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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 159: 107-117, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400772

RESUMO

Latrophilin (LPH) is an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) that participates in multiple essential physiological processes. Our previous studies have shown that lph is not only indispensable for the development and reproduction of red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), but also for their resistance against dichlorvos or carbofuran insecticides. However, the regulatory mechanism of lph-mediated insecticide susceptibility remains unclear. Here, we revealed that knockdown of lph in beetles resulted in opposing changes in two chemoreception genes, chemosensory protein 10 (CSP10) and odorant-binding protein C01 (OBPC01), in which the expression of TcCSP10 was downregulated, whereas the expression of TcOBPC01 was upregulated. TcCSP10 and TcOBPC01 were expressed at the highest levels in early pupal and late larval stages, respectively. High levels of expression of both these genes were observed in the heads (without antennae) of adults. TcCSP10 and TcOBPC01 were significantly induced by dichlorvos or carbofuran between 12 and 72 h (hrs) after exposure, suggesting that they are likely associated with increasing the binding affinity of insecticides, leading to a decrease in sensitivity to the insecticides. Moreover, once these two genes were knocked down, the susceptibility of the beetles to dichlorvos or carbofuran was enhanced. Additionally, RNA interference (RNAi) targeting of lph followed by exposure to dichlorvos or carbofuran also caused the opposing expression levels of TcCSP10 and TcOBPC01 compared to the expression levels of wild-type larvae treated with insecticides alone. All these results indicate that lph is involved in insecticide susceptibility through positively regulating TcCSP10; and the susceptibility could also further partially compensated for through the negative regulation of TcOBPC01 when lph was knockdown in the red flour beetle. Our studies shed new light on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of lph related to insecticide susceptibility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Tribolium/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3054, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296860

RESUMO

Two waves of DNA methylation reprogramming occur during mammalian embryogenesis; during preimplantation development and during primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. However, it is currently unclear how evolutionarily conserved these processes are. Here we characterise the DNA methylomes of zebrafish PGCs at four developmental stages and identify retention of paternal epigenetic memory, in stark contrast to the findings in mammals. Gene expression profiling of zebrafish PGCs at the same developmental stages revealed that the embryonic germline is defined by a small number of markers that display strong developmental stage-specificity and that are independent of DNA methylation-mediated regulation. We identified promoters that are specifically targeted by DNA methylation in somatic and germline tissues during vertebrate embryogenesis and that are frequently misregulated in human cancers. Together, these detailed methylome and transcriptome maps of the zebrafish germline provide insight into vertebrate DNA methylation reprogramming and enhance our understanding of the relationships between germline fate acquisition and oncogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herança Paterna , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Genes Dev ; 33(13-14): 799-813, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171700

RESUMO

Mammalian development requires effective mechanisms to repress genes whose expression would generate inappropriately specified cells. The Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) family complexes are central to maintaining this repression. These include a set of canonical PRC1 complexes, each of which contains four core proteins, including one from the CBX family. These complexes have been shown previously to reside in membraneless organelles called Polycomb bodies, leading to speculation that canonical PRC1 might be found in a separate phase from the rest of the nucleus. We show here that reconstituted PRC1 readily phase-separates into droplets in vitro at low concentrations and physiological salt conditions. This behavior is driven by the CBX2 subunit. Point mutations in an internal domain of Cbx2 eliminate phase separation. These same point mutations eliminate the formation of puncta in cells and have been shown previously to eliminate nucleosome compaction in vitro and generate axial patterning defects in mice. Thus, the domain of CBX2 that is important for phase separation is the same domain shown previously to be important for chromatin compaction and proper development, raising the possibility of a mechanistic or evolutionary link between these activities.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Escherichia coli/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Organelas/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Células Sf9
4.
Genes Dev ; 33(15-16): 1069-1082, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221664

RESUMO

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are regulated by a network of transcription factors that maintain the pluripotent state. Differentiation relies on down-regulation of pluripotency transcription factors disrupting this network. While investigating transcriptional regulation of the pluripotency transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), we observed that homozygous deletion of distal enhancers caused a 17-fold decrease in Klf4 transcript but surprisingly decreased protein levels by less than twofold, indicating that posttranscriptional control of KLF4 protein overrides transcriptional control. The lack of sensitivity of KLF4 to transcription is due to high protein stability (half-life >24 h). This stability is context-dependent and is disrupted during differentiation, as evidenced by a shift to a half-life of <2 h. KLF4 protein stability is maintained through interaction with other pluripotency transcription factors (NANOG, SOX2, and STAT3) that together facilitate association of KLF4 with RNA polymerase II. In addition, the KLF4 DNA-binding and transactivation domains are required for optimal KLF4 protein stability. Posttranslational modification of KLF4 destabilizes the protein as cells exit the pluripotent state, and mutations that prevent this destabilization also prevent differentiation. These data indicate that the core pluripotency transcription factors are integrated by posttranslational mechanisms to maintain the pluripotent state and identify mutations that increase KLF4 protein stability while maintaining transcription factor function.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteólise , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
5.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 674-686, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160712

RESUMO

In vertebrates, multipotent progenitors located in the pharyngeal mesoderm form cardiomyocytes and branchiomeric head muscles, but the dynamic gene expression programmes and mechanisms underlying cardiopharyngeal multipotency and heart versus head muscle fate choices remain elusive. Here, we used single-cell genomics in the simple chordate model Ciona to reconstruct developmental trajectories forming first and second heart lineages and pharyngeal muscle precursors and characterize the molecular underpinnings of cardiopharyngeal fate choices. We show that FGF-MAPK signalling maintains multipotency and promotes the pharyngeal muscle fate, whereas signal termination permits the deployment of a pan-cardiac programme, shared by the first and second heart lineages, to define heart identity. In the second heart lineage, a Tbx1/10-Dach pathway actively suppresses the first heart lineage programme, conditioning later cell diversity in the beating heart. Finally, cross-species comparisons between Ciona and the mouse evoke the deep evolutionary origins of cardiopharyngeal networks in chordates.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis/genética , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos Faríngeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Ciona intestinalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genômica , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2396, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160561

RESUMO

Modern genetic studies indicate that human brain evolution is driven primarily by changes in gene regulation, which requires understanding the biological function of largely non-coding gene regulatory elements, many of which act in tissue specific manner. We leverage chromatin interaction profiles in human fetal and adult cortex to assign three classes of human-evolved elements to putative target genes. We find that human-evolved elements involving DNA sequence changes and those involving epigenetic changes are associated with human-specific gene regulation via effects on different classes of genes representing distinct biological pathways. However, both types of human-evolved elements converge on specific cell types and laminae involved in cerebral cortical expansion. Moreover, human evolved elements interact with neurodevelopmental disease risk genes, and genes with a high level of evolutionary constraint, highlighting a relationship between brain evolution and vulnerability to disorders affecting cognition and behavior. These results provide novel insights into gene regulatory mechanisms driving the evolution of human cognition and mechanisms of vulnerability to neuropsychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Epigênese Genética/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética
7.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 1967-1978, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222274

RESUMO

Pig is one of the major dietary protein sources for human consumption, from which muscle is the largest protein origin. However, molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds are still unclear. In this study, an integrated analysis of transcriptome and miRNAome was conducted using longissimus dorsi muscle of 4 early embryonic stages around the primary myofiber formation time (18-, 21-, 28-, and 35-d post coitus) from 2 pig breeds (Landrace [LR] and Wuzhishan [WZS]) differing in meat mass. The global miRNA/mRNA expression profile showed that WZS prepared for myogenic developmental processes earlier than LR. After identifying and analyzing the interaction network of top 100 up-/down-regulated miRNA and their target genes, we were able to find 3 gene clusters: chromatin modification-related (Chd2, H3f3a, Chd6, and Mll1), myogenesis-related (Pax3, Pbx1, Mef2a, and Znf423), and myosin component-related (Mylk, Myo5a, Mylk4, Myh9, and Mylk2) gene clusters. These genes may involve in miRNA-gene myogenic regulatory network that plays vital role in regulating distinct early porcine embryonic myogenic processes between LR and WZS. In summary, our study reveals an epigenetic-mediated myogenic regulatory axial that will help us to decipher molecular mechanisms concerning early porcine embryonic muscle development distinctions between pig breeds.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Anim Sci J ; 90(8): 1042-1049, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237073

RESUMO

Glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3ß) plays an important role in skeletal muscle growth, regeneration, and repair. However, the mechanism of GSK3ß regulating MyHC2a expression is currently not clear. In this study, GSK3ß inhibition promoted skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs) differentiation and increased expression of MyoD, MyoG, MyHC1, and MyHC2a genes. Then we cloned approximately 1.1 kb of goat MyHC2a gene promoter. The deletion fragment (-514/+55) of MyHC2a promoter exhibited the highest level of promoter activity, and a NFATc2 element in this region was responsible for MyHC2a promoter activity. Treatment of SB216713 significantly decreased the transcriptional activity of the fragment (-514/+55). Furthermore, GSK3ß inhibition had no effect on the luciferase activity of MyHC2a promoter after mutating the NFATc2-binding site. These results demonstrated that GSK3ß inhibition promoted SMSCs differentiation and regulated the MyHC2a gene expression through NFATc2 in goat-differentiated SMSCs.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Cabras , Luciferases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC
9.
Nature ; 570(7759): 77-82, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086336

RESUMO

Ontogeny describes the emergence of complex multicellular organisms from single totipotent cells. This field is particularly challenging in mammals, owing to the indeterminate relationship between self-renewal and differentiation, variation in progenitor field sizes, and internal gestation in these animals. Here we present a flexible, high-information, multi-channel molecular recorder with a single-cell readout and apply it as an evolving lineage tracer to assemble mouse cell-fate maps from fertilization through gastrulation. By combining lineage information with single-cell RNA sequencing profiles, we recapitulate canonical developmental relationships between different tissue types and reveal the nearly complete transcriptional convergence of endodermal cells of extra-embryonic and embryonic origins. Finally, we apply our cell-fate maps to estimate the number of embryonic progenitor cells and their degree of asymmetric partitioning during specification. Our approach enables massively parallel, high-resolution recording of lineage and other information in mammalian systems, which will facilitate the construction of a quantitative framework for understanding developmental processes.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Endoderma/embriologia , Endoderma/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilização , Gastrulação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072004

RESUMO

Deciphering how signaling pathways interact during development is necessary for understanding the etiopathogenesis of congenital malformations and disease. In several embryonic structures, components of the Hedgehog and retinoic acid pathways, two potent players in development and disease are expressed and operate in the same or adjacent tissues and cells. Yet whether and, if so, how these pathways interact during organogenesis is, to a large extent, unclear. Using genetic and experimental approaches in the mouse, we show that during development of ontogenetically different organs, including the tail, genital tubercle, and secondary palate, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) loss-of-function causes anomalies phenocopying those induced by enhanced retinoic acid signaling and that SHH is required to prevent supraphysiological activation of retinoic signaling through maintenance and reinforcement of expression of the Cyp26 genes. Furthermore, in other tissues and organs, disruptions of the Hedgehog or the retinoic acid pathways during development generate similar phenotypes. These findings reveal that rigidly calibrated Hedgehog and retinoic acid activities are required for normal organogenesis and tissue patterning.


Assuntos
Família 26 do Citocromo P450/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Ácido Retinoico 4 Hidroxilase/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Camundongos , Organogênese/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Dente/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dente/metabolismo , Tretinoína/metabolismo
11.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 700-709, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061465

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain balanced self-renewal and differentiation, but how these functions are precisely regulated is not fully understood. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) messenger RNA methylation has emerged as an important mode of epitranscriptional gene expression regulation affecting many biological processes. We show that deletion of the m6A methyltransferase Mettl3 from the adult haematopoietic system led to an accumulation of HSCs in the bone marrow and a marked reduction of reconstitution potential due to a blockage of HSC differentiation. Interestingly, deleting Mettl3 from myeloid cells using Lysm-cre did not impact myeloid cell number or function. RNA sequencing revealed 2,073 genes with significant m6A modifications in HSCs. Myc was identified as a direct target of m6A in HSCs. Mettl3-deficient HSCs failed to upregulate MYC expression following stimulation to differentiate and enforced expression of Myc rescued differentiation defects of Mettl3-deficient HSCs. Our results reveal a key role of m6A in governing HSC differentiation.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Adenosina/genética , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3842312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058188

RESUMO

There are about 1-2 million follicles presented in the ovary at birth, while only around 1000 primordial follicles are left at menopause. The ovarian function also decreases in parallel with aging. Folliculogenesis is vital for ovarian function, no matter the synthesis of female hormones or ovulation, yet the mechanisms for its changing with increasing age are not fully understood. Early follicle growth up to the large preantral stage is independent of gonadotropins in rodents and relies on intraovarian factors. To further understand the age-related molecular changes in the process of folliculogenesis, we performed microarray gene expression profile analysis using total RNA extracted from young (9 weeks old) and old (32 weeks old) mouse ovarian secondary follicles. The results of our current microarray study revealed that there were 371 (≥2-fold, q-value ≤0.05) genes differentially expressed in which 174 genes were upregulated and 197 genes were downregulated in old mouse ovarian secondary follicles compared to young mouse ovarian secondary follicles. The gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes uncovered critical biological functions such as immune system process, aging, transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair, protein stabilization, and apoptotic process were affected in the process of aging. The considerable changes in gene expression profile may have an adverse influence on follicle quality and folliculogenesis. Our study provided information on the processes that may contribute to age-related decline in ovarian function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA/genética , Animais , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Menopausa/genética , Camundongos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oócitos/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovulação/genética , RNA/biossíntese , Transcriptoma/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096691

RESUMO

Blue light (BL) plays an important role in regulation of the growth and development of aquatic plants and land plants. Aureochrome (AUREO), the recent BL photoreceptor identified in photosynthetic stramenopile algae, is involved in the photomorphogenesis and early development of Saccharina japonica porophytes (kelp). However the factors that interact with the SjAUREO under BL conditions specifically are not clear. Here in our study, three high quality cDNA libraries with CFU over 5 × 106 and a recombination rate of 100% were constructed respectively through white light (WL), BL and darkness (DK) treatments to the juvenile sporophytes. Based on the constructed cDNA libraries, the interactors of SjAUREO were screened and analyzed. There are eighty-four genes encoding the sixteen predicted proteins from the BL cDNA library, sixty-eight genes encoding eighteen predicted proteins from the DK cDNA library, and seventy-four genes encoding nineteen proteins from the WL cDNA library. All the predicted proteins are presumed to interact with SjAUREO when co-expressed with SjAUREO seperately. The 40S ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6), which only exists in the BL treated cDNA library except for two other libraries, and which is essential for cell proliferation and is involved in cell cycle progression, was selected for detailed analysis. We showed that its transcription was up-regulated by BL, and was highly transcribed in the basal blade (meristem region) of juvenile sporophytes but less in the distal part. Taken together, our results indicated that RPS6 was highly involved in BL-mediated kelp cellular division and photomorphogenesis by interacting with SjAUREO.


Assuntos
Laminaria/metabolismo , Laminaria/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/metabolismo , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Laminaria/genética , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/efeitos da radiação , Fotossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação
14.
Genes Cells ; 24(6): 436-448, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038803

RESUMO

Lysosomes are acidic organelles responsible for degrading both exogenous and endogenous materials. The small GTPase Arl8 localizes primarily to lysosomes and is involved in lysosomal function. In the present study, using Arl8b gene-trapped mutant (Arl8b-/- ) mice, we show that Arl8b is required for the development of dorsal structures of the neural tube, including the thalamus and hippocampus. In embryonic day (E) 10.5 Arl8b-/- embryos, Sox1 (a neuroepithelium marker) was ectopically expressed in the roof plate, whereas the expression of Gdf7 and Msx1 (roof plate markers) was reduced in the dorsal midline of the midbrain. Ectopic expression of Sox1 in Arl8b-/- embryos was detected also at E9.0 in the neural fold, which gives rise to the roof plate. In addition, the levels of Bmp receptor IA and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (downstream of BMP signaling) were increased in the neural fold of E9.0 Arl8b-/- embryos. These results suggest that Arl8b is involved in the development of the neural fold and the subsequently formed roof plate, possibly via control of BMP signaling.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/fisiologia , Crista Neural/embriologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Camundongos/embriologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Tubo Neural/embriologia , Tubo Neural/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1976: 1-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977061

RESUMO

Neural crest cells are the embryonic precursors of most neurons and all glia of the peripheral nervous system, pigment cells, some endocrine components, and connective tissue of the head, face, neck, and heart. Following induction, crest cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition that enables them to migrate along specific pathways culminating in their phenotypic differentiation. Researching this unique embryonic population has revealed important understandings of basic biological and developmental principles. These principles are likely to assist in clarifying the etiology and help in finding strategies for the treatment of neural crest diseases, collectively termed neurocristopathies. The progress achieved in neural crest research is made feasible thanks to the continuous development of species-specific in vivo and in vitro paradigms and more recently the possibility to produce neural crest cells and specific derivatives from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. All of the above assist us in elucidating mechanisms that regulate neural crest development using state-of-the art cellular, molecular, and imaging approaches.


Assuntos
Crista Neural/citologia , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Melanócitos/citologia , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/citologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1976: 195-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977075

RESUMO

Neural crest cells are a highly multipotent and migratory cell type that are important for adult pigment pattern formation, cellular homeostasis, and regeneration. The optical transparency and accessibility of fish embryos makes them particularly well-suited to high-resolution analysis of neural crest development. However, the dispersive nature of these cells adds to the challenge of their study. We describe key protocols for the analysis of neural crest development in zebrafish and medaka, including live imaging of neural crest cells and differentiating pigment cells and transient transgenesis assays that can be used to manipulate neural crest development.


Assuntos
Crista Neural/citologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Oryzias , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
18.
Vet Med Sci ; 5(3): 451-461, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973212

RESUMO

The ban on the use of antibiotic in feed encouraged nutritionists to using alternatives to maintain growth performance and intestinal function of broilers. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Yupingfeng polysaccharides (YP) supplementation on growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in Qingyuan partridge chicken. Experiment 1: a total of 540 chickens were randomly allocated to five groups with six replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON (control group), basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP; (4) T3, CON + 2 g kg-1 YP; (5) T4, CON + 4 g kg-1 YP. Experiment 2, a total of 162 were randomly allocated to three groups with three replication. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) T1, CON + 0.5 g kg-1 YP; (3) T2, CON + 1 g kg-1 YP. From days 1 to 14 and overall, chicken fed T1 diet had higher ADG. On day 42, there was increased villus height of jejunum in T1 group. On days 14 and 28, there was decreased villus height of duodenum and jejunum in T2 group. In duodenum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21 and 28) was increased with YP supplementation. In jejunum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35), GLUT2 (days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. In ileum, the expression of SGLT1 (days 7, 21, 35 and 42), GLUT2 (days 7, 14, 21 and 42) and GLUT5 (days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42) was increased with YP supplementation. Dietary YP supplementation improves growth performance and expression of SGLT1, GLUT2 and GLUT5 in intestine.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Regulação para Cima
19.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 32: 53-66, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940554

RESUMO

We have cloned and characterized an intronic fragment of zebrafish lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1 (lcp1, also called L-plastin) that drives expression to the zebrafish enveloping layer (EVL). L-plastin is a calcium-dependent actin-bundling protein belonging to the plastin/fimbrin family of proteins, and is necessary for the proper migration and attachment of several adult cell types, including leukocytes and osteoclasts. However, in zebrafish lcp1 is abundantly expressed much earlier, during differentiation of the EVL. The cells of this epithelial layer migrate collectively, spreading vegetally over the yolk. L-plastin expression persists into the larval periderm, a transient epithelial tissue that forms the first larval skin. This finding establishes that L-plastin is activated in two different embryonic waves, with a distinct regulatory switch between the early EVL and the later leukocyte. To better study L-plastin expressing cells we attempted CRISPR/Cas9 homology-driven recombination (HDR) to insert a self-cleaving peptide (Cre-P2A-EGFP-CAAX) downstream of the native lcp1 promoter. This produced a stable zebrafish line expressing Cre recombinase in EVL nuclei and green fluorescence in EVL cell membranes. In vivo tracking of these labeled cells provided enhanced views of EVL migration behavior, membrane extensions, and mitotic events. Finally, we experimentally dissected key elements of the targeted lcp1 locus, discovering a ∼300 bp intronic sequence sufficient to drive EVL expression. The lcp1: Cre-P2A-EGFP-CAAX zebrafish should be useful for studying enveloping layer specification, gastrulation movements and periderm development in this widely used vertebrate model. In addition, the conserved regulatory sequences we have isolated predict that L-plastin orthologs may have a similar early expression pattern in other vertebrate embryos.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Epitélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrulação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 55(5): 387-394, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993556

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte-related genes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), derived from rabbit adipose tissue, under mechanical vibration. The cells were placed securely on a vibrator's platform and subjected to 300 Hz of sinusoidal vibration, with a maximum amplitude of 10 µm, for 45 min per day, and for 14 consequent days, in the absence of biochemical reagents. The negative control group was placed in the conventional culture medium with no mechanical loading. The expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte-related genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). In addition, F-actin fiber structure and alignment with the help of actin filament fluorescence staining were evaluated, and the level of metabolic activity of MSCs was determined by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. The real-time PCR study showed a significant increase of bone gene expression in differentiated cells, compared with MSCs (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the level of chondrocyte gene expression was not remarkable. Applying mechanical vibration enhanced F-actin fiber structure and made them aligned in a specific direction. It was also found that during the differentiation process, the metabolic activity of the cells increased (P < 0.05). The results of this work are in agreement with the well-accepted fact that the MSCs, in the absence of growth factors, are sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency vibration. Outcomes of this work can be applied in cell therapy and tissue engineering, when regulation of stem cells is required.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Actinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Coelhos , Engenharia Tecidual
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