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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198942

RESUMO

Empagliflozin (EMPA) is a sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that functions as a new-generation glucose-lowering agent and has been proven to be beneficial for patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, the possible benefits and mechanisms of its antiarrhythmic effects in cardiac tissue have not yet been reported. In this study, we elucidated the possible antiarrhythmic effects and mechanisms of EMPA treatment in cardiac tissues of metabolic syndrome (MS) mice. A total of 20 C57BL/6J mice (age: 8 weeks) were divided into four groups: (1) control group, mice fed a standard chow for 16 weeks; (2) MS group, mice fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks; (3) EMPA group, mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and administered EMPA at 10 mg/kg daily for the following 4 weeks; and (4) glibenclamide (GLI) group, mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and administered GLI at 0.6 mg/kg daily for the following 4 weeks. All mice were sacrificed after 16 weeks of feeding. The parameters of electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and the effective refractory period (ERP) of the left ventricle were recorded. The histological characteristics of cardiac tissue, including connexin (Cx) expression and fibrotic areas, were also evaluated. Compared with the MS group, the ECG QT interval in the EMPA group was significantly shorter (57.06 ± 3.43 ms vs. 50.00 ± 2.62 ms, p = 0.011). The ERP of the left ventricle was also significantly shorter in the EMPA group than that in the GLI group (20.00 ± 10.00 ms vs. 60.00 ± 10.00 ms, p = 0.001). The expression of Cx40 and Cx43 in ventricular tissue was significantly lower in the MS group than in the control group. However, the downregulation of Cx40 and Cx43 was significantly attenuated in the EMPA group compared with the MS and GLI groups. The fibrotic areas of ventricular tissue were also fewer in the EMPA group than that in the MS group. In this study, the ECG QT interval in the EMPA group was shorter than that in the MS group. Compared with the MS group, the EMPA group exhibited significant attenuation of downregulated connexin expression and significantly fewer fibrotic areas in ventricles. These results may provide evidence of possible antiarrhythmic effects of EMPA.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Conexina 43/genética , Conexinas/genética , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Camundongos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205883

RESUMO

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating emergent event associated with high mortality and morbidity. Survivors usually experience functional neurological sequelae caused by vasospasm-related delayed ischemia. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sham (non-SAH) group, SAH group, and three groups with SAH treated with different doses of valproic acid (VPA) (10, 20, 40 mg/kg, once-daily, for 7 days). The severity of vasospasm was determined by the ratio of cross-sectional areas to intima-media thickness of the basilar arteries (BA) on the seventh day after SAH. The BA showed decreased expression of phospho-Akt proteins. The dentate gyrus showed increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax proteins and decreased expression of Bcl-2, phospho-ERK 1/2, phospho-Akt and acetyl-histone H3 proteins. The incidence of SAH-induced vasospasm was significantly lower in the SAH group treated with VPA 40 mg/kg (p < 0.001). Moreover, all groups treated with VPA showed reversal of the above-mentioned protein expression in BA and the dentate gyrus. Treatment with VPA upregulated histone H3 acetylation and conferred anti-vasospastic and neuro-protective effects by enhancing Akt and/or ERK phosphorylation. This study demonstrated that VPA could alleviate delayed cerebral vasospasm induced neuro-apoptosis after SAH.


Assuntos
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Ratos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/genética , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/patologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/genética , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/patologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205953

RESUMO

The ionotropic P2X receptor, P2X7, is believed to regulate and/or generate nociceptive pain, and pain in several neuropathological diseases. Although there is a known relationship between P2X7 receptor activity and pain sensing, its detailed functional properties in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons remains unclear. We examined the electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the P2X7 receptor and its functional coupling with other P2X receptors and pannexin-1 (PANX1) channels in primary cultured rat TG neurons, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Application of ATP and Bz-ATP induced long-lasting biphasic inward currents that were more sensitive to extracellular Bz-ATP than ATP, indicating that the current was carried by P2X7 receptors. While the biphasic current densities of the first and second components were increased by Bz-ATP in a concentration dependent manner; current duration was only affected in the second component. These currents were significantly inhibited by P2X7 receptor antagonists, while only the second component was inhibited by P2X1, 3, and 4 receptor antagonists, PANX1 channel inhibitors, and extracellular ATPase. Taken together, our data suggests that autocrine or paracrine signaling via the P2X7-PANX1-P2X receptor/channel complex may play important roles in several pain sensing pathways via long-lasting neuronal activity driven by extracellular high-concentration ATP following tissue damage in the orofacial area.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Gânglio Trigeminal/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Cultura Primária de Células , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Ratos , Gânglio Trigeminal/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205850

RESUMO

Left untreated, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and end-stage liver disease. To date, few if any therapies have proven effective against NASH with fibrosis. Quantification and qualification of hepatic scar might enable development of more effective targeted therapies. In a murine model of NASH induced by diet, we characterized fibrillar collagen deposition within the hepatic parenchyma. At harvest, livers from the modified diet cohort exhibited NASH with fibrosis. Transcriptomic analysis of hepatic tissue revealed increased col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1, each of which correlated directly with hepatic hydroxyproline content. Circular polarized microscopic analysis of Picrosirius red-stained liver sections revealed deposition of collagen type I within the parenchyma. Development of therapeutics designed to mitigate collagen type I accumulation might prove effective in NASH with fibrosis.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Microscopia de Polarização , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Regulação para Cima
5.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206041

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized mainly by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) mediated via oxidative stress. Although glutaredoxin-1 (GLRX1) is known as one of the antioxidants involved in cell survival, the effects of GLRX1 on PD are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether cell-permeable PEP-1-GLRX1 inhibits dopaminergic neuronal cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We showed that PEP-1-GLRX1 protects cell death and DNA damage in MPP+-exposed SH-SY5Y cells via the inhibition of MAPK, Akt, and NF-κB activation and the regulation of apoptosis-related protein expression. Furthermore, we found that PEP-1-GLRX1 was delivered to the SN via the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP-induced PD model. These results indicate that PEP-1-GLRX1 markedly inhibited the loss of dopaminergic neurons in MPP+- and MPTP-induced cytotoxicity, suggesting that this fusion protein may represent a novel therapeutic agent against PD.


Assuntos
Cisteamina/análogos & derivados , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Glutarredoxinas/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/efeitos adversos , 1-Metil-4-fenilpiridínio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cisteamina/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutarredoxinas/química , Glutarredoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Substância Negra/química
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199520

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by loss of function of PKD1 (polycystin 1) or PKD2 (polycystin 2). The Ca2+-activated Cl- channel TMEM16A has a central role in ADPKD. Expression and function of TMEM16A is upregulated in ADPKD which causes enhanced intracellular Ca2+ signaling, cell proliferation, and ion secretion. We analyzed kidneys from Pkd1 knockout mice and found a more pronounced phenotype in males compared to females, despite similar levels of expression for renal tubular TMEM16A. Cell proliferation, which is known to be enhanced with loss of Pkd1-/-, was larger in male when compared to female Pkd1-/- cells. This was paralleled by higher basal intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in primary renal epithelial cells isolated from Pkd1-/- males. The results suggest enhanced intracellular Ca2+ levels contributing to augmented cell proliferation and cyst development in male kidneys. Enhanced resting Ca2+ also caused larger basal chloride currents in male primary cells, as detected in patch clamp recordings. Incubation of mouse primary cells, mCCDcl1 collecting duct cells or M1 collecting duct cells with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhanced basal Ca2+ levels and increased basal and ATP-stimulated TMEM16A chloride currents. Taken together, the more severe cystic phenotype in males is likely to be caused by enhanced cell proliferation, possibly due to enhanced basal and ATP-induced intracellular Ca2+ levels, leading to enhanced TMEM16A currents. Augmented Ca2+ signaling is possibly due to enhanced expression of Ca2+ transporting/regulating proteins.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPP/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cloretos/metabolismo , Di-Hidrotestosterona/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Doenças Renais Policísticas/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Policísticas/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199599

RESUMO

Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is an important transcription factor modulating gene transcription involved in endocrine control of liver metabolism. Transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), a carrier protein for transferrin, is involved in hepatic iron overload in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, TFR2 gene transcriptional regulation in hepatocytes remains largely unknown. In this study, we described a detailed molecular mechanism of hepatic TFR2 gene expression involving ERRγ in response to an endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Treatment with 2-AG and arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide, a selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor agonist, increased ERRγ and TFR2 expression in hepatocytes. Overexpression of ERRγ was sufficient to induce TFR2 expression in both human and mouse hepatocytes. In addition, ERRγ knockdown significantly decreased 2-AG or alcohol-mediated TFR2 gene expression in cultured hepatocytes and mouse livers. Finally, deletion and mutation analysis of the TFR2 gene promoter demonstrated that ERRγ directly modulated TFR2 gene transcription via binding to an ERR-response element. This was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, these results reveal a previously unrecognized role of ERRγ in the transcriptional regulation of TFR2 gene expression in response to alcohol.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores da Transferrina/genética , Álcoois/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerídeos/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Transferrina/genética , Transferrina/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199668

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by elevated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The black soybean seed coat is a rich source of anthocyanins with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of black soybean anthocyanin extract (BSAn) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in a coculture system of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Coculture of adipocytes with macrophages increased the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators and cytokines (NO, MCP-1, PGE2, TNFα, and IL-6) and the release of free fatty acids but reduced anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion. BSAn treatment (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) alleviated the coculture-induced changes (p < 0.001) and inhibited coculture-induced activation of JNK and ERK signaling (p < 0.01). BSAn also blocked the migration of RAW264.7 macrophages toward 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, treatment with BSAn increased PPARγ expression and glucose uptake in response to insulin in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocyte and RAW264.7 macrophage coculture (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that BSAn attenuates inflammatory responses and improves adipocyte metabolic function in the coculture of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting the effectiveness of BSAn for obesity-induced insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the population, is characterised by epidermal hyperplasia, a sustained pro-inflammatory immune response and is primarily a T-cell driven disease. Previous work determined that Connexin26 is upregulated in psoriatic tissue. This study extends these findings. METHODS: Biopsies spanning psoriatic plaque (PP) and non-involved tissue (PN) were compared to normal controls (NN). RNA was isolated and subject to real-time PCR to determine gene expression profiles, including GJB2/CX26, GJB6/CX30 and GJA1/CX43. Protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated and used in 3D organotypic models. The pro-inflammatory status of fibroblasts and 3D cultures was assessed via ELISA and RnD cytokine arrays in the presence or absence of the connexin channel blocker Gap27. RESULTS: Connexin26 expression is dramatically enhanced at both transcriptional and translational level in PP and PN tissue compared to NN (>100x). In contrast, CX43 gene expression is not affected, but the protein is post-translationally modified and accumulates in psoriatic tissue. Fibroblasts isolated from psoriatic patients had a higher inflammatory index than normal fibroblasts and drove normal keratinocytes to adopt a "psoriatic phenotype" in a 3D-organotypic model. Exposure of normal fibroblasts to the pro-inflammatory mediator peptidoglycan, isolated from Staphylococcus aureus enhanced cytokine release, an event protected by Gap27. CONCLUSION: dysregulation of the connexin26:43 expression profile in psoriatic tissue contributes to an imbalance of cellular events. Inhibition of connexin signalling reduces pro-inflammatory events and may hold therapeutic benefit.


Assuntos
Conexinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Psoríase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Conexinas/metabolismo , Conexinas/farmacologia , Epiderme/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/isolamento & purificação , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoríase/patologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208159

RESUMO

B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome c (Cycs) are two important proteins relevant to cellular apoptosis. In this study, we characterized the functions of the promoter regions of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Cycs, in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We obtained a 1989 bp Bcl-2 promoter and an 1830 bp Cycs promoter and predicted several key transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) on the promoters, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), forkhead box O (FOXO), metal-responsive element (MRE) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α). Zinc (Zn) increased the activities of the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased the activities of the Cycs promoter. Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and HNF-1α directly bound with Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, and they positively regulated the activity of the Bcl-2 promoter but negatively regulated the activity of the Cycs promoter. Zn promoted the binding ability of HNF-1α to the Bcl-2 promoter but decreased its binding ability to the Cycs promoter. However, Zn had no significant effect on the binding capability of MTF-1 to the regions of Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters. Zn upregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Bcl-2 but downregulated the mRNA and total protein expression of Cycs. At the same time, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed that Zn significantly reduced the apoptosis of primary hepatocytes. For the first time, our study provides evidence for the MRE and HNF-1α response elements on the Bcl-2 and Cycs promoters, offering new insight into the mechanism by which Zn affects apoptosis in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Peixes-Gato/genética , Citocromos c/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208434

RESUMO

Skullcapflavone II (SFII), a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, its therapeutic potential for skin inflammatory diseases and its mechanism are unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of SFII on TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-associated cytokines, such as thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). Co-stimulation with TNF-α/IFN-γ in HaCaT cells is a well-established model for induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We treated cells with SFII prior to TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulation and confirmed that it significantly inhibited TARC and MDC expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, SFII also inhibited the expression of cathepsin S (CTSS), which is associated with itching in patients with AD. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that STAT1, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK mediate TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC, as well as CTSS expression. Finally, we confirmed that SFII significantly suppressed TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of STAT1, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK. Taken together, our study indicates that SFII inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC, MDC, and CTSS expression by regulating STAT1, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Catepsinas/biossíntese , Quimiocina CCL17/biossíntese , Quimiocina CCL22/biossíntese , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Catepsinas/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL17/genética , Quimiocina CCL22/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063126

RESUMO

Hypergravity conditions may subject the kidney to intrinsic stress and lead to hemodynamic kidney dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (i.e., ER stress) is often observed in kidney diseases. Therefore, this study investigated whether hypergravity stress alters acetaminophen-induced renal toxicity in vivo, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to one or three loads of +9 Gx hypergravity for 1 h with or without acetaminophen (APAP) treatment. The protein levels of cell survival markers, including pAKT and pCREB, were decreased in the kidney after acetaminophen treatment with a single hypergravity load. Additionally, the combined treatment increased kidney injury markers, serum creatinine, and Bax, Bcl2, and Kim-1 transcript levels and enhanced ER stress-related markers were further. Moreover, multiple hypergravity loads enabled mice to overcome kidney injury, as indicated by decreases in serum creatinine content and ER stress marker levels, along with increased cell viability indices. Similarly, multiple hypergravity loads plus APAP elevated miR-122 levels in the kidney, which likely originated from the liver, as the levels of primary miR-122 increased only in the liver and not the kidney. Importantly, this phenomenon may contribute to overcoming hypergravity-induced kidney injury. Taken together, our results demonstrate that APAP-exposed mice submitted to a single load of hypergravity exhibited more pronounced kidney dysfunction due to increased ER stress, which may be overcome by repetitive hypergravity loads presumably due to increased production of miR-122 in the liver. Thus, our study provides novel insights into the mechanisms by which hypergravity stress plus APAP medication induce kidney injury, which may be overcome by repeated hypergravity exposure.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipergravidade , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066474

RESUMO

Corneal endothelial dystrophy is a relevant cause of vision loss and corneal transplantation worldwide. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in an in vitro model of corneal dystrophy, characterized by endoplasmic reticulum stress. The effects of MSC-EVs were compared with those of serum-derived EVs, reported to display a pro-angiogenic activity. MSC-EVs were able to induce a significant down-regulation of the large majority of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes in human corneal endothelial cells after exposure to serum deprivation and tunicamycin. In parallel, they upregulated the Akt pathway and limited caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. At variance, the effect of the serum EVs was mainly limited to Akt phosphorylation, with minimal or absent effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress modulation and apoptosis prevention. The effects of MSC-EVs were correlated to the transfer of numerous endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress targeting miRNAs to corneal endothelial cells. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MSC-EVs for corneal endothelial endoplasmic reticulum stress, a major player in corneal endothelial dystrophy.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Separação Celular , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tunicamicina/farmacologia
14.
Open Biol ; 11(6): 210069, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102081

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked unprecedented societal havoc worldwide. The infected individuals may present mild to severe symptoms, with nearly 20% of the confirmed patients impaired with significant complications, including multi-organ failure. Acute respiratory distress imposed by SARS-CoV-2 largely results from an aggravated cytokine storm and deregulated immune response. The forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are reported to play a significant role in maintaining normal cell physiology by regulating survival, apoptosis, oxidative stress, development and maturation of T and B lymphocytes, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, etc. We propose a potent anti-inflammatory approach based on activation of the FoxO as an attractive strategy against the novel coronavirus. This regime will be focused on restoring redox and inflammatory homeostasis along with repair of the damaged tissue, activation of lymphocyte effector and memory cells. Repurposing FoxO activators as a means to alleviate the inflammatory burst following SARS-CoV-2 infection can prove immensely valuable in the ongoing pandemic and provide a reliable groundwork for enriching our repertoire of antiviral modalities for any such complication in the future. Altogether, our review highlights the possible efficacy of FoxO activation as a novel arsenal for clinical management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Descoberta de Drogas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Oxirredução , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3686, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140498

RESUMO

Tumour hypoxia is associated with poor patient prognosis and therapy resistance. A unique transcriptional response is initiated by hypoxia which includes the rapid activation of numerous transcription factors in a background of reduced global transcription. Here, we show that the biological response to hypoxia includes the accumulation of R-loops and the induction of the RNA/DNA helicase SETX. In the absence of hypoxia-induced SETX, R-loop levels increase, DNA damage accumulates, and DNA replication rates decrease. Therefore, suggesting that, SETX plays a role in protecting cells from DNA damage induced during transcription in hypoxia. Importantly, we propose that the mechanism of SETX induction in hypoxia is reliant on the PERK/ATF4 arm of the unfolded protein response. These data not only highlight the unique cellular response to hypoxia, which includes both a replication stress-dependent DNA damage response and an unfolded protein response but uncover a novel link between these two distinct pathways.


Assuntos
Hipóxia Celular , Dano ao DNA/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Enzimas Multifuncionais/metabolismo , Estruturas R-Loop/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Enzimas Multifuncionais/genética , Inibidores da Síntese de Ácido Nucleico/farmacologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Estruturas R-Loop/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA-Seq , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima , Zinostatina/farmacologia , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062902

RESUMO

Currently utilized antidepressants have limited effectiveness and frequently incur undesired effects. Most antidepressants are thought to act via the inhibition of monoamine reuptake; however, direct binding to monoaminergic receptors has been proposed to contribute to both their clinical effectiveness and their side effects, or lack thereof. Among the target receptors of antidepressants, α1­adrenergic receptors (ARs) have been implicated in depression etiology, antidepressant action, and side effects. However, differences in the direct effects of antidepressants on signaling from the three subtypes of α1-ARs, namely, α1A-, α1B- and α1D­ARs, have been little explored. We utilized cell lines overexpressing α1A-, α1B- or α1D-ARs to investigate the effects of the antidepressants imipramine (IMI), desipramine (DMI), mianserin (MIA), reboxetine (REB), citalopram (CIT) and fluoxetine (FLU) on noradrenaline-induced second messenger generation by those receptors. We found similar orders of inhibition at α1A-AR (IMI < DMI < CIT < MIA < REB) and α1D­AR (IMI = DMI < CIT < MIA), while the α1B-AR subtype was the least engaged subtype and was inhibited with low potency by three drugs (MIA < IMI = DMI). In contrast to their direct antagonistic effects, prolonged incubation with IMI and DMI increased the maximal response of the α1B-AR subtype, and the CIT of both the α1A- and the α1B-ARs. Our data demonstrate a complex, subtype-specific modulation of α1-ARs by antidepressants of different groups.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/genética , Animais , Antidepressivos/classificação , Citalopram/farmacologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/patologia , Desipramina/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imipramina/farmacologia , Mianserina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células PC12 , Ratos , Reboxetina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3362, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099692

RESUMO

Diabetes can be caused by an insufficiency in ß-cell mass. Here, we performed a genetic screen in a zebrafish model of ß-cell loss to identify pathways promoting ß-cell regeneration. We found that both folate receptor 1 (folr1) overexpression and treatment with folinic acid, stimulated ß-cell differentiation in zebrafish. Treatment with folinic acid also stimulated ß-cell differentiation in cultures of neonatal pig islets, showing that the effect could be translated to a mammalian system. In both zebrafish and neonatal pig islets, the increased ß-cell differentiation originated from ductal cells. Mechanistically, comparative metabolomic analysis of zebrafish with/without ß-cell ablation and with/without folinic acid treatment indicated ß-cell regeneration could be attributed to changes in the pyrimidine, carnitine, and serine pathways. Overall, our results suggest evolutionarily conserved and previously unknown roles for folic acid and one-carbon metabolism in the generation of ß-cells.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Carnitina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Suínos , Peixe-Zebra/genética
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063487

RESUMO

Conflicting reports exist with regard to the effect of ecdysterone, the predominating representative of steroid hormones in insects and plants, on hepatic and plasma lipid concentrations in different rodent models of obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes, indicating that the effect is dependent on the rodent model used. Here, the hypothesis was tested for the first time that ecdysterone causes lipid-lowering effects in genetically obese Zucker rats. To test this hypothesis, two groups of male obese Zucker rats (n = 8) were fed a nutrient-adequate diet supplemented without or with 0.5 g ecdysterone per kg diet. To study further if ecdysterone is capable of alleviating the strong lipid-synthetic activity in the liver of obese Zucker rats, the study included also two groups of male lean Zucker rats (n = 8) which also received either the ecdysterone-supplemented or the non-supplemented diet. While hepatic and plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were markedly higher in the obese compared to the lean rats (p < 0.05), hepatic and plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations did not differ between rats of the same genotype fed the diets without or with ecdysterone. In conclusion, the present study clearly shows that ecdysterone supplementation does not exhibit lipid-lowering actions in the liver and plasma of lean and obese Zucker rats.


Assuntos
Ecdisterona/metabolismo , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutosamina/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Zucker , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Genes Dev ; 35(13-14): 1005-1019, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281915

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification, influencing transcript fate and function in uninfected and virus-infected cells. Installation of m6A by the nuclear RNA methyltransferase METTL3 occurs cotranscriptionally; however, the genomes of some cytoplasmic RNA viruses are also m6A-modified. How the cellular m6A modification machinery impacts coronavirus replication, which occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, is unknown. Here we show that replication of SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and a seasonal human ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43, can be suppressed by depletion of METTL3 or cytoplasmic m6A reader proteins YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 and by a highly specific small molecule METTL3 inhibitor. Reduction of infectious titer correlates with decreased synthesis of viral RNAs and the essential nucleocapsid (N) protein. Sites of m6A modification on genomic and subgenomic RNAs of both viruses were mapped by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (meRIP-seq). Levels of host factors involved in m6A installation, removal, and recognition were unchanged by HCoV-OC43 infection; however, nuclear localization of METTL3 and cytoplasmic m6A readers YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 increased. This establishes that coronavirus RNAs are m6A-modified and host m6A pathway components control ß-coronavirus replication. Moreover, it illustrates the therapeutic potential of targeting the m6A pathway to restrict coronavirus reproduction.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano OC43/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236794

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anilidas/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/virologia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/uso terapêutico , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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