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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206144

RESUMO

The Casparian strip domain protein 1 (OsCASP1) is necessary for the formation of the Casparian strip (CS) in the rice endodermis. It also controls Ca2+ transport to the stele. Here, we demonstrated that OsCASP1 overexpression enhanced Ca tolerance in rice. Under normal conditions, OsCASP1-overexpressed lines showed similar concentrations of essential metals in the roots and shoots compared to the wild type, while under high Ca conditions, Ca in the roots, shoots, and xylem sap of the OsCASP1-overexpressed lines was significantly decreased. This did not apply to other essential metals. Ca-inhibited growth was significantly alleviated in the OsCASP1-overexpressed lines. Furthermore, OsCASP1 overexpression resulted in earlier formation of both the CS and functional apoplastic barrier in the endodermis but did not induce ectopic CS formation in non-endodermal cell layers and affect suberin accumulation in the endodermis. These results indicate that the overexpression of OsCASP1 promotes CS formation in endodermal cells and inhibits Ca2+ transport by the apoplastic pathway, restricting Ca accumulation in the roots and shoots under high Ca conditions. Taken together, the results suggest that OsCASP1 overexpression is an effective way to improve rice adaptation to high Ca environments.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Caspase 1/genética , Oryza/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199464

RESUMO

The influence of salt stress on gene expression, promoter methylation, and enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of aconitase and fumarase has been investigated in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The incubation of maize seedlings in 150-mM NaCl solution resulted in a several-fold increase of the mitochondrial activities of aconitase and fumarase that peaked at 6 h of NaCl treatment, while the cytosolic activity of aconitase and fumarase decreased. This corresponded to the decrease in promoter methylation of the genes Aco1 and Fum1 encoding the mitochondrial forms of these enzymes and the increase in promoter methylation of the genes Aco2 and Fum2 encoding the cytosolic forms. The pattern of expression of the genes encoding the mitochondrial forms of aconitase and fumarase corresponded to the profile of the increase of the stress marker gene ZmCOI6.1. It is concluded that the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of aconitase and fumarase are regulated via the epigenetic mechanism of promoter methylation of their genes in the opposite ways in response to salt stress. The role of the mitochondrial isoforms of aconitase and fumarase in the elevation of respiration under salt stress is discussed.


Assuntos
Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Citosol/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199515

RESUMO

Leaf senescence is a developmental process induced by various molecular and environmental stimuli that may affect crop yield. The dark-induced leaf senescence-91 (DLS-91) plants displayed rapid leaf senescence, dramatically decreased chlorophyll contents, low photochemical efficiencies, and upregulation of the senescence-associated marker gene BrSAG12-1. To understand DLS molecular mechanism, we examined transcriptomic changes in DLS-91 and control line DLS-42 following 0, 1, and 4 days of dark treatment (DDT) stages. We identified 501, 446, and 456 DEGs, of which 16.7%, 17.2%, and 14.4% encoded TFs, in samples from the three stages. qRT-PCR validation of 16 genes, namely, 7 MADS, 6 NAC, and 3 WRKY, suggested that BrAGL8-1, BrAGL15-1, and BrWRKY70-1 contribute to the rapid leaf senescence of DLS-91 before (0 DDT) and after (1 and 4 DDT) dark treatment, whereas BrNAC046-2, BrNAC029-2/BrNAP, and BrNAC092-1/ORE1 TFs may regulate this process at a later stage (4 DDT). In-silico analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements of BrAGL8-1, BrAGL42-1, BrNAC029-2, BrNAC092-1, and BrWRKY70-3 of B. rapa provides insight into the regulation of these genes. Our study has uncovered several AGL-MADS, WRKY, and NAC TFs potentially worthy of further study to understand the underlying mechanism of rapid DLS in DLS-91.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4292, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257299

RESUMO

The Microrchidia (MORC) family of ATPases are required for transposable element (TE) silencing and heterochromatin condensation in plants and animals, and C. elegans MORC-1 has been shown to topologically entrap and condense DNA. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of MORCs has been shown to reactivate silent methylated genes and transposons and to decondense heterochromatic chromocenters, despite only minor changes in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Here we provide the first evidence localizing Arabidopsis MORC proteins to specific regions of chromatin and find that MORC4 and MORC7 are closely co-localized with sites of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). We further show that MORC7, when tethered to DNA by an artificial zinc finger, can facilitate the establishment of RdDM. Finally, we show that MORCs are required for the efficient RdDM mediated establishment of DNA methylation and silencing of a newly integrated FWA transgene, even though morc mutations have no effect on the maintenance of preexisting methylation at the endogenous FWA gene. We propose that MORCs function as a molecular tether in RdDM complexes to reinforce RdDM activity for methylation establishment. These findings have implications for MORC protein function in a variety of other eukaryotic organisms.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Inativação Gênica
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673723, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211468

RESUMO

Reprogramming of primary virus-infected cells is the critical step that turns viral attacks harmful to humans by initiating super-spreading at cell, organism and population levels. To develop early anti-viral therapies and proactive administration, it is important to understand the very first steps of this process. Plant somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the earliest and most studied model for de novo programming upon severe stress that, in contrast to virus attacks, promotes individual cell and organism survival. We argued that transcript level profiles of target genes established from in vitro SE induction as reference compared to virus-induced profiles can identify differential virus traits that link to harmful reprogramming. To validate this hypothesis, we selected a standard set of genes named 'ReprogVirus'. This approach was recently applied and published. It resulted in identifying 'CoV-MAC-TED', a complex trait that is promising to support combating SARS-CoV-2-induced cell reprogramming in primary infected nose and mouth cells. In this perspective, we aim to explain the rationale of our scientific approach. We are highlighting relevant background knowledge on SE, emphasize the role of alternative oxidase in plant reprogramming and resilience as a learning tool for designing human virus-defense strategies and, present the list of selected genes. As an outlook, we announce wider data collection in a 'ReprogVirus Platform' to support anti-viral strategy design through common efforts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/embriologia , Plantas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3531, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112794

RESUMO

Camptothecin and its derivatives are widely used for treating malignant tumors. Previous studies revealed only a limited number of candidate genes for camptothecin biosynthesis in Camptotheca acuminata, and it is still poorly understood how its biosynthesis of camptothecin has evolved. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-level C. acuminata genome assembly. We find that C. acuminata experiences an independent whole-genome duplication and numerous genes derive from it are related to camptothecin biosynthesis. Comparing with Catharanthus roseus, the loganic acid O-methyltransferase (LAMT) in C. acuminata fails to convert loganic acid into loganin. Instead, two secologanic acid synthases (SLASs) convert loganic acid to secologanic acid. The functional divergence of the LAMT gene and positive evolution of two SLAS genes, therefore, both contribute greatly to the camptothecin biosynthesis in C. acuminata. Our results emphasize the importance of high-quality genome assembly in identifying genetic changes in the evolutionary origin of a secondary metabolite.


Assuntos
Camptotheca/metabolismo , Camptotecina/metabolismo , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Camptotheca/enzimologia , Camptotheca/genética , Camptotecina/biossíntese , Cromossomos/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes Duplicados , Genômica , Iridoides/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH , Filogenia , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Vimblastina/metabolismo
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 288, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B-box (BBX) genes play important roles in plant growth regulation and responses to abiotic stresses. The plant growth and yield production of allotetraploid rapeseed is usually hindered by diverse nutrient stresses. However, no systematic analysis of Brassicaceae BBXs and the roles of BBXs in the regulation of nutrient stress responses have not been identified and characterized previously. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 536 BBXs were identified from nine brassicaceae species, including 32 AtBBXs, 66 BnaBBXs, 41 BoBBXs, 43 BrBBXs, 26 CrBBXs, 81 CsBBXs, 52 BnBBXs, 93 BjBBXs, and 102 BcBBXs. Syntenic analysis showed that great differences in the gene number of Brassicaceae BBXs might be caused by genome duplication. The BBXs were respectively divided into five subclasses according to their phylogenetic relationships and conserved domains, indicating their diversified functions. Promoter cis-element analysis showed that BBXs probably participated in diverse stress responses. Protein-protein interactions between BnaBBXs indicated their functions in flower induction. The expression profiles of BnaBBXs were investigated in rapeseed plants under boron deficiency, boron toxicity, nitrate limitation, phosphate shortage, potassium starvation, ammonium excess, cadmium toxicity, and salt stress conditions using RNA-seq data. The results showed that different BnaBBXs showed differential transcriptional responses to nutrient stresses, and some of them were simultaneously responsive to diverse nutrient stresses. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the findings investigated in this study provided rich resources for studying Brassicaceae BBX gene family and enriched potential clues in the genetic improvement of crop stress resistance.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Estresse Fisiológico , Sintenia , Tetraploidia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 295, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a common phenomenon worldwide. It is also one of the main abiotic factors that affect the growth and quality of strawberry. The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) members that belong to the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) superfamily are unique transcription factors in plants that play important roles in the abiotic stress response. RESULTS: Here, a total of 119 AP2/EREBP genes were identified in Fragaria vesca, and the AP2/EREBP superfamily was divided into AP2, RAV, ERF, DREB, and soloist subfamilies, containing 18, 7, 61, 32, and one member(s), respectively. The DREB subfamily was further divided into six subgroups (A-1 to A-6) based on phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal location, and synteny analysis were conducted to comprehensively investigate the characteristics of FvDREBs. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed distinctive expression patterns among the FvDREB genes in strawberry plants exposed to drought stress. The expression of FvDREB6 of the A-2 subgroup was down-regulated in old leaves and up-regulated in young leaves in response to drought. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis found that FvDREB8 from the A-2 subgroup had the highest expression level under drought stress. Together, analyses with the expression pattern, phylogenetic relationship, motif, and promoter suggest that FvDREB18 may play a critical role in the regulation of FvDREB1 and FvDREB2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new insights into the characteristics and potential functions of FvDREBs. These FvDREB genes should be further studied as they appear to be excellent candidates for drought tolerance improvement of strawberry.


Assuntos
Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequência Conservada , Desidratação , Fragaria/metabolismo , Fragaria/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 296, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moso bamboo, the fastest growing plant on earth, is an important source for income in large areas of Asia, mainly cultivated in China. Lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) proteins, a family of transcription factors unique to plants, are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in lateral organ development, pathogen response, secondary growth, and hormone response. The LBD gene family has not previously been characterized in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). RESULTS: In this study, we identified 55 members of the LBD gene family from moso bamboo and found that they were distributed non-uniformly across its 18 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo LBD genes could be divided into two classes. LBDs from the same class share relatively conserved gene structures and sequences encoding similar amino acids. A large number of hormone response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the LBD upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that LBDs in the moso bamboo genome showed greater collinearity with those of O. sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize) than with those of Arabidopsis and Capsicum annuum (pepper). Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo LBD gene family. Gene expression profiles in four tissues showed that the LBD genes had different spatial expression patterns. qRT-PCR assays with the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) temporal expression analysis demonstrated that six genes (PeLBD20, PeLBD29, PeLBD46, PeLBD10, PeLBD38, and PeLBD06) were consistently up-regulated during the rapid growth and development of bamboo shoots. In addition, 248 candidate target genes that function in a variety of pathways were identified based on consensus LBD binding motifs. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, we identified 55 members of the moso bamboo transcription factor LBD and characterized for the first time. Based on the short-time sequence expression software and RNA-seq data, the PeLBD gene expression was analyzed. We also investigated the functional annotation of all PeLBDs, including PPI network, GO, and KEGG enrichment based on String database. These results provide a theoretical basis and candidate genes for studying the molecular breeding mechanism of rapid growth of moso bamboo.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transcriptoma
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3685, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140516

RESUMO

Chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex is structurally related to mitochondrial Complex I and forms a supercomplex with two copies of Photosystem I (the NDH-PSI supercomplex) via linker proteins Lhca5 and Lhca6. The latter was acquired relatively recently in a common ancestor of angiosperms. Here we show that NDH-dependent Cyclic Electron Flow 5 (NDF5) is an NDH assembly factor in Arabidopsis. NDF5 initiates the assembly of NDH subunits (PnsB2 and PnsB3) and Lhca6, suggesting that they form a contact site with Lhca6. Our analysis of the NDF5 ortholog in Physcomitrella and angiosperm genomes reveals the subunit PnsB2 to be newly acquired via tandem gene duplication of NDF5 at some point in the evolution of angiosperms. Another Lhca6 contact subunit, PnsB3, has evolved from a protein unrelated to NDH. The structure of the largest photosynthetic electron transport chain complex has become more complicated by acquiring novel subunits and supercomplex formation with PSI.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Bryopsida/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Hepatófitas/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069397

RESUMO

Drought stress is a major constraint in global maize production, causing almost 30-90% of the yield loss depending upon growth stage and the degree and duration of the stress. Here, we report that ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin S17 (AtGRXS17) in field grown maize conferred tolerance to drought stress during the reproductive stage, which is the most drought sensitive stage for seed set and, consequently, grain yield. AtGRXS17-expressing maize lines displayed higher seed set in the field, resulting in 2-fold and 1.5-fold increase in yield in comparison to the non-transgenic plants when challenged with drought stress at the tasseling and silking/pollination stages, respectively. AtGRXS17-expressing lines showed higher relative water content, higher chlorophyll content, and less hydrogen peroxide accumulation than wild-type (WT) control plants under drought conditions. AtGRXS17-expressing lines also exhibited at least 2-fold more pollen germination than WT plants under drought stress. Compared to the transgenic maize, WT controls accumulated higher amount of proline, indicating that WT plants were more stressed over the same period. The results present a robust and simple strategy for meeting rising yield demands in maize under water limiting conditions.


Assuntos
Glutarredoxinas/genética , Glutarredoxinas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Secas , Expressão Ectópica do Gene/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Zea mays/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069632

RESUMO

In tobacco, the efficiency of Zn translocation to shoots depends on Zn/Cd status. Previous studies pointed to the specific contribution of root parts in the regulation of this process, as well as the role of NtZIP4A/B (from the ZIP family; Zrt Irt-like Proteins). Here, to verify this hypothesis, NtZIP4A/B RNAi lines were generated. Then, in plants exposed to combinations of Zn and Cd concentrations in the medium, the consequences of NtZIP4A/B suppression for the translocation of both metals were determined. Furthermore, the apical, middle, and basal root parts were examined for accumulation of both metals, for Zn localization (using Zinpyr-1), and for modifications of the expression pattern of ZIP genes. Our results confirmed the role of NtZIP4A/B in the control of Zn/Cd-status-dependent transfer of both metals to shoots. Furthermore, they indicated that the middle and basal root parts contributed to the regulation of this process by acting as a reservoir for excess Zn and Cd. Expression studies identified several candidate ZIP genes that interact with NtZIP4A/B in the root in regulating Zn and Cd translocation to the shoot, primarily NtZIP1-like in the basal root part and NtZIP2 in the middle one.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Cádmio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Homeostase , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072887

RESUMO

FtsH metalloproteases found in eubacteria, animals, and plants are well-known for their vital role in the maintenance and proteolysis of membrane proteins. Their location is restricted to organelles of endosymbiotic origin, the chloroplasts, and mitochondria. In the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, there are 17 membrane-bound FtsH proteases containing an AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) and a Zn2+ metalloprotease domain. However, in five of those, the zinc-binding motif HEXXH is either mutated (FtsHi1, 2, 4, 5) or completely missing (FtsHi3), rendering these enzymes presumably inactive in proteolysis. Still, homozygous null mutants of the pseudo-proteases FtsHi1, 2, 4, 5 are embryo-lethal. Homozygous ftshi3 or a weak point mutant in FTSHi1 are affected in overall plant growth and development. This review will focus on the findings concerning the FtsHi pseudo-proteases and their involvement in protein import, leading to consequences in embryogenesis, seed growth, chloroplast, and leaf development and oxidative stress management.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Metaloendopeptidases/genética , Tilacoides/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Cloroplastos/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mutação/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Proteólise , Tilacoides/enzimologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070465

RESUMO

Environmental or abiotic stresses are a common threat that remains a constant and common challenge to all plants. These threats whether singular or in combination can have devastating effects on plants. As a semiaquatic plant, rice succumbs to the same threats. Here we systematically look into the involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of abiotic stress in rice. Studies have shown that the level of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) is high in rice compared to any other plant species. The reason behind this elevated level and the contribution of this molecule towards abiotic stress management and other underlying mechanisms remains poorly understood in rice. In this review we will address various abiotic stresses that affect the biochemistry and physiology of rice and the role played by SA in its regulation. Further, this review will elucidate the potential mechanisms that control SA-mediated stress tolerance in rice, leading to future prospects and direction for investigation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Metais/metabolismo , Metais/toxicidade , Oryza/enzimologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070474

RESUMO

The WRKY gene family, which is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families, plays an important role in numerous aspects of plant growth and development, especially in various stress responses. However, the functional roles of the WRKY gene family in loquat are relatively unknown. In this study, a novel WRKY gene, EjWRKY17, was characterized from Eriobotrya japonica, which was significantly upregulated in leaves by melatonin treatment during drought stress. The EjWRKY17 protein, belonging to group II of the WRKY family, was localized in the nucleus. The results indicated that overexpression of EjWRKY17 increased cotyledon greening and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis lines under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Meanwhile, overexpression of EjWRKY17 led to enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic lines, which was supported by the lower water loss, limited electrolyte leakage, and lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigations showed that overexpression of EjWRKY17 promoted ABA-mediated stomatal closure and remarkably up-regulated ABA biosynthesis and stress-related gene expression in transgenic lines under drought stress. Overall, our findings reveal that EjWRKY17 possibly acts as a positive regulator in ABA-regulated drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Eriobotrya/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cotilédone/genética , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Secas , Eriobotrya/efeitos dos fármacos , Eriobotrya/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima , Água/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073862

RESUMO

Heat stress is a major limiting factor of grain yield and quality in crops. Abiotic stresses have a transgenerational impact and the mechanistic basis is associated with epigenetic regulation. The current study presents the first systematic analysis of the transgenerational effects of post-anthesis heat stress in tetraploid wheat. Leaf physiological traits, harvest components and grain quality traits were characterized under the impact of parental and progeny heat stress. The parental heat stress treatment had a positive influence on the offspring for traits including chlorophyll content, grain weight, grain number and grain total starch content. Integrated sequencing analysis of the small RNAome, mRNA transcriptome and degradome provided the first description of the molecular networks mediating heat stress adaptation under transgenerational influence. The expression profile of 1771 microRNAs (733 being novel) and 66,559 genes was provided, with differentially expressed microRNAs and genes characterized subject to the progeny treatment, parental treatment and tissue-type factors. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of stress responsive microRNAs-mRNA modules provided further information on their functional roles in biological processes such as hormone homeostasis, signal transduction and protein stabilization. Our results provide new insights on the molecular basis of transgenerational heat stress adaptation, which can be used for improving thermo-tolerance in breeding.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Clorofila/análise , Regulação para Baixo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Tetraploidia , Triticum/genética , Regulação para Cima
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074049

RESUMO

The vegetative phase transition is a prerequisite for flowering in angiosperm plants. Mulberry miR156 has been confirmed to be a crucial factor in the vegetative phase transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. The over-expression of miR156 in transgenic Populus × canadensis dramatically prolongs the juvenile phase. Here, we find that the expression of mno-miR156 decreases with age in all tissues in mulberry, which led us to study the hierarchical action of miR156 in mulberry. Utilizing degradome sequencing and dual-luciferase reporter assays, nine MnSPLs were shown to be directly regulated by miR156. The results of yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase reporter assays also revealed that six MnSPLs could recognize the promoter sequences of mno-miR172 and activate its expression. Our results demonstrate that mno-miR156 performs its role by repressing MnSPL/mno-miR172 pathway expression in mulberry. This work uncovered a miR156/SPLs/miR172 regulation pathway in the development of mulberry and fills a gap in our knowledge about the molecular mechanism of vegetative phase transition in perennial woody plants.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Morus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Hydrastis/genética , Hydrastis/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Morus/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Populus/genética , Populus/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067825

RESUMO

Lupeol, a natural lupane-type pentacyclic triterpene, possesses various pharmacological properties, and its production attracts attention. Significant quantities of lupeol are deposited on the castor aerial organ surface and are easily extractable as a predominant wax constituent. Thus, castor might be considered as a potential bioreactor for the production of lupeol. The lupeol biosynthesis pathway is well known, but how it is regulated remains largely unknown. Among large numbers of castor cultivars, we targeted one accession line (337) with high levels of lupeol on its stem surface and low levels thereof on its hypocotyl surface, implicating that lupeol synthesis is differentially regulated in the two organs. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we did comparative transcriptome analysis of the first internode of 337 stem and the upper hypocotyl. Our results show that large amounts of auxin-related genes are differentially expressed in both parts, implying some possible interactions between auxin and lupeol production. We also found that several auxin-responsive cis-elements are present in promoter regions of HMGR and LUS genes encoding two key enzymes involved in lupeol production. Furthermore, auxin treatments apparently induced the expression levels of RcHMGR and RcLUS. Furthermore, we observed that auxin treatment significantly increased lupeol contents, whereas inhibiting auxin transport led to an opposite phenotype. Our study reveals some relationships between hormone activity and lupeol synthesis and might provide a promising way for improving lupeol yields in castor.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/metabolismo , Ricinus/metabolismo , Óleo de Rícino/isolamento & purificação , Óleo de Rícino/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/análise , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/análise , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(7): 906-920, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129383

RESUMO

Low temperature is an important factor that affects the growth and reproduction of tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze]. In this study, Yunwu Tribute Tea cutting seedlings [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze var. niaowangensis Q.H. Chen] were subjected to different low-temperature treatments in Guizhou Province, China, and the changes in physiological indicators of the leaves were measured to investigate the physiological response and cold tolerance of this variety. Under cold stress, the peak of antioxidant enzyme activity appeared on the third day of treatment at 1°C, indicating that Yunwu Tribute Tea could improve the resistance to cold stress through an increase in enzyme activity within a low-temperature range. However, after 3 days treatment at 1°C, the tolerance of plant had been exceeded; the ability to resist cold stress disappeared, and enzyme activity decreased. When the temperature or duration of stress exceeded the maximum tolerance of the plant, the synthesis of soluble substances decreased in concert with their protective effects. Under cold conditions, Yunwu Tribute Tea could increase the production of abscisic acid growth inhibitors and reduce those of indoleacetic acid, gibberellin, and other growth promoting substances to manage cold stress by regulating the balance of growth regulators in the plant. Five differential genes were screened as candidate genes from the Yunwu Tribute Tea cold stress transcriptome (DW, 1°C) for fluorescence quantitative analysis. The results showed that the changes in levels of expression of these genes under continuous cold stress significantly positively correlated with the corresponding physiological indicators. Nevertheless, the levels of expression of the Yunwu Tribute Tea polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene and the gibberellin 3ß-dioxygenase gene (G3O2) were reversely inhibited under cold stress. The result was consistent with the corresponding physiological indicators, and it provides a basis for the study of cold resistance mechanisms in tea plants.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , China , Temperatura Baixa , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Chá/metabolismo , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067635

RESUMO

The color of bracts generally turns yellow or black from green during cereal grain development. However, the impact of these phenotypic changes on photosynthetic physiology during black bract formation remains unclear. Two oat cultivars (Avena sativa L.), 'Triple Crown' and 'Qinghai 444', with yellow and black bracts, respectively, were found to both have green bracts at the heading stage, but started to turn black at the flowering stage and become blackened at the milk stage for 'Qinghai 444'. Their photosynthetic characteristics were analyzed and compared, and the key genes, proteins and regulatory pathways affecting photosynthetic physiology were determined in 'Triple Crown' and 'Qinghai 444' bracts. The results show that the actual PSII photochemical efficiency and PSII electron transfer rate of 'Qinghai 444' bracts had no significant changes at the heading and milk stages but decreased significantly (p < 0.05) at the flowering stage compared with 'Triple Crown'. The chlorophyll content decreased, the LHCII involved in the assembly of supercomplexes in the thylakoid membrane was inhibited, and the expression of Lhcb1 and Lhcb5 was downregulated at the flowering stage. During this critical stage, the expression of Bh4 and C4H was upregulated, and the biosynthetic pathway of p-coumaric acid using tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors was also enhanced. Moreover, the key upregulated genes (CHS, CHI and F3H) of anthocyanin biosynthesis might complement the impaired PSII activity until recovered at the milk stage. These findings provide a new insight into how photosynthesis alters during the process of oat bract color transition to black.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/fisiologia , Tilacoides/metabolismo
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