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1.
Gene ; 806: 145928, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455027

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 (CYP19) is a crucial enzyme to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. However, the regulatory mechanism of goose CYP19 gene remains poorly understood. The present study attempted to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) and 5'-flanking sequence of CYP19 gene, to investigate its expression and distribution profiles in different sized follicles, and to analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP19 gene in goose. Results showed that its CDS consisted of 1512 nucleotides and the encoded amino acid sequence contained a classical P450 structural domain. Homology analysis showed that there were high homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between goose and other avian species. Its promoter sequence spanned from -1925 bp to the transcription start site (ATG) and several transcriptional factors were predicted in this region. Further analysis from luciferase assay showed that the luciferase activity was the highest spanning from -118 to -1 bp by constructing deletion promoter reporter vector. In addition, result from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the mRNA level of CYP19 gene were highly expressed in theca layer of the fifth largest follicle, and the cellular location was in the theca externa cells by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, it could be concluded that the transcription activity of CYP19 gene was activated by transcriptional factors in its proximal region of promoter to promote the synthesis of estrogens, regulating the selection of pre-hierarchical into hierarchical follicle in goose.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gansos/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Família 19 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Feminino , Gansos/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/citologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
2.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 637-649, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472225

RESUMO

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 ( Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Bombyx/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5127, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493721

RESUMO

Intricate color patterns are a defining aspect of morphological diversity in the Felidae. We applied morphological and single-cell gene expression analysis to fetal skin of domestic cats to identify when, where, and how, during fetal development, felid color patterns are established. Early in development, we identify stripe-like alterations in epidermal thickness preceded by a gene expression pre-pattern. The secreted Wnt inhibitor encoded by Dickkopf 4 plays a central role in this process, and is mutated in cats with the Ticked pattern type. Our results bring molecular understanding to how the leopard got its spots, suggest that similar mechanisms underlie periodic color pattern and periodic hair follicle spacing, and identify targets for diverse pattern variation in other mammals.


Assuntos
Gatos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Gatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/metabolismo , Genótipo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4797, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376651

RESUMO

Sutures separate the flat bones of the skull and enable coordinated growth of the brain and overlying cranium. The coronal suture is most commonly fused in monogenic craniosynostosis, yet the unique aspects of its development remain incompletely understood. To uncover the cellular diversity within the murine embryonic coronal suture, we generated single-cell transcriptomes and performed extensive expression validation. We find distinct pre-osteoblast signatures between the bone fronts and periosteum, a ligament-like population above the suture that persists into adulthood, and a chondrogenic-like population in the dura mater underlying the suture. Lineage tracing reveals an embryonic Six2+ osteoprogenitor population that contributes to the postnatal suture mesenchyme, with these progenitors being preferentially affected in a Twist1+/-; Tcf12+/- mouse model of Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome. This single-cell atlas provides a resource for understanding the development of the coronal suture and the mechanisms for its loss in craniosynostosis.


Assuntos
Suturas Cranianas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Osteogênese/genética , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/embriologia , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/patologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Suturas Cranianas/citologia , Suturas Cranianas/embriologia , Dura-Máter/citologia , Dura-Máter/embriologia , Dura-Máter/metabolismo , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Crânio/citologia , Crânio/embriologia , Crânio/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/genética , Proteína 1 Relacionada a Twist/metabolismo
5.
Gene ; 803: 145895, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384862

RESUMO

The expression profile of early B-cell factor (Ebf) genes and loss of function experiments denote a crucial role for these genes during the late stage of skeletogenesis. However, little is known regarding the expression and function of these genes during the early stage of skeletogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to detail the spatiotemporal expression pattern of cEbf1, in comparison to cEbf2 and cEbf3, in chick limb buds and investigate its function during chondrogenesis. cEbf1-3 were co-expressed in the distal mesenchyme from a very early stage and later in the outer perichondrium and the surrounding noncartilaginous mesenchymal cells. Ebf1 loss of function through injection of RCASBP virus-carrying Ebf1 dominant-negative form (ΔEbf1) into the wing buds resulted in shortened skeletal elements with a clear defect in the chondrocyte differentiation program. In RCASBP-ΔEbf1 injected wing, the chondrogenesis was initiated normally but hindered at the maturation stage. Subsequently, the chondrocytes failed to become mature or hypertrophic and the long bone diaphysis was not properly developed. The final phenotype included shorter, thicker, and fused long bones. These phenotypic changes were associated with downregulation of the early [Sox9 and collagen type II (Col2a1)] and the late [alkaline phosphatase (AP)] chondrocytes differentiation markers in the limb buds. These results conclude that cEbf1 could be involved in a molecular cascade that promotes the terminal stages of chondrogenesis in the long bone anlagen.


Assuntos
Botões de Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Condrogênese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Botões de Extremidades/metabolismo , Fenótipo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445623

RESUMO

Human breast milk lipids have major beneficial effects: they promote infant early brain development, growth and health. To identify the relationship between human breast milk lipids and infant neurodevelopment, multivariate analyses that combined lipidomics and psychological Bayley-III scales evaluation were utilized. We identified that 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid has a significantly positive correlation with infant adaptive behavioral development, which is a crucial neurodevelopment to manage risk from environmental stress. To further clarify the biological function of 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid in regulating neurodevelopment, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used as a model to investigate the effect of 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid on neurobehavioral development. Supplementation with 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid from the L1 to L4 stage in larvae affected locomotive behaviors and foraging ability that were not socially interactive, implying that 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid is involved in regulating the serotonergic neuronal ability. We found that supplementary 0.1 µM 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid accelerated the locomotive ability and foraging ability via increasing the expression of serotonin transporter mod-1. Antioxidant defense genes, sod-1, sod-3 and cyp-35A2 are involved in 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid-induced motor neuronal activity. Nevertheless, supplementary 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid at concentrations above 1 µM significantly attenuated locomotive behaviors, foraging ability, serotonin synthesis, serotonin-related gene expressions and stress-related gene expression, resulting in the decreased longevity of worms in the experiment. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the biological function of 9,12-octadecadiynoic acid in governing adaptive behavioral development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sistema Nervoso/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the role of proteins from the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family in schizophrenia-like abnormalities in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol (MAM) administration (MAM-E17). METHODS: An inhibitor of BET proteins, JQ1, was administered during adolescence on postnatal days (P) 23-P29, and behavioural responses (sensorimotor gating, recognition memory) and prefrontal cortical (mPFC) function (long-term potentiation (LTP), molecular and proteomic analyses) studies were performed in adult males and females. RESULTS: Deficits in sensorimotor gating and recognition memory were observed only in MAM-treated males. However, adolescent JQ1 treatment affected animals of both sexes in the control but not MAM-treated groups and reduced behavioural responses in both sexes. An electrophysiological study showed LTP impairments only in male MAM-treated animals, and JQ1 did not affect LTP in the mPFC. In contrast, MAM did not affect activity-dependent gene expression, but JQ1 altered gene expression in both sexes. A proteomic study revealed alterations in MAM-treated groups mainly in males, while JQ1 affected both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: MAM-induced schizophrenia-like abnormalities were observed only in males, while adolescent JQ1 treatment affected memory recognition and altered the molecular and proteomic landscape in the mPFC of both sexes. Thus, transient adolescent inhibition of the BET family might prompt permanent alterations in the mPFC.


Assuntos
Azepinas/administração & dosagem , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/análogos & derivados , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Acetato de Metilazoximetanol/toxicidade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ratos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Triazóis/farmacologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445433

RESUMO

The cornea is an anterior eye structure specialized for vision. The corneal endothelium and stroma are derived from the periocular mesenchyme (POM), which originates from neural crest cells (NCCs), while the stratified corneal epithelium develops from the surface ectoderm. Activating protein-2ß (AP-2ß) is highly expressed in the POM and important for anterior segment development. Using a mouse model in which AP-2ß is conditionally deleted in the NCCs (AP-2ß NCC KO), we investigated resulting corneal epithelial abnormalities. Through PAS and IHC staining, we observed structural and phenotypic changes to the epithelium associated with AP-2ß deletion. In addition to failure of the mutant epithelium to stratify, we also observed that Keratin-12, a marker of the differentiated epithelium, was absent, and Keratin-15, a limbal and conjunctival marker, was expanded across the central epithelium. Transcription factors PAX6 and P63 were not observed to be differentially expressed between WT and mutant. However, growth factor BMP4 was suppressed in the mutant epithelium. Given the non-NCC origin of the epithelium, we hypothesize that the abnormalities in the AP-2ß NCC KO mouse result from changes to regulatory signaling from the POM-derived stroma. Our findings suggest that stromal pathways such as Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling may regulate BMP4 expression, which influences cell fate and stratification.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Epitélio Corneano/anormalidades , Deleção de Genes , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Epitélio Corneano/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Queratina-12/metabolismo , Queratina-15/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fator de Transcrição AP-2/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5101, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429411

RESUMO

3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) post-transcriptionally regulate mRNA stability, localization, and translation rate. While 3'-UTR isoforms have been globally quantified in limited cell types using bulk measurements, their differential usage among cell types during mammalian development remains poorly characterized. In this study, we examine a dataset comprising ~2 million nuclei spanning E9.5-E13.5 of mouse embryonic development to quantify transcriptome-wide changes in alternative polyadenylation (APA). We observe a global lengthening of 3' UTRs across embryonic stages in all cell types, although we detect shorter 3' UTRs in hematopoietic lineages and longer 3' UTRs in neuronal cell types within each stage. An analysis of RNA-binding protein (RBP) dynamics identifies ELAV-like family members, which are concomitantly induced in neuronal lineages and developmental stages experiencing 3'-UTR lengthening, as putative regulators of APA. By measuring 3'-UTR isoforms in an expansive single cell dataset, our work provides a transcriptome-wide and organism-wide map of the dynamic landscape of alternative polyadenylation during mammalian organogenesis.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Poliadenilação , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Neurônios/metabolismo , Organogênese , Isoformas de Proteínas , Estabilidade de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
10.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1177-1186, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341563

RESUMO

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) ameliorates ß-hemoglobinopathies by inhibiting the developmental switch from γ-globin (HBG1/HBG2) to ß-globin (HBB) gene expression. Some forms of HPFH are associated with γ-globin promoter variants that either disrupt binding motifs for transcriptional repressors or create new motifs for transcriptional activators. How these variants sustain γ-globin gene expression postnatally remains undefined. We mapped γ-globin promoter sequences functionally in erythroid cells harboring different HPFH variants. Those that disrupt a BCL11A repressor binding element induce γ-globin expression by facilitating the recruitment of nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) to a nearby proximal CCAAT box and GATA1 to an upstream motif. The proximal CCAAT element becomes dispensable for HPFH variants that generate new binding motifs for activators NF-Y or KLF1, but GATA1 recruitment remains essential. Our findings define distinct mechanisms through which transcription factors and their cis-regulatory elements activate γ-globin expression in different forms of HPFH, some of which are being recreated by therapeutic genome editing.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células COS , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Eritroides , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
11.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13617, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405917

RESUMO

Granulosa cells (GCs) play an important role in the development of follicles. In this study, we investigate the impact of heat stress at 41°C and 43°C on duck GCs' proliferation and steroids secretion. And, the transcriptomic responses to heat treatment were examined using RNA-sequencing analysis. Digital gene expression profiling was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (fold change ≥ 2 and Q value < 0.05). Further, the differential expression genes (DEGs) were classified into GO categories and KEGG pathways. The results show that duck GCs blocked in the G1 phase were increased on exposure to heat stress. Meanwhile, the expression of proliferative genes, which were essential for the transition from G1 to S phase, was inhibited. At the same time, heat stress inhibited the estradiol synthesis of GCs by decreasing CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 gene expression. A total of 241 DEGs including 181 upregulated and 60 downregulated ones were identified. Transcriptome result shows that heat shock protein and CXC chemokines gene were significantly activated during heat stress. While collagenases (MMP1 and MMP13) and strome lysins (MMP3) were downregulated. And, the hedgehog signaling pathway may be a prosurvival adaptive response under heat stress. These results offer a basis for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying lay-eggs-less in ducks under heat stress.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Patos/fisiologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445398

RESUMO

Gibberellins (GAs) are an important group of phytohormones associated with diverse growth and developmental processes, including cell elongation, seed germination, and secondary growth. Recent genomic and genetic analyses have advanced our knowledge of GA signaling pathways and related genes in model plant species. However, functional genomics analyses of GA signaling pathways in Panax ginseng, a perennial herb, have rarely been carried out, despite its well-known economical and medicinal importance. Here, we conducted functional characterization of GA receptors and investigated their physiological roles in the secondary growth of P. ginseng storage roots. We found that the physiological and genetic functions of P. ginseng gibberellin-insensitive dwarf1s (PgGID1s) have been evolutionarily conserved. Additionally, the essential domains and residues in the primary protein structure for interaction with active GAs and DELLA proteins are well-conserved. Overexpression of PgGID1s in Arabidopsis completely restored the GA deficient phenotype of the Arabidopsis gid1a gid1c (atgid1a/c) double mutant. Exogenous GA treatment greatly enhanced the secondary growth of tap roots; however, paclobutrazol (PCZ), a GA biosynthetic inhibitor, reduced root growth in P. ginseng. Transcriptome profiling of P. ginseng roots revealed that GA-induced root secondary growth is closely associated with cell wall biogenesis, the cell cycle, the jasmonic acid (JA) response, and nitrate assimilation, suggesting that a transcriptional network regulate root secondary growth in P. ginseng. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism controlling secondary root growth in P. ginseng.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Panax/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazóis/farmacologia
13.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 614-619, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402607

RESUMO

Butterflies are diverse in virtually all aspects of their ontogeny, including morphology, life history, and behavior. However, the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying the important phenotypic traits of butterflies at different developmental stages remain unknown. Here, we investigated the developmental regulatory profiles of butterflies based on transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (ATAC-seq) at three developmental stages in two representative species ( Papilio xuthus and Kallima inachus). Results indicated that 15%-47% of open chromatin peaks appeared in associated genes located 3 kb upstream (i.e., promoter region) of their transcription start site (TSS). Comparative analysis of the different developmental stages indicated that chromatin accessibility is a dynamic process and associated genes with differentially accessible (DA) peaks show functions corresponding to their phenotypic traits. Interestingly, the black color pattern in P. xuthus 4th instar larvae may be attributed to promoter peak-related genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway. Furthermore, many longevity genes in 5th instar larvae and pupae showed open peaks 3 kb upstream of their TSS, which may contribute to the overwintering diapause observed in K. inachus adults. Combined with RNA-seq analysis, our data demonstrated that several genes enriched in the melanogenesis and longevity pathways also exhibit higher expression, confirming that the expression of genes may be closely related to their phenotypic traits. This study offers new insights into larval cuticle color and adult longevity in butterflies and provides a resource for investigating the developmental regulatory mechanisms underlying butterfly ontogeny.


Assuntos
Borboletas/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Tegumento Comum/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360962

RESUMO

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology can reprogram terminally differentiated cell nuclei into a totipotent state. However, the underlying molecular barriers of SCNT embryo development remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we observed that transcription-related pathways were incompletely activated in nuclear transfer arrest (NTA) embryos compared to normal SCNT embryos and in vivo fertilized (WT) embryos, which hinders the development of SCNT embryos. We further revealed the transcription pathway associated gene regulatory networks (GRNs) and found the aberrant transcription pathways can lead to the massive dysregulation of genes in NTA embryos. The predicted target genes of transcription pathways contain a series of crucial factors in WT embryos, which play an important role in catabolic process, pluripotency regulation, epigenetic modification and signal transduction. In NTA embryos, however, these genes were varying degrees of inhibition and show a defect in synergy. Overall, our research found that the incomplete activation of transcription pathways is another potential molecular barrier for SCNT embryos besides the incomplete reprogramming of epigenetic modifications, broadening the understanding of molecular mechanism of SCNT embryonic development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/efeitos adversos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Camundongos , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética
15.
Gene ; 802: 145870, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363886

RESUMO

Leydig cells (LCs) are testosterone-generating endocrine cells that are located outside the seminiferous tubules in the testis, and testosterone is fundamental for retaining spermatogenesis and male fertility. In buffalo, adult Leydig cells (ALCs) are developed by immature Leydig cells (ILCs) in the postnatal testes. However, the genes/pathways associated to the regulation of testosterone secretion function during the development of postnatal LCs remains comprehensively unidentified. The present study comparatively analyzed the transcriptome profiles of ILC and ALC in buffalo with significant differences in testosterone secretion. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis identified 972 and 1,091 annotated genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in buffalo ALC. Functional enrichment analysis showed that cAMP signaling being the most significantly enriched pathway, and testosterone synthesis and lipid transport-related genes/pathways were upregulated in ALC. Furthermore, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) shows that cAMP signaling and steroid hormone biosynthesis were activated in ALC, demonstrating that cAMP signaling may serve as a positive regulatory pathway in the maintenance of testosterone function during postnatal development of LCs. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis highlighted that ADCY8, ADCY2, POMC, CHRM2, SST, PTGER3, SSTR2, SSTR1, NPY1R, and HTR1D as hub genes in the cAMP signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study identified key genes and pathways associated in the regulation of testosterone secretion function during the ILC-ALC transition in buffalo based on bioinformatics analysis, and these key genes might be deeply involved in cAMP generation to influencing testosterone levels in LCs. The results suggest that ALCs might increase testosterone levels by enhancing cAMP production than ILCs. Our data will enhance the understanding of developmental mechanism studies related to testosterone function and provide preliminary evidence for molecular mechanisms of LCs regulating spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/fisiologia , Testículo/citologia , Testosterona/fisiologia , Animais , Búfalos/fisiologia , Separação Celular/veterinária , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , RNA-Seq/veterinária , Transdução de Sinais , Espermatogênese/genética , Esteroides/biossíntese , Testosterona/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445494

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) many subjects still develop heart failure due to significantly reduced ejection fraction. Currently, there are no commonly available treatment strategies that replace the infarcted/dysfunctional myocardium. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that control the regeneration of the heart muscle is important. The development of new coronary vessels plays a pivotal role in cardiac regeneration. Employing microarray expression assays and RT-qPCR validation expression pattern of genes in long-term primary cultured cells isolated form the right atrial appendage (RAA) and right atrium (RA) was evaluated. After using DAVID software, it indicated the analysis expression profiles of genes involved in ontological groups such as: "angiogenesis", "blood vessel morphogenesis", "circulatory system development", "regulation of vasculature development", and "vasculature development" associated with the process of creation new blood vessels. The performed transcriptomic comparative analysis between two different compartments of the heart muscle allowed us to indicate the presence of differences in the expression of key transcripts depending on the cell source. Increases in culture intervals significantly increased expression of SFRP2, PRRX1 genes and some other genes involved in inflammatory process, such as: CCL2, IL6, and ROBO1. Moreover, the right atrial appendage gene encoding lysyl oxidase (LOX) showed much higher expression compared to the pre-cultivation state.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Miocárdio/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Miocárdio/química , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Cultura Primária de Células , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445775

RESUMO

The onset of an early development is, in mammals, characterized by profound changes of multiple aspects of cellular morphology and behavior. These are including, but not limited to, fertilization and the merging of parental genomes with a subsequent transition from the meiotic into the mitotic cycle, followed by global changes of chromatin epigenetic modifications, a gradual decrease in cell size and the initiation of gene expression from the newly formed embryonic genome. Some of these important, and sometimes also dramatic, changes are executed within the period during which the gene transcription is globally silenced or not progressed, and the regulation of most cellular activities, including those mentioned above, relies on controlled translation. It is known that the blastomeres within an early embryo are prone to chromosome segregation errors, which might, when affecting a significant proportion of a cell within the embryo, compromise its further development. In this review, we discuss how the absence of transcription affects the transition from the oocyte to the embryo and what impact global transcriptional silencing might have on the basic cell cycle and chromosome segregation controlling mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/genética , Cromatina/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1692-1709, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375587

RESUMO

Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels with diverse roles in the central nervous system. Bi-allelic loss of function of the KAR-encoding gene GRIK2 causes a nonsyndromic neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) with intellectual disability and developmental delay as core features. The extent to which mono-allelic variants in GRIK2 also underlie NDDs is less understood because only a single individual has been reported previously. Here, we describe an additional eleven individuals with heterozygous de novo variants in GRIK2 causative for neurodevelopmental deficits that include intellectual disability. Five children harbored recurrent de novo variants (three encoding p.Thr660Lys and two p.Thr660Arg), and four children and one adult were homozygous for a previously reported variant (c.1969G>A [p.Ala657Thr]). Individuals with shared variants had some overlapping behavioral and neurological dysfunction, suggesting that the GRIK2 variants are likely pathogenic. Analogous mutations introduced into recombinant GluK2 KAR subunits at sites within the M3 transmembrane domain (encoding p.Ala657Thr, p.Thr660Lys, and p.Thr660Arg) and the M3-S2 linker domain (encoding p.Ile668Thr) had complex effects on functional properties and membrane localization of homomeric and heteromeric KARs. Both p.Thr660Lys and p.Thr660Arg mutant KARs exhibited markedly slowed gating kinetics, similar to p.Ala657Thr-containing receptors. Moreover, we observed emerging genotype-phenotype correlations, including the presence of severe epilepsy in individuals with the p.Thr660Lys variant and hypomyelination in individuals with either the p.Thr660Lys or p.Thr660Arg variant. Collectively, these results demonstrate that human GRIK2 variants predicted to alter channel function are causative for early childhood development disorders and further emphasize the importance of clarifying the role of KARs in early nervous system development.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Epilepsia/patologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Conformação Proteica , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/química , Receptores de Ácido Caínico/metabolismo
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1647-1668, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416157

RESUMO

Interpretation of the function of non-coding risk loci for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain-relevant traits via gene expression and alternative splicing quantitative trait locus (e/sQTL) analyses is generally performed in bulk post-mortem adult tissue. However, genetic risk loci are enriched in regulatory elements active during neocortical differentiation, and regulatory effects of risk variants may be masked by heterogeneity in bulk tissue. Here, we map e/sQTLs, and allele-specific expression in cultured cells representing two major developmental stages, primary human neural progenitors (n = 85) and their sorted neuronal progeny (n = 74), identifying numerous loci not detected in either bulk developing cortical wall or adult cortex. Using colocalization and genetic imputation via transcriptome-wide association, we uncover cell-type-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying risk for brain-relevant traits that are active during neocortical differentiation. Specifically, we identified a progenitor-specific eQTL for CENPW co-localized with common variant associations for cortical surface area and educational attainment.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neocórtex/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Escolaridade , Feminino , Feto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neuroticismo , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Prognóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445369

RESUMO

Annexin (Ann) is a polygenic, evolutionarily conserved, calcium-dependent and phospholipid-binding protein family, which plays key roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. However, a comprehensive understanding of CaAnn genes of pepper (Capsicum annuum) at the genome-wide level is limited. Based on the available pepper genomic information, we identified 15 members of the CaAnn gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaAnn proteins could be categorized into four different orthologous groups. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the CaAnn genes were tissue-specific and were widely expressed in pepper leaves after treatments with cold, salt, and drought, as well as exogenously applied MeJA and ABA. In addition, the function of CaAnn9 was further explored using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. CaAnn9-silenced pepper seedlings were more sensitive to salt stress, reflected by the degradation of chlorophyll, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the decrease of antioxidant defense capacity. This study provides important information for further study of the role of pepper CaAnn genes and their coding proteins in growth, development, and environmental responses.


Assuntos
Anexinas/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Tolerância ao Sal , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/genética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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