Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.601
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126900, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957295

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in marine environments and have arouse great concern since they pose adverse effects to marine ecosystem. To determine the potential impacts of environmentally relevant PAHs on early life stages of marine fish, this study exposed embryos of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) to 0, 2, 10, 50, and 250 µg/L of phenanthrene (Phe), one of the most abundant PAHs. The results demonstrated that Phe exposure decreased hatching rates, delayed hatching time of embryos, and increased deformity rate of newly-hatched larvae. Exposure to 10 and 50 µg/L Phe decreased the survival rate of marine medaka larvae at 28 days post-fertilization (dpf), and no embryo successfully hatched in 250 µg/L Phe exposure group. Morphology results showed that 10, 50, and 250 µg/L Phe exposure significantly retarded the development of embryos, and 2, 10, and 50 µg/L caused yolk sac edema and pericardial edema in newly-hatched larvae, indicating that low concentrations of Phe could induce developmental cardiac toxicity. Furthermore, the changes in the expression of heart development-related genes were determined, and the results showed that Phe-induced cardiac malformation might be related with fgf8, bmp4, smyd1, ATPase and gata4 genes. Overall, environmentally relevant PAHs could disrupt heart morphogenesis and hatching process of marine medaka, which might have profound consequences for sustainability of fish population.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryzias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenantrenos/toxicidade , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/embriologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Oryzias/genética , Fenantrenos/análise , Teratogênios/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 125, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920615

RESUMO

Melatonin (MLT) is a potential signaling molecule in the homeostasis of bone metabolism and may be an important mediator of bone formation and stimulation. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of MLT on the viability, mRNA/protein expression and mineralization of pre-osteoblastic cells. The concentrations 5, 2.5, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mM MLT were tested on pre-osteoblastic cells (MC3T3) compared to control (no MLT), evaluating proliferation and cell viability (C50), gene expression (RT-PCR) and secretion (ELISA) of COL-I and OPN at 24h, 48h and 72h, and the formation of mineral nodules (alizarin red and fast red) after 10 days of treatment. MLT at 5 and 2.5 mM proved to be cytotoxic (C50), so only 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM were used for the subsequent analyses. OPN mRNA expression increased with MLT at 0.1 mM - 1 mM, which was followed by increased secretion of OPN both at 24h and 72h compared to the remaining groups (p <0.05). COL-I mRNA and COL-1 secretion followed the same pattern as OPN at 0.1 mM MLT at 72h of treatment (p <0.05). Regarding mineralization, all MLT doses (except 1mM) caused an increase (p <0.05) in the formation of mineral nodules compared to the control. Melatonin at 0.01mM - 1mM had a stimulatory effect on osteoblasts by upregulating COL-I and OPN expression/ secretion and mineralization, thereby fostering osteogenesis.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteopontina/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 803-812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602772

RESUMO

Organophosphorus pesticides induce gender-specific developmental neurotoxicity after birth, especially in adolescents and adults. However, whether and when the selectivity occurs in fetus remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced neurotoxicity in the early fetal brains of male and female mice. The gestational dams were administered 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/(kg.d) CPF during gestational days (GD)7-11, and brains from the fetuses were isolated and analyzed on GD12. Fetal gender was identified by PCR technique based on male-specific Sry gene and Myog control gene. The body weight and head weight, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the oxidative stress-related gene expression were examined. Our results showed that CPF pretreatment induced AChE inhibition in GD12 fetal brain. CPF treatment activated SOD and GPX but not CAT and MDA. For oxidative stress-related gene expression, CPF pretreatment increased mRNA expression of Sod1, Cat, Gpx1, and Gpx2 in the fetal brain on GD12. The statistical analysis did not show gender-selective CPF-induced toxicity. Moreover, our results showed that although the gestational exposure to CPF could elicit abnormalities in the early fetal brain, the toxicity observed was not gender-specific.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668346

RESUMO

Fish are exposed to steroids of different classes in contaminated waters, but their effects are not sufficiently understood. Here we employed an anti-sense technique using morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs, GRα and GRß) and androgen receptor (AR) to investigate their role in physiological and transcriptional responses. To this end, zebrafish embryos were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CLO), androstenedione (A4) and mixtures containing different classes of steroids. CLO caused a decrease of spontaneous muscle contraction and increase of heart rate, as well as transcriptional induction of pepck1, fkbp5, sult2st3 and vitellogenin (vtg1) at 24 and/or 48 h post fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of GRs eliminated these effects, while knockdown of AR decreased the ar transcript but caused no expressional changes, except induction of sult2st3 after exposure to A4 at 24 hpf. Exposure to a mixture of 6 steroids comprising progesterone (P4) and three progestins, cyproterone acetate, dienogest, drospirenone, 17ß-estradiol (E2) and CLO caused a significant induction of pepck1, sult2st3, vtg1 and per1a. Knockdown of GRs eliminated the physiological effects and the up-regulation of vtg1, sult2st3, pepck1, fkbp5 and per1a. Thus, as with CLO, responses in mixtures were regulated by GRs independently from the presence of other steroids. Exposure to a mixture comprising A4, CLO, E2 and P4 caused induction of vtg1, cyp19b, sult2st3 and fkbp5. Knockdown of AR had no effect, indicating that regulation of these genes occurred by the GRs and estrogen receptor (ER). Our findings show that in early embryos GRs cause vtg1 and sult2st3 induction in addition to known glucocorticoid target genes. Each steroid receptor regulated its own target genes in steroid mixtures independently from other steroids. However, enhanced expressional induction occurred for vtg1 and fkbp5 in steroid mixtures, indicating an interaction/cross-talk between GRs and ER. These findings have importance for the understanding of molecular effects of steroid mixtures.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Esteroides/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105558, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673888

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in vertebrates. Two clades of the Ahr family exist in teleosts (Ahr1 and Ahr2), and it has been demonstrated that Ahr2 is the main protein involved in mediating the toxicity of dioxins and DLCs in most teleost species. Recently, we characterized the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) Ahr1a and Ahr2a receptors. To further explore a possible subfunction partitioning of Ahr1a and Ahr2a in Atlantic cod we have mapped the expression and localization of ahr1a and ahr2a in early developmental stages. Atlantic cod embryos were continuously exposed in a passive-dosing exposure system to the Ahr agonist, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), from five days post fertilization (dpf) until three days post hatching (dph). Expression of ahr1a, ahr2a, and the Ahr-target genes, cyp1a and ahrrb, was assessed in embryos (8 dpf and 10 dpf) and larvae (3 dph) with quantitative real-time PCR analyses (qPCR), while in situ hybridization was used to assess the localization of expression of ahr1a, ahr2a and cyp1a. Quantitative measurements showed an increased cyp1a expression in B[a]P-exposed samples at all sampling points, and for ahr2a at 10 dpf, confirming the activation of the Ahr-signalling pathway. Furthermore, B[a]P strongly induced ahr2a and cyp1a expression in the cardiovascular system and skin, respectively, of embryos and larvae. Induced expression of both ahr2a and cyp1a was also revealed in the liver of B[a]P-exposed larvae. Our results suggest that Ahr2a is the major subtype involved in mediating responses to B[a]P in early developmental stages of Atlantic cod, which involves transcriptional regulation of biotransformation genes, such as cyp1a. The focused expression of ahr1a in the eye of embryos and larvae, and the presence of ahr2a transcripts in the jaws and fin nodes, further indicate evolved specialized roles of the two Ahrs in ontogenesis.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Gadus morhua/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/embriologia , Olho/metabolismo , Gadus morhua/genética , Gadus morhua/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634160

RESUMO

Low egg quality and embryonic survival are critical challenges in aquaculture, where assisted reproduction procedures and other factors may impact egg quality. This includes European eel (Anguilla anguilla), where pituitary extract from carp (CPE) or salmon (SPE) is applied to override a dopaminergic inhibition of the neuroendocrine system, preventing gonadotropin secretion and gonadal development. The present study used either CPE or SPE to induce vitellogenesis in female European eel and compared impacts on egg quality and offspring developmental competence with emphasis on the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Females treated with SPE produced significantly higher proportions of floating eggs with fewer cleavage abnormalities and higher embryonic survival. These findings related successful embryogenesis to higher abundance of mRNA transcripts of genes involved in cell adhesion, activation of MZT, and immune response (dcbld1, epcam, oct4, igm) throughout embryonic development. The abundance of mRNA transcripts of cldnd, foxr1, cea, ccna1, ccnb1, ccnb2, zar1, oct4, and npm2 was relatively stable during the first eight hours, followed by a drop during MZT and low levels thereafter, indicating transfer and subsequent clearance of maternal mRNA. mRNA abundance of zar1, epcam, and dicer1 was associated with cleavage abnormalities, while mRNA abundance of zar1, sox2, foxr1, cldnd, phb2, neurod4, and neurog1 (before MZT) was associated with subsequent embryonic survival. In a second pattern, low initial mRNA abundance with an increase during MZT and higher levels persisting thereafter indicating the activation of zygotic transcription. mRNA abundance of ccna1, npm2, oct4, neurod4, and neurog1 during later embryonic development was associated with hatch success. A deviating pattern was observed for dcbld1, which mRNA levels followed the maternal-effect gene pattern but only for embryos from SPE treated females. Together, the differences in offspring production and performance reported in this study show that PE composition impacts egg quality and embryogenesis and in particular, the transition from initial maternal transcripts to zygotic transcription.


Assuntos
Anguilla/fisiologia , Carpas/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Oogênese , Hipófise/metabolismo , Salmão/metabolismo , Anguilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ciclina A1/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 3 de Transcrição de Octâmero/genética , Oogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/química , Hormônios Hipofisários/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zigoto/metabolismo
7.
Chemosphere ; 255: 127000, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure is widespread and early life exposure is associated with metabolic syndrome. While visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, the adipose depot-specific effects of prenatal BPA treatment are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of prenatal BPA exposure on genome-wide gene expression of VAT and SAT depots. METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed on SAT and VAT from 21-month old control and prenatal BPA-treated female sheep. Gene expression and pathway differences between SAT and VAT depots with or without prenatal BPA-treatment and the effect of prenatal BPA treatment on each depot were tested. RESULTS: There were 179 differentially expressed genes (padjusted < 0.05, log2-fold change >2.5) between SAT and VAT. Development and immune response pathways were upregulated in SAT, while metabolic pathways were upregulated in VAT. These adipose depot-specific genes and pathways were consistent with prenatal BPA-treatment. In SAT, BPA-treatment resulted in differential expression of 108 genes (78% upregulated with BPA) and altered pathways (immune response downregulated, RNA processing upregulated). In contrast in VAT, BPA-treatment differentially expressed 4 genes and upregulated chromatin and RNA processing pathways. CONCLUSION: Prenatal BPA-treatment induces adult depot-specific alterations in RNA expression in inflammation, RNA processing, and chromatin pathways, reflecting the diverse roles of SAT and VAT in regulating lipid storage and insulin sensitivity. These adipose tissue transcriptional dysregulations may contribute to the metabolic disorders observed in prenatal BPA-treated female sheep.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Regulação para Baixo , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/sangue , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Gordura Subcutânea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2082, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350257

RESUMO

Developmental progression depends on temporally defined changes in gene expression mediated by transient exposure of lineage intermediates to signals in the progenitor niche. To determine whether cell-intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms contribute to signal-induced transcriptional responses, here we manipulate the signalling environment and activity of the histone demethylase LSD1 during differentiation of hESC-gut tube intermediates into pancreatic endocrine cells. We identify a transient requirement for LSD1 in endocrine cell differentiation spanning a short time-window early in pancreas development, a phenotype we reproduced in mice. Examination of enhancer and transcriptome landscapes revealed that LSD1 silences transiently active retinoic acid (RA)-induced enhancers and their target genes. Furthermore, prolonged RA exposure phenocopies LSD1 inhibition, suggesting that LSD1 regulates endocrine cell differentiation by limiting the duration of RA signalling. Our findings identify LSD1-mediated enhancer silencing as a cell-intrinsic epigenetic feedback mechanism by which the duration of the transcriptional response to a developmental signal is limited.


Assuntos
Células Endócrinas/citologia , Células Endócrinas/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Inativação Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/embriologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008757, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379754

RESUMO

In the last decades in vitro studies highlighted the potential for crosstalk between Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-(HIF) and glucocorticoid-(GC) signalling pathways. However, how this interplay precisely occurs in vivo is still debated. Here, we use zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) to elucidate how and to what degree hypoxic signalling affects the endogenous glucocorticoid pathway and vice versa, in vivo. Firstly, our results demonstrate that in the presence of upregulated HIF signalling, both glucocorticoid receptor (Gr) responsiveness and endogenous cortisol levels are repressed in 5 days post fertilisation larvae. In addition, despite HIF activity being low at normoxia, our data show that it already impedes both glucocorticoid activity and levels. Secondly, we further analysed the in vivo contribution of glucocorticoids to HIF activity. Interestingly, our results show that both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) play a key role in enhancing it. Finally, we found indications that glucocorticoids promote HIF signalling via multiple routes. Cumulatively, our findings allowed us to suggest a model for how this crosstalk occurs in vivo.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/fisiologia , Receptor Cross-Talk/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Embrião não Mamífero , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
10.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127133, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454355

RESUMO

Atmospheric fine particulate matter exposure (PM2.5) can increase the incidence and mortality of heart disease, and raise the risk of fetal congenital heart defect, which have recently drawn much attention. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to PM2.5 (approximately equivalent to 174 µg/m3) by intratracheal instillation during the gestation. After birth, 10 weeks old offspring mice were divided into four groups: male exposed group (ME), female exposed group (FE), male control group (MC), female control group (FC). The pathological injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, histone acetylation levels, and expressions of GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4) and downstream genes were investigated. The results showed that exposure to PM2.5 in utero increased pathological damage and TNF-α and IL-6 levels in hearts of offspring mice, and effects in ME were more serious than FE. Notably, GATA4 protein levels in hearts in ME were significantly lower than that of MC, accompanied by down-regulation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-p300 and up-regulation of histone deacetylase-SIRT3. As GATA4 downstream genes, ratios of ß-MHC gene expression to α-MHC significantly raised in ME relative to the MC. Results of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR assay found that binding levels of acetylated histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in GATA4 promoter region in the hearts of ME or FE were markedly decreased compared with their corresponding control groups. It suggested that maternal exposure to PM2.5 may cause cardiac injury in the offspring, heart damage of male mice was worse than female mice, in which process HAT-p300, H3K9ac, transcription factor GATA4 may play an important regulation role.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Acetilação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Regulação para Baixo , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Feminino , Coração/embriologia , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Regulação para Cima
11.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 398: 115029, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376357

RESUMO

Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic compound commonly found in food, has antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist effects. We have recently demonstrated that AHR mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contributes to the cardiac developmental toxicity of ambient fine particle matter (PM2.5). Thus, we hypothesized that RSV protects against the cardiac developmental toxicity of PM2.5 by inhibiting ROS generation and AHR activity. To test this concept, we exposed zebrafish embryos to extractable organic matter (EOM) from PM2.5 in the presence or absence of RSV. We found that RSV significantly counteracted EOM-induced cardiac malformations in zebrafish embryos. The EOM-induced ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in the heart of zebrafish embryos were also counteracted by RSV supplementation. Furthermore, RSV attenuated EOM-induced changes in the expression of genes involved in cardiac development (nkx2.5, sox9b, axin2), oxidative stress (nrf2a, nrf2b, gstp1, gstp2, sod1, sod2, cat) and apoptosis (p53, bax). However, RSV did not suppress EOM-induced AHR activity. In conclusion, our data indicates that RSV protects against the PM2.5-induced heart malformations by inhibiting oxidative stress rather than through AHR antagonism.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias Congênitas/tratamento farmacológico , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9292-9301, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277029

RESUMO

In insects, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) limits the growth period by triggering developmental transitions; 20E also modulates the growth rate by antagonizing insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS). Previous work has shown that 20E cross-talks with IIS, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we found that, in both the silkworm Bombyx mori and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, 20E antagonized IIS through the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) axis in the fat body and suppressed the growth rate. During Bombyx larval molt or Drosophila pupariation, high levels of 20E activate AMPK, a molecular sensor that maintains energy homeostasis in the insect fat body. In turn, AMPK activates PP2A, which further dephosphorylates insulin receptor and protein kinase B (AKT), thus inhibiting IIS. Activation of the AMPK-PP2A axis and inhibition of IIS in the Drosophila fat body reduced food consumption, resulting in the restriction of growth rate and body weight. Overall, our study revealed an important mechanism by which 20E antagonizes IIS in the insect fat body to restrict the larval growth rate, thereby expanding our understanding of the comprehensive regulatory mechanisms of final body size in animals.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Animais , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombyx/metabolismo , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drosophila/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Somatomedinas/metabolismo
13.
Aquat Toxicol ; 223: 105476, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315829

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used pharmaceuticals to treat pain, fever and inflammation. NSAIDs are also known to have many side effects including adverse effects on reproduction in both humans and animals. As NSAIDs usage is not regulated they are frequently detected at high concentrations in the environment. In order to understand the effect of NSAIDs on zebrafish sex differentiation, we used seven different NSAIDs which were either Cox-1 selective, Cox-1 biased, non-selective or COX-2 selective. We show that at higher concentration, NSAIDs are toxic to zebrafish embryo as they lead to mortality and hatching delay. Gene expression analysis following short term exposure of NSAIDs led to downregulation of female specific genes including zp2, vtg2 foxl2 and wnt4. Long term exposure of larvae to environmentally relevant concentrations of Cox-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs resulted in male-biased sex ratio which confirmed the qRT-PCR analysis. However, the Cox-1 selective acetylsalicylic acid and the Cox-1 biased ketoprofen did not alter sex ratio. The observed male-biased sex ratio could also be due to induction of apoptosis process as the genes including p21 and casp8 were significantly upregulated following exposure to the Cox-2 selective and the non-selective NSAIDs. The present study indicates that NSAIDs alter sex differentiation in zebrafish, primarily through inhibition of Cox-2. This study clearly demonstrates that the use of NSAIDs and their release into the aquatic environment should be carefully monitored to avoid adverse effects to the aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0228357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275662

RESUMO

Increasingly, studies are revealing that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can alter animal behavior. Early life exposure to EDCs may permanently alter phenotypes through to adulthood. In addition, the effects of EDCs may not be isolated to a single generation - offspring may indirectly be impacted, via non-genetic processes. Here, we analyzed the effects of paternal atrazine exposure on behavioral traits (distance moved, exploration, bottom-dwelling time, latency to enter the top zone, and interaction with a mirror) and whole-brain mRNA of genes involved in the serotonergic system regulation (slc6a4a, slc6a4b, htr1Aa, htr1B, htr2B) of zebrafish (Danio rerio). F0 male zebraFIsh were exposed to atrazine at 0.3, 3 or 30 part per billion (ppb) during early juvenile development, the behavior of F1 progeny was tested at adulthood, and the effect of 0.3 ppb atrazine treatment on mRNA transcription was quantified. Paternal exposure to atrazine significantly reduced interactions with a mirror (a proxy for aggression) and altered the latency to enter the top zone of a tank in unexposed F1 offspring. Bottom-dwelling time (a proxy for anxiety) also appeared to be somewhat affected, and activity (distance moved) was reduced in the context of aggression. slc6a4a and htr1Aa mRNA transcript levels were found to correlate positively with anxiety levels in controls, but we found that this relationship was disrupted in the 0.3 ppb atrazine treatment group. Overall, paternal atrazine exposure resulted in alterations across a variety of behavioral traits and showed signs of serotonergic system dysregulation, demonstrating intergenerational effects. Further research is needed to explore transgenerational effects on behavior and possible mechanisms underpinning behavioral effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Exposição Paterna , Serotonina/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Atrazina/toxicidade , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126762, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302915

RESUMO

17ß-trenbolone (17ß-TBOH) is one of the dominant metabolites of trenbolone acetate, which is widely applied in beef cattle operations around the globe. The effects of environmental concentrations of 17ß-trenbolone on the early development of zebrafish embryos have received very little attention. Melatonin could regulate sleep-wake cycle and plays a protective role in various adverse conditions. Here, environmentally realistic concentrations of 17ß-trenbolone (1 ng/L, 10 ng/L, 50 ng/L) has been exposure to zebrafish embryos at 2 h postfertilization (hpf). The results showed that 10 ng/L and 50 ng/L 17ß-trenbolone disturbed the distribution of caudal primary motoneurons and downregulated expression of motoneuron development related genes along with locomotion decreasing. While melatonin could recover the detrimental effects caused by 17ß-trenbolone. Interestingly, 17ß-trenbolone exposure increased waking activity and decreased rest even in a low dose (1 ng/L). Moreover, it upregulated hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) signaling which promotes wakefulness. Melatonin restored the insomnia-like alternation induced by 17ß-trenbolone exposure. Collectively, we conclude that 17ß-trenbolone disturbed motoneuron development and altered sleep/wake behavior, while melatonin could alleviate the deleterious influence on motoneuron development and recover the circadian rhythm.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Melatonina/farmacologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/prevenção & controle , Acetato de Trembolona/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Bovinos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Orexinas/genética , Fenótipo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324780

RESUMO

Melatonin (MT) has many important functions in plants. In this study, different concentrations of MT (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µmol/L) were sprayed on grape seedlings, and its effects on plant growth and sucrose metabolism were determined. The results show that there was a mutual influence and promotional relationship between growth and sugar metabolism in grape seedlings. The MT treatments promoted the development and growth of grape seedlings by increasing their biomass and promoting the photosynthetic performance of leaves. This resulted in increased nutrient absorption and a greater ability to compete for resources. The increase in photosynthesis resulted in greater sucrose production. The MT treatments increased the activities of enzymes related to sucrose metabolism, so that a large amount of sucrose was hydrolysed into glucose and fructose to meet the rapid growth requirements of grape seedlings. The increased total soluble sugars contents and increased activities of antioxidant enzymes resulted in greater resistance of grape seedlings, and greater adaptability to environmental changes. In general, MT treatments had beneficial effects on grape seedling growth, glucose metabolism, and resistance. Under these conditions, foliar spraying with MT at 150 µmol/L had the best effects.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182268

RESUMO

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine, belongs to the hematopoietic growth factor family. Recent studies have reported that G-CSF is a predictive biomarker of oocyte and embryo developmental competence in humans. The aim of our study was to determine whether CSF3 and its receptor (CSF3R) were expressed in porcine maternal reproductive tissues (oviduct and uterus), cumulus cells, and embryos and to investigate the effects of human recombinant G-CSF (hrG-CSF) supplementation during in vitro culture (IVC) on the developmental competence of pre-implantation embryos. To do this, we first performed reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Second, we performed parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to evaluate the embryonic developmental potential after hrG-CSF supplementation based on various concentrations (0 ng/mL, 10 ng/mL, 50 ng/mL, and 100 ng/mL) and durations (Un-treated, Days 0-3, Days 4-7, and Days 0-7) of IVC. Finally, we examined transcriptional levels of several marker genes in blastocysts. The results of our study showed that CSF3 transcript was present in all samples we assessed. CSF3-R was also detected, except in cumulus cells and blastocysts from PA. Furthermore, 10 ng/mL and Days 0-7 were the optimal concentration and duration for the viability of in vitro embryonic development, especially for SCNT-derived embryos. The rate of blastocyst formation and the total cell number of blastocysts were significantly enhanced, while the number and index of apoptotic nuclei were significantly decreased in optimal condition groups compared to others. Moreover, the transcriptional levels of anti-apoptotis- (BCL2), proliferation- (PCNA), and pluripotency- (POU5F1) related genes were dramatically upregulated. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrated that CSF3 and CSF3R were expressed in porcine reproductive organs, cells, and embryos. Additionally, we determined that hrG-CSF treatment improved porcine embryonic development capacity in vitro.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/métodos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007790, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168320

RESUMO

Trypanosoma brucei are unicellular parasites endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa that cause fatal disease in humans and animals. Infection with these parasites is caused by the bite of the tsetse fly vector, and parasites living extracellularly in the blood of infected animals evade the host immune system through antigenic variation. Existing drugs for Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis are difficult to administer and can have serious side effects. Resistance to some drugs is also increasing, creating an urgent need for alternative trypanosomiasis therapeutics. We screened a library of 1,585 U.S. or foreign-approved drugs and identified 154 compounds that inhibit trypanosome growth. As all of these compounds have already undergone testing for human toxicity, they represent good candidates for repurposing as trypanosome therapeutics. In addition to identifying drugs that inhibit trypanosome growth, we wished to identify small molecules that can induce bloodstream form parasites to differentiate into forms adapted for the insect vector. These insect stage parasites lack the immune evasion mechanisms prevalent in bloodstream forms, making them vulnerable to the host immune system. To identify drugs that increase transcript levels of an invariant, insect-stage specific surface protein called procyclin, we engineered bloodstream reporter parasites that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) following induction or stabilization of the procyclin transcript. Using these bloodstream reporter strains in combination with automated flow cytometry, we identified eflornithine, spironolactone, and phenothiazine as small molecules that increase abundance of procyclin transcript. Both eflornithine and spironolactone also affect transcript levels for a subset of differentiation associated genes. While we failed to identify compounds that increase levels of procyclin protein on the cell surface, this study is proof of principle that these fluorescent reporter parasites represent a useful tool for future small molecule or genetic screens aimed at identifying molecules or processes that initiate remodeling of the parasite surface during life cycle stage transitions.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efeitos dos fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Fenotiazinas/farmacologia , Espironolactona/farmacologia
19.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 528-536, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170715

RESUMO

Excessive vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation contributes to vascular remodeling and stroke during hypertension. Blockade of Angiotensin (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) is shown to effectively attenuate VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling, while the mechanisms underlying these protective effects are unclear. Here, we investigated whether the amelioration of VSMC proliferation mediated by candesartan, an AT1R blocker, could be associated with miRNA regulation. Based on the published data in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), we discovered that candesartan specifically reversed the AngII-induced decrease of miR-301b level in RASMCs and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Knockdown of miR-301b abolished candesartan-mediated inhibition of HASMC proliferation via promoting cell cycle transition. Computational analysis showed that miR-301b targets at 3'UTR of STAT3. MiR-301b upregulation inhibited the luciferase activity and protein expression of STAT3, whereas miR-301b knockdown increased STAT3 luciferase activity and expression. Furthermore, downregulation of STAT3 markedly abrogated the effects of miR-301b inhibition on candesartan-mediated HASMC proliferation, invasion, and migration. Collectively, this study suggests that miR-301b may be a novel molecular target of candesartan and provides a new understanding for the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of candesartan.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Humanos
20.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 394: 114957, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173372

RESUMO

The adverse effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on aquatic systems have attracted much attention because TPT is widely used and prevalent in aquatic environments. Here, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to TPT (0, 0.039, 0.39, and 3.9 nM; 0, 15, 150 and 1500 ng/L) for 7 or 14 days to determine its toxic effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The results showed that whole-body total T4 and T3 levels were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by the significant upregulation of the expression of the dio1, dio2 and ugt1ab genes after exposure to TPT for 7 and 14 days. Genes related to thyroid hormone synthesis (crh, tshß, nis, tpo and tg) were upregulated at both 7 and 14 days after TPT exposure. This might have been due to the positive feedback regulation of the HPT axis, which is caused by a decrease in thyroid hormone in the whole body in zebrafish. In addition, the survival rates and body lengths were reduced after treatment with TPT for 7 and 14 days. This indicated that TPT caused adverse effect on the development of zebrafish embryos/larvae. In summary, the results suggested that TPT caused thyroid disruption and developmental toxicity in zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metamorfose Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA