salt stress, and 16 were common to both stresses. At 24 h post-treatment, 243 transcripts were unique to ER stress, 1150 were unique to salt stress, and 168 were common to both stresses. GO term analysis identified genes in categories including 'oxidative stress', 'protein folding', 'transmembrane transport', 'protein phosphorylation', 'lipid transport', 'proteolysis', 'photosynthesis', and 'regulation of transcription'. The expression of genes encoding transporters, transcription factors, and proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis increased in response to both ER and salt stresses. KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes for both ER and salt stress were divided into four main categories including; carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. Differential expression of several genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, which validated our microarray results. We identified transcripts for genes that might be involved in salt tolerance and also many genes differentially expressed under both ER and salt stresses. Our results could provide new insights into the mechanisms of salt tolerance and ER stress in plants and should be useful for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in grapevine.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Vitis/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Osmose , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730299

RESUMO

Flavonoids are key components of licorice plant that directly affect its medicinal quality. Importantly, the MYB family of transcription factors serves to regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in plants. The MYB transcription factors represent one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants and play important roles in the process of plant growth and development. MYB gene expression is induced by a number of plant hormones, including the lipid-based hormone jasmonate (JA). Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an endogenous plant growth regulator that can induce the JA signaling pathway, which functions to regulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids. In this study, MeJA was added to licorice cell suspensions, and RNA-seq analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes. As a result, the MYB transcription factors GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 were demonstrated to respond significantly to MeJA induction. Subsequently, the GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 protein were shown to localize to the cell nucleus, and it was verified that GlMYB4 and GlMYB88 could positively regulate the synthesis of flavonoids in licorice cells. Overall, this research helps illustrate the molecular regulation of licorice flavonoid biosynthesis induced by MeJA.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15322-15331, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541049

RESUMO

Wound healing in plant tissues, consisting of rigid cell wall-encapsulated cells, represents a considerable challenge and occurs through largely unknown mechanisms distinct from those in animals. Owing to their inability to migrate, plant cells rely on targeted cell division and expansion to regenerate wounds. Strict coordination of these wound-induced responses is essential to ensure efficient, spatially restricted wound healing. Single-cell tracking by live imaging allowed us to gain mechanistic insight into the wound perception and coordination of wound responses after laser-based wounding in Arabidopsis root. We revealed a crucial contribution of the collapse of damaged cells in wound perception and detected an auxin increase specific to cells immediately adjacent to the wound. This localized auxin increase balances wound-induced cell expansion and restorative division rates in a dose-dependent manner, leading to tumorous overproliferation when the canonical TIR1 auxin signaling is disrupted. Auxin and wound-induced turgor pressure changes together also spatially define the activation of key components of regeneration, such as the transcription regulator ERF115. Our observations suggest that the wound signaling involves the sensing of collapse of damaged cells and a local auxin signaling activation to coordinate the downstream transcriptional responses in the immediate wound vicinity.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Divisão Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinurenina/farmacologia , Lasers , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Triazóis/farmacologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234029, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484836

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of humic acid (HA) on foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv.) under drought conditions. The rainless climate of the Shanxi Province (37°42'N, 112°58'E) in China provides a natural simulation of drought conditions. Two foxtail millet cultivars, Jingu21 and Zhangza10, were cultivated in Shanxi for two consecutive years (2017-2018) based on a split-plot design. Plant growth, grain quality, and mineral elements were analyzed in foxtail millet treated with HA (50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg L-1) and those treated with clear water. Transcriptome sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis was performed on plants in the normal control (CK), drought treatment (D), and drought + HA treatment (DHA) groups. Results were verified using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). HA at a concentration of 100-200 mg L-1 caused a significant increase in the yield of foxtail millet and had a positive effect on dry weight and root-shoot ratio. HA also significantly increased P, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mg content in grains. Moreover, a total of 1098 and 409 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in group D vs. CK and D vs. DHA, respectively. A protein-protein interaction network and two modules were constructed based on DEGs (such as SETIT_016654mg) between groups D and DHA. These DEGs were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathway. In conclusion, HA (100 mg L-1) was found to promote the growth of foxtail millet under drought conditions. Furthermore, SETIT_016654mg may play a role in the effect of HA on foxtail millet via control of the metabolic pathway. This study lays the foundation for research into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the alleviating effects of HA on foxtail millet under drought conditions.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma/genética , China , Secas , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110735, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480163

RESUMO

Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) is a plant growth regulator known for modulating plant responses to various abiotic and biotic stresses. The unavoidable arsenic (As) contamination in rice (Oryza sativa) results in reduced crop yield and greater carcinogenic risk to humans. The present work examines the significance of Me-JA induced molecular signaling and tolerance towards arsenic toxicity in rice. The arsenite (AsIII; 25 µM) stress hampered the overall growth and development of the rice seedling. However, the co-application (25 µM AsIII+0.25 µM Me-JA) resulted in increased biomass, chlorophyll content, enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also demonstrated a marked decrease in malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage and accumulation of total AsIII content (root + shoot) as compared to AsIII treated plants. The co-application also modulated the expression of genes involved in downstream JA signaling pathway (OsCOI, OsJAZ3, OsMYC2), AsIII uptake (OsLsi1, OsLsi2, OsNIP1;1, OsNIP3;1), translocation (OsLsi6, and OsINT5) and detoxification (OsNRAMP1, OsPCS2, and OsABCC2) which revealed the probable adaptive response of the rice plant to cope up arsenic stress. Our findings reveal that Me-JA alleviates AsIII toxicity by modulating signaling components involved in As uptake, translocation, and detoxification and JA signaling in rice. This study augments our knowledge for the future use of Me-JA in improving tolerance against AsIII stress.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Arsênico/toxicidade , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110737, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505758

RESUMO

Macrolide antibiotics are common contaminants in the aquatic environment. They are toxic to a wide range of primary producers, inhibiting the algal growth and further hindering the delivery of several ecosystem services. Yet the molecular mechanisms of macrolides in algae remain undetermined. The objectives of this study were therefore to: 1. evaluate whether macrolides at the environmentally relevant level inhibit the growth of algae; and 2. test the hypothesis that macrolides bind to ribosome and inhibit protein translocation in algae, as it does in bacteria. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was applied to elucidate the toxicological mechanism in a model green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata treated with 5 and 90 µg L-1 of a typical macrolide roxithromycin (ROX). While exposure to ROX at 5 µg L-1 for 7 days did not affect algal growth and the transciptome, ROX at 90 µg L-1 resulted in 45% growth inhibition and 2306 (983 up- and 1323 down-regulated) DEGs, which were primarily enriched in the metabolism of energy, lipid, vitamins, and DNA replication and repair pathways. Nevertheless, genes involved in pathways in relation to translation and protein translocation and processing were dysregulated. Surprisingly, we found that genes involved in the base excision repair process were mostly repressed, suggesting that ROX may be genotoxic and cause DNA damage in R. subcapitata. Taken together, ROX was unlikely to pose a threat to green algae in the environment and the mode of action of macrolides in bacteria may not be directly extrapolated to green algae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Roxitromicina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Clorofíceas/genética , Clorofíceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Food Chem ; 331: 127282, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559597

RESUMO

Phenolics are important secondary metabolites in plants with strong antioxidant effects. Seeds germination and exogenous stimulation could activate endogenous enzymes to enhance the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Barley seeds geminated under NaCl (1-20 mM) treatment to evaluate the accumulation of phenolics in this study. Results showed that NaCl treatment significantly enhanced the growth of seedlings, especially bud length. NaCl treatment up-regulated genes and proteins expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), resulting in the enhancement of their activities. As a result, phenolic acids and flavonoids contents increased by 11.19% and 32.54%, respectively, in which gallic acid, protocatechuic, fisetin, myricetin and quercetin were affected mostly. Moreover, NaCl treatment enhanced 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging capacity. Hence, NaCl stimulated the synthesis of phenolic components via enhancing gene, protein expression and the activity of key enzymes.


Assuntos
Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13127-13137, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434921

RESUMO

Stomatal guard cells control gas exchange that allows plant photosynthesis but limits water loss from plants to the environment. In Arabidopsis, stomatal development is mainly controlled by a signaling pathway comprising peptide ligands, membrane receptors, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, and a set of transcription factors. The initiation of the stomatal lineage requires the activity of the bHLH transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH) with its partners. Multiple kinases were found to regulate SPCH protein stability and function through phosphorylation, yet no antagonistic protein phosphatase activities have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved PP2A phosphatases as positive regulators of Arabidopsis stomatal development. We show that mutations in genes encoding PP2A subunits result in lowered stomatal production in Arabidopsis Genetic analyses place the PP2A function upstream of SPCH. Pharmacological treatments support a role for PP2A in promoting SPCH protein stability. We further find that SPCH directly binds to the PP2A-A subunits in vitro. In plants, nonphosphorylatable SPCH proteins are less affected by PP2A activity levels. Thus, our research suggests that PP2A may function to regulate the phosphorylation status of the master transcription factor SPCH in stomatal development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteína Fosfatase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/isolamento & purificação , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
19.
J Biotechnol ; 318: 57-67, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433921

RESUMO

The study reports the identification and expression profiling of five major classes of C4 pathway-specific genes, namely, carbonic anhydrase (CaH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), in the model species, Setaria italica and Setaria viridis. A total of 42 and 41 genes were identified in S. italica and S. viridis, respectively. Further analysis revealed that segmental and tandem duplications have contributed to the expansion of these gene families. RNA-Seq derived expression profiles of the gene family members showed their differential expression pattern in tissues and dehydration stress. Comparative genome mapping and Ks dating provided insights into their duplication and divergence in the course of evolution. Expression profiling of candidate genes in contrasting S. italica cultivars subjected to abiotic stresses and hormone treatments showed distinct stress-specific upregulation of SiαCaH1, SißCaH5, SiPEPC2, SiPPDK2, SiMDH8, and SiNADP-ME5 in the tolerant cultivar. Overexpression of SiNADP-ME5 in heterologous yeast system enabled the transgenic cells to survive and grow in dehydration stress conditions, which highlights the putative role of SiNADP-ME5 in conferring tolerance to dehydration stress. Altogether, the study highlights key genes that could be potential candidates for elucidating their functional roles in abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Família Multigênica , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/classificação , Setaria (Planta)/efeitos dos fármacos , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407323

RESUMO

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/enzimologia , Cucumis melo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Secas , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
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