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1.
Gene ; 761: 145043, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777530

RESUMO

Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) constitute a significant class of the aquaporins. The TIPs control water trade among cytosolic and vacuolar compartments and can also transport glycerol, ammonia, urea, hydrogen peroxide, metals/metalloids, and so forth. Additionally, TIPs are engaged with different abiotic stress responses and developmental processes like leaf expansion, root elongation and seed germination. In this study, ten TIP genes in the rice genome were identified from Oryza sativa ssp indica. Among these, representative groups of TIP genes were cloned and sequenced whilst some TIP sequences showed stop codons in the coding region. The secondary structure analysis represented six conserved transmembrane helices along with the inter-helical regions having conserved motifs. The representative three-dimensional tetrameric design of protein sequence of TIP1;1 displayed key features like NPA motifs, aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filters, and Froger's residues. The vacuolar localization, transmembrane topological properties, and conserved motif analysis of the cloned genes altogether supported their identity as TIPs. An unrooted phylogenetic tree delineated the relatedness of TIPs from Oryza with different species and bunched them into five clades. The promoter analysis uncovered key regulons associated with administering abiotic stress responses. Gene expression studies showed thatTIPsare differentially regulated under salt and drought stress at various time points in shoots and roots of rice. Also, the pattern of expression was found to be significantly variable in five different rice tissues. The heat-map based tissue and stress- specific expression analysis supported the experimental findings. In conclusion, the identification and transcript-level expression studies of TIPs significantly contribute towards the comprehension of their utilitarian significance in the abiotic stress response.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Aquaporinas/genética , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Vacúolos/genética , Água/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735612

RESUMO

Halophyte Lobularia maritima LmSAP encodes an A20AN1 zinc-finger stress-associated protein which expression is up-regulated by abiotic stresses and heavy metals in transgenic tobacco. To deepen our understanding of LmSAP function, we isolated a 1,147 bp genomic fragment upstream of LmSAP coding sequence designated as PrLmSAP. In silico analyses of PrLmSAP revealed the presence of consensus CAAT and TATA boxes and cis-regulatory elements required for abiotic stress, phytohormones, pathogen, and wound responses, and also for tissue-specific expression. The PrLmSAP sequence was fused to the ß-glucuronidase (gusA) reporter gene and transferred to rice. Histochemical GUS staining showed a pattern of tissue-specific expression in transgenic rice, with staining observed in roots, coleoptiles, leaves, stems and floral organs but not in seeds or in the root elongation zone. Wounding strongly stimulated GUS accumulation in leaves and stems. Interestingly, we observed a high stimulation of the promoter activity when rice seedlings were exposed to NaCl, PEG, ABA, MeJA, GA, cold, and heavy metals (Al3+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+). These results suggest that the LmSAP promoter can be a convenient tool for stress-inducible gene expression and is a potential candidate for crop genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4140, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811829

RESUMO

Investigating the evolution of complex phenotypes and the underlying molecular bases of their variation is critical to understand how organisms adapt to their environment. Applying classical quantitative genetics on a segregating population derived from a Can-0xCol-0 cross, we identify the MADS-box transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) as a player of the phenotypic variation in plant growth and color. We show that allelic variation at FLM modulates plant growth strategy along the leaf economics spectrum, a trade-off between resource acquisition and resource conservation, observable across thousands of plant species. Functional differences at FLM rely on a single intronic substitution, disturbing transcript splicing and leading to the accumulation of non-functional FLM transcripts. Associations between this substitution and phenotypic and climatic data across Arabidopsis natural populations, show how noncoding genetic variation at a single gene might be adaptive through pleiotropic effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Íntrons , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Temperatura
4.
Gene ; 760: 144990, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721476

RESUMO

The MYB transcription factors are involved in the regulation of plant secondary metabolism, cell development and morphogenesis, and stress response. Here, a full-length, 816-bp NtMYB4a cDNA, which encodes a protein comprising 271 amino acids, was isolated from tobacco leaves. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NtMYB4a is most similar to Nicotiana. attenuata MYB4, followed by Eriobotrya japonica MYB4, and NtMYB4a clustered with transcriptional activators rather than repressors. Subcellular localization assays showed that NtMYB4 localized in the nucleus, membrane, and cytoplasm. Expression analyses revealed differential expression of NtMYB4a among different tissues and organs and between different developmental stages, with most expression occurring in the stems and leaves during the full-bloom stage. Moreover, NtMYB4a expression was induced by cold, NaCl, PEG, abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, and dark stressors, and the expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with the type of stress. Overexpression of NtMYB4a upregulated NtPAL, Nt4CL, NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, NtANS, and NtUFGT, which resulted in increased anthocyanin content in the tobacco corolla and darker colors. However, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of NtMYB4a downregulated NtPAL, NtC4H, Nt4CL, NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtANS, and NtUFGT, which resulted in reduced anthocyanin content, and lighter corolla colors. These results indicated that NtMYB4a positively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis and is involved in abiotic stress responses in tobacco plants.


Assuntos
Tabaco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663226

RESUMO

Chickpea has a profound nutritional and economic value in vegetarian society. Continuous decline in chickpea productivity is attributed to insufficient genetic variability and different environmental stresses. Chickpea like several other legumes is highly susceptible to terminal drought stress. Multiple genes control drought tolerance and ASR gene plays a key role in regulating different plant stresses. The present study describes the molecular characterization and functional role of Abscissic acid and stress ripening (ASR) gene from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and the gene sequence identified was submitted to NCBI Genbank (MK937569). Molecular analysis using MUSCLE software proved that the ASR nucleotide sequences in different legumes show variations at various positions though ASR genes are conserved in chickpea with only few variations. Sequence similarity of ASR gene to chickpea putative ABA/WDS induced protein mRNA clearly indicated its potential involvement in drought tolerance. Physiological screening and qRT-PCR results demonstrated increased ASR gene expression under drought stress possibly enabled genotypes to perform better under stress. Conserved domain search, protein structure analysis, prediction and validation, network analysis using Phyre2, Swiss-PDB viewer, ProSA and STRING analysis established the role of hypothetical ASR protein NP_001351739.1 in mediating drought responses. NP_001351739.1 might have enhanced the ASR gene activity as a transcription factor regulating drought stress tolerance in chickpea. This study could be useful in identification of new ASR genes that play a major role in drought tolerance and also develop functional markers for chickpea improvement.


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Sequência de Bases/genética , Cicer/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701993

RESUMO

Peptide signalling is an integral part of cell-to-cell communication which helps to relay the information responsible for coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation. Phytosulfokine Receptor (PSKR) is a transmembrane LRR-RLK family protein with a binding site for small signalling peptide, phytosulfokine (PSK). PSK signalling through PSKR promotes normal growth and development and also plays a role in defense responses. Like other RLKs, these PSKRs might have a role in signal transduction pathways related to abiotic stress responses. Genome-wide analysis of phytosulfokine receptor gene family has led to the identification of fifteen putative members in the Oryza sativa genome. The expression analysis of OsPSKR genes done using RNA-seq data, showed that these genes were differentially expressed in different tissues and responded specifically to heat, salt, drought and cold stress. Furthermore, the real-time quantitative PCR for fifteen OsPSKR genes revealed temporally and spatially regulated gene expression corresponding to salinity and drought stress. Our results provide useful information for a better understanding of OsPSKR genes and provide the foundation for additional functional exploration of the rice PSKR gene family in development and stress response.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta/genética , Oryza/genética , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Peptídeos/classificação , Filogenia , Salinidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3439, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651385

RESUMO

Various stress conditions induce the nuclear translocation of cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), but its nuclear function in plant stress responses remains elusive. Here we show that GAPC interacts with a transcription factor to promote the expression of heat-inducible genes and heat tolerance in Arabidopsis. GAPC accumulates in the nucleus under heat stress. Overexpression of GAPC enhances heat tolerance of seedlings and the expression of heat-inducible genes whereas knockout of GAPCs has opposite effects. Screening of Arabidopsis transcription factors identifies nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) as a GAPC-binding protein. The effects of GAPC overexpression are abolished when NF-YC10 is deficient, the heat-induced nuclear accumulation of GAPC is suppressed, or the GAPC-NF-YC10 interaction is disrupted. GAPC overexpression also enhances the binding ability of NF-YC10 to its target promoter. The results reveal a cellular and molecular mechanism for the nuclear moonlighting of a glycolytic enzyme in plant response to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/fisiologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Citosol/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3508, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665554

RESUMO

Directional transport of the phytohormone auxin is a versatile, plant-specific mechanism regulating many aspects of plant development. The recently identified plant hormones, strigolactones (SLs), are implicated in many plant traits; among others, they modify the phenotypic output of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters for fine-tuning of growth and developmental responses. Here, we show in pea and Arabidopsis that SLs target processes dependent on the canalization of auxin flow, which involves auxin feedback on PIN subcellular distribution. D14 receptor- and MAX2 F-box-mediated SL signaling inhibits the formation of auxin-conducting channels after wounding or from artificial auxin sources, during vasculature de novo formation and regeneration. At the cellular level, SLs interfere with auxin effects on PIN polar targeting, constitutive PIN trafficking as well as clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Our results identify a non-transcriptional mechanism of SL action, uncoupling auxin feedback on PIN polarity and trafficking, thereby regulating vascular tissue formation and regeneration.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ervilhas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008883, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609718

RESUMO

Plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and development at many levels. While negative regulatory factors that inhibit development and are counteracted by BRs exist in the root meristem, these factors have not been characterized. The functions of UPB1 transcription factor in BR-regulated root growth have not been established, although its role in regulating root are well documented. Here, we found that BIN2 interacts with and phosphorylates the UPB1 transcription factor consequently promoting UPB1 stability and transcriptional activity. Genetic analysis revealed that UPB1 deficiency could partially recover the short-root phenotype of BR-deficient mutants. Expression of a mutated UPB1S37AS41A protein lacking a conserved BIN2 phosphorylation sites can rescue shorter root phenotype of bin2-1 mutant. In addition, UPB1 was repressed by BES1 at the transcriptional level. The paclobutrazol-resistant protein family (PRE2/3) interacts with UPB1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity to promote root meristem development, and BIN2-mediated phosphorylation of UPB1 suppresses its interaction with PRE2/3, and subsequently impairing root meristem development. Taken together, our data elucidate a molecular mechanism by which BR promotes root growth via inhibiting BIN2-UPB1 module.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosforilação , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Gene ; 758: 144942, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640309

RESUMO

WUSCHEL-related homeobox4 (WOX4) plays important roles in vascular formation and adventitious root (AR) development. Here, we cloned the WOX4 from the AR of Larix kaempferi, whose cDNA is 1452 bp in length and encodes 483 amino acids. LkWOX4 is mainly expressed in the layer formation area of the stem at 10 days after cutting and its expression levels in the middles and ends of the ARs were higher than that in the AR tips. The fused protein LkWOX4-GFP localized in the nucleus. The heterologous overexpression of LkWOX4 in 84 K poplar significantly increased AR numbers and decreased AR lengths. In LkWOX4 plants, the endogenous jasmonic acid and abscisic acid contents significantly decreased in stems, while the auxin, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid contents significantly increased in ARs. RNA-Seq of those LkWOX4 overexpression poplar plants showed that the expression of plant hormone signaling genes (ARF2, ARF3, ARF7 and ARF18), rooting-related transcription factors (WOX5, LBD29 and SCR) and root development-related genes (CYCD3, GRF1 and TAA1) were affected. Moreover, we found that LkWOX4 interacts with LkPAT18, LkACBP6, and LkCIP7 using yeast two hybrid screening. Thus, we found LkWOX4 involves in the AR initiation and development, which might be regulated through the IAA, JA and ABA signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Larix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Larix/genética , Meristema/genética , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008812, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658893

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis, CONSTANS (CO) integrates light and circadian clock signals to promote flowering under long days (LD). In the grasses, a duplication generated two paralogs designated as CONSTANS1 (CO1) and CONSTANS2 (CO2). Here we show that in tetraploid wheat plants grown under LD, combined loss-of-function mutations in the A and B-genome homeologs of CO1 and CO2 (co1 co2) result in a small (3 d) but significant (P<0.0001) acceleration of heading time both in PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) sensitive (Ppd-A1b, functional ancestral allele) and insensitive (Ppd-A1a, functional dominant allele) backgrounds. Under short days (SD), co1 co2 mutants headed 13 d earlier than the wild type (P<0.0001) in the presence of Ppd-A1a. However, in the presence of Ppd-A1b, spikes from both genotypes failed to emerge by 180 d. These results indicate that CO1 and CO2 operate mainly as weak heading time repressors in both LD and SD. By contrast, in ppd1 mutants with loss-of-function mutations in both PPD1 homeologs, the wild type Co1 allele accelerated heading time >60 d relative to the co1 mutant allele under LD. We detected significant genetic interactions among CO1, CO2 and PPD1 genes on heading time, which were reflected in complex interactions at the transcriptional and protein levels. Loss-of-function mutations in PPD1 delayed heading more than combined co1 co2 mutations and, more importantly, PPD1 was able to perceive and respond to differences in photoperiod in the absence of functional CO1 and CO2 genes. Similarly, CO1 was able to accelerate heading time in response to LD in the absence of a functional PPD1. Taken together, these results indicate that PPD1 and CO1 are able to respond to photoperiod in the absence of each other, and that interactions between these two photoperiod pathways at the transcriptional and protein levels are important to fine-tune the flowering response in wheat.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Gene ; 758: 144961, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693148

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba L. is regarded as the most ancient living tree, and its kernel has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years. The leaf extracts of this tree have been among the bestselling herbal remedies in Western countries since the last century. To understand the biosynthesis of the pharmacologically active ingredients in G. biloba, flavonoids and terpenoid trilactones (TTLs), we sequenced the transcriptomes of G. biloba leaves, kernels and testae with Iso-Seq and RNA-Seq technologies and obtained 152,524 clean consensus reads. When these reads were used to improve the annotation of the G. biloba genome, 4,856 novel genes, 25,583 new isoforms of previously annotated genes and 4,363 lncRNAs were discovered. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses indicated that genes involved in growth, regulation and response to stress were more likely to be regulated by alternative splicing (AS) or alternative polyadenylation (APA), which represent the two most important posttranscriptional regulation mechanisms. It was found that some of the characterized genes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and TTLs were also possibly regulated by AS and APA. Using phylogenetic and gene expression pattern analyses, some candidate genes for the biosynthesis of flavonoids and TTLs were screened. After qRT-PCR validation, the final candidate genes for flavonoid biosynthesis included three UDP-glycosyltransferases and one MYB transcription factor, while the candidate genes for TTL biosynthesis included two cytochrome P450 and one WRKY transcription factor. Our study suggested that Iso-Seq may play an important role in improving genome annotation, elucidating AS and APA mechanisms and discovering candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of some secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Planta/genética , Extratos Vegetais , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008944, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730252

RESUMO

Efficient nuclear transgene expression in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is generally hindered by low transcription rates. Introns can increase transcript abundance by a process called Intron-Mediated Enhancement (IME) in this alga and has been broadly observed in other eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of IME in microalgae are poorly understood. Here, we identified 33 native introns from highly expressed genes in C. reinhardtii selected from transcriptome studies as well as 13 non-native introns. We investigated their IME capacities and probed the mechanism of action by modification of splice sites, internal sequence motifs, and position within transgenes. Several introns were found to elicit strong IME and found to be broadly applicable in different expression constructs. We determined that IME in C. reinhardtii exclusively occurs from introns within transcribed ORFs regardless of the promoter and is not induced by traditional enhancers of transcription. Our results elucidate some mechanistic details of IME in C. reinhardtii, which are similar to those observed in higher plants yet underly distinctly different induction processes. Our findings narrow the focus of targets responsible for algal IME and provides evidence that introns are underestimated regulators of C. reinhardtii nuclear gene expression.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Íntrons/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Microalgas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235444, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614863

RESUMO

Commercial storage of potatoes often relies on the use of sprout inhibitors to prolong storage and reduce spoilage. The compound 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) has seen increase application as a sprout inhibitor in the potato industry as older chemistries are being phased out. The mode of action of DMN is poorly understood as is the sensitivity of potato tissues to this new class of inhibitor. During storage potato tubers transition from a state of endo-dormant to eco-dormant and it is not known if the DMN response is consistent across this developmental transition. RNA-seq gene expression profiling was used to establish if stored potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum cv La Chipper) have differential sensitivity to DMN as tubers age. DMN was applied at three different times during storage; just after harvest when tubers are in endo-dormancy, midwinter at early eco-dormancy, and in spring during late eco-dormancy when sprouting was prevented via exposure to cold storage temperatures. Changes in gene expression were lowest during endo-dormancy while midwinter and spring treatments exhibited a greater and more diverse expression response. Functional analysis of differential gene expression demonstrated gene sets associated with DNA replication, cell division, and DNA methylation are suppressed after DMN treatment. However, gene sets associated with salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abiotic and biotic stress responses are elevated by DMN only after endodormancy terminates. Gene clusters associated with pathogenesis related proteins PR-4 and PR-5 are also upregulated in response to DMN. These results indicate that DMN sensitivity changes as potato tubers age and transition from endo-dormant to eco-dormant in storage and the overall response is a shift in gene classes that regulate growth and response to stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Meristema , Dormência de Plantas , Tubérculos , Solanum tuberosum , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Meristema/genética , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meristema/metabolismo , Naftalenos/química , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
15.
Nature ; 583(7815): 277-281, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528176

RESUMO

Plant hormones known as strigolactones control plant development and interactions between host plants and symbiotic fungi or parasitic weeds1-4. In Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, the proteins DWARF14 (D14), MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 (MAX2), SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2-LIKE 6, 7 and 8 (SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8) and their orthologues form a complex upon strigolactone perception and play a central part in strigolactone signalling5-10. However, whether and how strigolactones activate downstream transcription remains largely unknown. Here we use a synthetic strigolactone to identify 401 strigolactone-responsive genes in Arabidopsis, and show that these plant hormones regulate shoot branching, leaf shape and anthocyanin accumulation mainly through transcriptional activation of the BRANCHED 1, TCP DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 and PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 genes. We find that SMXL6 targets 729 genes in the Arabidopsis genome and represses the transcription of SMXL6, SMXL7 and SMXL8 by binding directly to their promoters, showing that SMXL6 serves as an autoregulated transcription factor to maintain the homeostasis of strigolactone signalling. These findings reveal an unanticipated mechanism through which a transcriptional repressor of hormone signalling can directly recognize DNA and regulate transcription in higher plants.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2965, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528082

RESUMO

Trajectories of cellular ontogeny are tightly controlled and often involve feedback-regulated molecular antagonism. For example, sieve element differentiation along developing protophloem cell files of Arabidopsis roots requires two antagonistic regulators of auxin efflux. Paradoxically, loss-of-function in either regulator triggers similar, seemingly stochastic differentiation failures of individual sieve element precursors. Here we show that these patterning defects are distinct and non-random. They can be explained by auxin-dependent bistability that emerges from competition for auxin between neighboring cells. This bistability depends on the presence of an auxin influx facilitator, and can be triggered by either flux enhancement or repression. Our results uncover a hitherto overlooked aspect of auxin uptake, and highlight the contributions of local auxin influx, efflux and biosynthesis to protophloem formation. Moreover, the combined experimental-modeling approach suggests that without auxin efflux homeostasis, auxin influx interferes with coordinated differentiation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/citologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Transformação Genética/genética
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(6): 1170-1180, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597066

RESUMO

HDA9, a member of the deacetylase family, plays a vital role in regulating plant flowering time through flowering integrator SOC1 and AGL24. However, it remains elusive how HDA9 interacts with SOC1 and AGL24 in flowering time control. Here, HDA9 was cloned in Brassica juncea and then its three active sites were separately replaced with Ala via overlap extension PCR. Thus, mutants of HDA9(D172A), HDA9(H174A) and HDA9(D261A) were constructed and fused into the pGADT7 vector. The yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that HDA9 mutants remained the interactions with the promoters of SOC1 and AGL24. Furthermore, the aforementioned results were confirmed in the dual luciferase assays. Interestingly, the DNA-protein interactions were weakened significantly due to the mutation in the three active sites of HDA9. It suggested that flowering signal integrator SOC1 and AGL24 were regulated by the key amino acid residues of 172th, 174th and 261th in HDA9. Our results provide valuable information for the in-depth study of the biological function and molecular regulation of HDA9 in Brassica juncea flowering time control.


Assuntos
Flores , Mostardeira , Proteínas de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mostardeira/enzimologia , Mostardeira/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
18.
Gene ; 755: 144845, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522696

RESUMO

Plant immune regulation is a defensive strategy of plants for protection against pathogen invasion, and Chitosan-N (CTS-N) can induce plant autoimmunity regulation mechanisms. CTS-N was found to induce an immunomodulatory response in papaya against Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV). To date, the gene expression profile of CTS-N-induced papaya immunomodulatory response has not been reported. Here, the transcriptional map of papaya leaf genes were subjected to three treatments, viz., non-viral inoculation without CTS-N treatment (CK), virus inoculation without CTS-N treatment (CG), and virus inoculation of 1 g/L treatment (B). These were studied by pot culture experiment. Comparison of the B group with the CG group revealed 732 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. Comparison of the CG group with the CK group revealed 909 upregulated and 1024 downregulated genes. To determine gene function, gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed, where 480 biological process genes, 256 molecular function genes, and 343 cell composition genes were differentially expressed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) results revealed that the top three pathways were phenylpropane biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results were consistent with the transcriptome results, with a correlation coefficient of 0.87. The results of the transcriptional group showed that genes associated with plant resistance were induced by CTS-N-treatment in papaya. The chitinase gene was related to the plant disease process. Related genes in plant hormone signal transduction pathways are associated with plant resistance, and six differentially expressed genes were correlated with enhanced immune resistance in papaya.


Assuntos
Carica/genética , Carica/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Potyvirus/imunologia , Potyvirus/patogenicidade , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Gene ; 755: 144905, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540372

RESUMO

DNA methylation, an important epigenetic modification, regulates a wide range of biological processes. Previous MSAP results showed that the occurrence of PaWB related to changes of DNA methylation level; however, the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression remains obscure in paulownia. Therefore, in the present study, we applied WGBS and RNA-seq techniques to investigate the DNA methylation and gene expression changes between healthy Paulownia fortunei seedlings and the phytoplasma-infected ones. A map of methylated cytosines at the single base pair resolution of paulownia was constructed. Compared to the healthy seedlings, the DNA methylation level increased after phytoplasma infection, and the change of mCHH was the main methylation pattern. DMR analysis showed that 422,662 DMRs in the genome were identified, in which, 27,871 DMR-associated genes were differentially expressed. Finally, 436 genes with significant differences in their methylation levels and mRNA expression profiles were identified through integrated analysis of the DNA methylomic and transcriptomic. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes are mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, carbon metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways. Two of DMR-associated genes were verified by BS- PCR. Finally, we selected TRP 1 and R2R3-MYB protein were closely related to the occurrence of PaWB. Our findings provide valuable insight into the mechanism of PaWB at the epigenetic level.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Lamiales/genética , Phytoplasma/genética , China , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções/genética , Lamiales/microbiologia , Magnoliopsida/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Phytoplasma/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plântula/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2170, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358503

RESUMO

Plants as non-mobile organisms constantly integrate varying environmental signals to flexibly adapt their growth and development. Local fluctuations in water and nutrient availability, sudden changes in temperature or other abiotic and biotic stresses can trigger changes in the growth of plant organs. Multiple mutually interconnected hormonal signaling cascades act as essential endogenous translators of these exogenous signals in the adaptive responses of plants. Although the molecular backbones of hormone transduction pathways have been identified, the mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. Here, using genome wide transcriptome profiling we identify an auxin and cytokinin cross-talk component; SYNERGISTIC ON AUXIN AND CYTOKININ 1 (SYAC1), whose expression in roots is strictly dependent on both of these hormonal pathways. We show that SYAC1 is a regulator of secretory pathway, whose enhanced activity interferes with deposition of cell wall components and can fine-tune organ growth and sensitivity to soil pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Endossomos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plasmodioforídeos/patogenicidade , Via Secretória/genética , Solo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
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