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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502105

RESUMO

The human brain and central nervous system (CNS) harbor a select sub-group of potentially pathogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), including a well-characterized NF-kB-sensitive Homo sapiens microRNA hsa-miRNA-146a-5p (miRNA-146a). miRNA-146a is significantly over-expressed in progressive and often lethal viral- and prion-mediated and related neurological syndromes associated with progressive inflammatory neurodegeneration. These include ~18 different viral-induced encephalopathies for which data are available, at least ~10 known prion diseases (PrD) of animals and humans, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other sporadic and progressive age-related neurological disorders. Despite the apparent lack of nucleic acids in prions, both DNA- and RNA-containing viruses along with prions significantly induce miRNA-146a in the infected host, but whether this represents part of the host's adaptive immunity, innate-immune response or a mechanism to enable the invading prion or virus a successful infection is not well understood. Current findings suggest an early and highly interactive role for miRNA-146a: (i) as a major small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) regulator of innate-immune responses and inflammatory signaling in cells of the human brain and CNS; (ii) as a critical component of the complement system and immune-related neurological dysfunction; (iii) as an inducible sncRNA of the brain and CNS that lies at a critical intersection of several important neurobiological adaptive immune response processes with highly interactive associations involving complement factor H (CFH), Toll-like receptor pathways, the innate-immunity, cytokine production, apoptosis and neural cell decline; and (iv) as a potential biomarker for viral infection, TSE and AD and other neurological diseases in both animals and humans. In this report, we review the recent data supporting the idea that miRNA-146a may represent a novel and unique sncRNA-based biomarker for inflammatory neurodegeneration in multiple species. This paper further reviews the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and mechanism of miRNA-146a in viral and prion infection of the human brain and CNS with reference to AD wherever possible.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/imunologia , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502134

RESUMO

The current spreading coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three host receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) of SARS coronaviruses and dendritic cells (DCs) status in bulk and single cell transcriptomic datasets of upper airway, lung or blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. In COVID-19 patients, DC-SIGN gene expression was interestingly decreased in lung DCs but increased in blood DCs. Within DCs, conventional DCs (cDCs) were depleted while plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) were augmented in the lungs of mild COVID-19. In severe cases, we identified augmented types of immature DCs (CD22+ or ANXA1+ DCs) with MHCII downregulation. In this study, our observation indicates that DCs in severe cases stimulate innate immune responses but fail to specifically present SARS-CoV-2. It provides insights into the profound modulation of DC function in severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4882, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385466

RESUMO

Genetic variants of the interferon lambda (IFNL) gene locus are strongly associated with spontaneous and IFN treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Individuals with the ancestral IFNL4-dG allele are not able to clear HCV in the acute phase and have more than a 90% probability to develop chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Paradoxically, the IFNL4-dG allele encodes a fully functional IFNλ4 protein with antiviral activity against HCV. Here we describe an effect of IFNλ4 on HCV antigen presentation. Only minor amounts of IFNλ4 are secreted, because the protein is largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it induces ER stress. Stressed cells are significantly weaker activators of HCV specific CD8+ T cells than unstressed cells. This is not due to reduced MHC I surface presentation or extracellular IFNλ4 effects, since T cell responses are restored by exogenous loading of MHC with HCV antigens. Rather, IFNλ4 induced ER stress impairs HCV antigen processing and/or loading onto the MHC I complex. Our results provide a potential explanation for the IFNλ4-HCV paradox.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Células A549 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 652223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367128

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and presents a significant public health issue. Current therapies used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include monoclonal antibody cocktail, convalescent plasma, antivirals, immunomodulators, and anticoagulants. The vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna have recently been authorized for emergency use, which are invaluable for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their long-term side effects are not yet documented, and populations with immunocompromised conditions (e.g., organ-transplantation and immunodeficient patients) may not be able to mount an effective immune response. In addition, there are concerns that wide-scale immunity to SARS-CoV-2 may introduce immune pressure that could select for escape mutants to the existing vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies. Emerging evidence has shown that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)- natural killer (NK) immunotherapy has potent antitumor response in hematologic cancers with minimal adverse effects in recent studies, however, the potentials of CAR-NK cells in treating COVID-19 has not yet been fully exploited. Here, we improve upon a novel approach for the generation of CAR-NK cells for targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its various mutants. CAR-NK cells were generated using the scFv domain of S309 (henceforward, S309-CAR-NK), a SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAbs) that targets the highly conserved region of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein and is therefore more likely to recognize different variants of SARS-CoV-2 isolates. S309-CAR-NK cells can specifically bind to pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and its D614G, N501Y, and E484K mutants. Furthermore, S309-CAR-NK cells can specifically kill target cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein in vitro and show superior killing activity and cytokine production, compared to that of the recently reported CR3022-CAR-NK cells. Thus, these results pave the way for generating 'off-the-shelf' S309-CAR-NK cells for treatment in high-risk individuals as well as provide an alternative strategy for patients unresponsive to current vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células A549 , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/terapia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 694355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367154

RESUMO

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) corona virus (CoV) infections are a serious public health threat because of their pandemic-causing potential. This work is the first to analyze mRNA expression data from SARS infections through meta-analysis of gene signatures, possibly identifying therapeutic targets associated with major SARS infections. Methods: This work defines 37 gene signatures representing SARS-CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV2 infections in human lung cultures and/or mouse lung cultures or samples and compares them through Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). To do this, positive and negative infectious clone SARS (icSARS) gene panels are defined from GSEA-identified leading-edge genes between two icSARS-CoV derived signatures, both from human cultures. GSEA then is used to assess enrichment and identify leading-edge icSARS panel genes between icSARS gene panels and 27 other SARS-CoV gene signatures. The meta-analysis is expanded to include five MERS-CoV and three SARS-CoV2 gene signatures. Genes associated with SARS infection are predicted by examining the intersecting membership of GSEA-identified leading-edges across gene signatures. Results: Significant enrichment (GSEA p<0.001) is observed between two icSARS-CoV derived signatures, and those leading-edge genes defined the positive (233 genes) and negative (114 genes) icSARS panels. Non-random significant enrichment (null distribution p<0.001) is observed between icSARS panels and all verification icSARSvsmock signatures derived from human cultures, from which 51 over- and 22 under-expressed genes are shared across leading-edges with 10 over-expressed genes already associated with icSARS infection. For the icSARSvsmock mouse signature, significant, non-random significant enrichment held for only the positive icSARS panel, from which nine genes are shared with icSARS infection in human cultures. Considering other SARS strains, significant, non-random enrichment (p<0.05) is observed across signatures derived from other SARS strains for the positive icSARS panel. Five positive icSARS panel genes, CXCL10, OAS3, OASL, IFIT3, and XAF1, are found across mice and human signatures regardless of SARS strains. Conclusion: The GSEA-based meta-analysis approach used here identifies genes with and without reported associations with SARS-CoV infections, highlighting this approach's predictability and usefulness in identifying genes that have potential as therapeutic targets to preclude or overcome SARS infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos
6.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1152-1162, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385712

RESUMO

The transcription factor TCF-1 is essential for the development and function of regulatory T (Treg) cells; however, its function is poorly understood. Here, we show that TCF-1 primarily suppresses transcription of genes that are co-bound by Foxp3. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis identified effector memory T cells and central memory Treg cells with differential expression of Klf2 and memory and activation markers. TCF-1 deficiency did not change the core Treg cell transcriptional signature, but promoted alternative signaling pathways whereby Treg cells became activated and gained gut-homing properties and characteristics of the TH17 subset of helper T cells. TCF-1-deficient Treg cells strongly suppressed T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, but were compromised in controlling CD4+ T cell polarization and inflammation. In mice with polyposis, Treg cell-specific TCF-1 deficiency promoted tumor growth. Consistently, tumor-infiltrating Treg cells of patients with colorectal cancer showed lower TCF-1 expression and increased TH17 expression signatures compared to adjacent normal tissue and circulating T cells. Thus, Treg cell-specific TCF-1 expression differentially regulates TH17-mediated inflammation and T cell cytotoxicity, and can determine colorectal cancer outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/imunologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Transcrição Genética/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445801

RESUMO

The cytoplasmic retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) initiate interferon (IFN) production and antiviral gene expression in response to RNA virus infection. Consequently, RLR signalling is tightly regulated by both host and viral factors. Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) is an E3 ligase that ubiquitinates multiple substrates within the RLR signalling cascade, playing both ubiquitination-dependent and -independent roles in RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. However, additional regulatory roles are emerging. Here, we show a novel interaction between TRIM25 and another protein in the RLR pathway that is essential for type I IFN induction, DEAD-box helicase 3X (DDX3X). In vitro assays and knockdown studies reveal that TRIM25 ubiquitinates DDX3X at lysine 55 (K55) and that TRIM25 and DDX3X cooperatively enhance IFNB1 induction following RIG-I activation, but the latter is independent of TRIM25's catalytic activity. Furthermore, we found that the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) disrupts the TRIM25:DDX3X interaction, abrogating both TRIM25-mediated ubiquitination of DDX3X and cooperative activation of the IFNB1 promoter. Thus, our results reveal a new interplay between two RLR-host proteins that cooperatively enhance IFN-ß production. We also uncover a new and further mechanism by which influenza A virus NS1 suppresses host antiviral defence.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Proteína DEAD-box 58/imunologia , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/imunologia , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Ubiquitinação/imunologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394094

RESUMO

Background: Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are considered to participate of the host immune response against acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, single-cell transcriptomic profiling of MAIT cells in patients with COVID-19 remains unexplored. Methods: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing analyses on peripheral MAIT cells from 13 patients with COVID-19 and 5 healthy donors. The transcriptional profiles of MAIT cells, together with assembled T-cell receptor sequences, were analyzed. Flow cytometry analysis was also performed to investigate the properties of MAIT cells. Results: We identified that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of MAIT cells were involved in myeloid leukocyte activation and lymphocyte activation in patients with COVID-19. In addition, in MAIT cells from severe cases, more DEGs were enriched in adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses compared with those in moderate cases. Further analysis indicated that the increase of cell cytotoxicity (killing), chemotaxis, and apoptosis levels in MAIT cells were consistent with disease severity and displayed the highest levels in patients with severe disease. Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis showed that the frequencies of pyroptotic MAIT cells, but not the frequencies of apoptotic MAIT cells, were increased significantly in patients with COVID-19, suggesting pyroptosis is one of leading causes of MAIT cell deaths during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, there were more clonal expansions of MAIT cells in severe cases than in moderate cases. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that MAIT cells are likely to be involved in the host immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Simultaneously, the transcriptomic data from MAIT cells provides a deeper understanding of the immune pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequência de Bases , COVID-19/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Piroptose/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Éxons VDJ/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4372, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272370

RESUMO

Intrarenal B cells in human renal allografts indicate transplant recipients with a poor prognosis, but how these cells contribute to rejection is unclear. Here we show using single-cell RNA sequencing that intrarenal class-switched B cells have an innate cell transcriptional state resembling mouse peritoneal B1 or B-innate (Bin) cells. Antibodies generated by Bin cells do not bind donor-specific antigens nor are they enriched for reactivity to ubiquitously expressed self-antigens. Rather, Bin cells frequently express antibodies reactive with either renal-specific or inflammation-associated antigens. Furthermore, local antigens can drive Bin cell proliferation and differentiation into plasma cells expressing self-reactive antibodies. These data show a mechanism of human inflammation in which a breach in organ-restricted tolerance by infiltrating innate-like B cells drives local tissue destruction.


Assuntos
Aloenxertos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Tonsila Palatina/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299019

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. Although previous studies have shown that histidine decarboxylase (HDC), a histamine-synthesizing enzyme, is involved in the stress response and heart remodeling after MI, the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. In this study, using Hdc-deficient mice (Hdc-/- mice), we established an acute myocardial infarction mouse model to explore the potential roles of Hdc/histamine in cardiac immune responses. Comprehensive analysis was performed on the transcriptomes of infarcted hearts. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis identified 2126 DEGs in Hdc-deficient groups and 1013 in histamine-treated groups. Immune related pathways were enriched in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Then we used the ssGSEA algorithm to evaluate 22 kinds of infiltrated immunocytes, which indicated that myeloid cells and T memory/follicular helper cells were tightly regulated by Hdc/histamine post MI. The relationships of lncRNAs and the Gene Ontology (GO) functions of protein-coding RNAs and immunocytes were dissected in networks to unveil immune-associated lncRNAs and their roles in immune modulation after MI. Finally, we screened out and verified four lncRNAs, which were closely implicated in tuning the immune responses after MI, including ENSMUST00000191157, ENSMUST00000180693 (PTPRE-AS1), and ENSMUST-00000182785. Our study highlighted the HDC-regulated myeloid cells as a driving force contributing to the government of transmission from innate immunocytes to adaptive immunocytes in the progression of the injury response after MI. We identified the potential role of the Hdc/histamine-lncRNAs network in regulating cardiac immune responses, which may provide novel promising therapeutic targets for further promoting the treatment of ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Histidina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Histidina Descarboxilase/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3684, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140495

RESUMO

Interaction between tumor cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is important in cancer development. Immune cells interact with the tumor cells to shape this process. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing analysis to delineate the immune landscape and tumor heterogeneity in a cohort of patients with HBV-associated human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that tumor-associated macrophages suppress tumor T cell infiltration and TIGIT-NECTIN2 interaction regulates the immunosuppressive environment. The cell state transition of immune cells towards a more immunosuppressive and exhaustive status exemplifies the overall cancer-promoting immunocellular landscape. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of global molecular profiles reveals co-existence of intra-tumoral and inter-tumoral heterogeneity, but is more apparent in the latter. This analysis of the immunosuppressive landscape and intercellular interactions provides mechanistic information for the design of efficacious immune-oncology treatments in hepatocellular carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Proliferação de Células , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nectinas/genética , Nectinas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Prognóstico , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1320-1330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112056

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus within the Filoviridae family and the causative agent of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Nonhuman primates (NHPs), including cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, are considered the gold standard animal model to interrogate mechanisms of EBOV pathogenesis. However, despite significant genetic similarity (>90%), NHP species display different clinical presentation following EBOV infection, notably a ∼1-2 days delay in disease progression. Consequently, evaluation of therapeutics is generally conducted in rhesus macaques, whereas cynomolgus macaques are utilized to determine efficacy of preventative treatments, notably vaccines. This observation is in line with reported differences in disease severity and host responses between these two NHP following infection with simian varicella virus, influenza A and SARS-CoV-2. However, the molecular underpinnings of these differential outcomes following viral infections remain poorly defined. In this study, we compared published transcriptional profiles obtained from cynomolgus and rhesus macaques infected with the EBOV-Makona Guinea C07 using bivariate and regression analyses to elucidate differences in host responses. We report the presence of a shared core of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) reflecting EVD pathology, including aberrant inflammation, lymphopenia, and coagulopathy. However, the magnitudes of change differed between the two macaque species. These findings suggest that the differential clinical presentation of EVD in these two species is mediated by altered transcriptional responses.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Humanos , Imunidade , Doenças dos Macacos/genética , Doenças dos Macacos/mortalidade , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 7-13, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062236

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is an intracellular protein that binds to the cytoplasmic portion of tumor necrosis factor receptors and mediates the activation of downstream nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), interferon regulatory factor 3, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Compared with other TRAF proteins, TRAF5 is largely unknown in teleosts. In the present study, a TRAF5 homologue (HgTRAF5) from the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♂ × Epinephelus lanceolatus♀) was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame of HgTRAF5 consists of 1743 nucleotides encoding a 581 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 64.90 kDa. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, HgTRAF5 contains an N-terminal RING finger domain, a zinc finger domain, and a C-terminal TRAF domain, including a coiled-coil domain and a MATH domain. HgTRAF5 shares 99.83% identity with giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) TRAF5. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that HgTRAF5 mRNA was broadly expressed in all examined tissues. The expression of HgTRAF5 increased after Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infection in grouper spleen (GS) cells. Intracellular localization analysis demonstrated that the full-length HgTRAF5 protein mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. HgTRAF5 overexpression also promoted SGIV replication during viral infection in vitro. HgTRAF5 significantly promoted the activities of interferon-ß, interferon-sensitive response element, and NF-κB. Taken together, these results are important for a better understanding of the function of TRAF5 in fish and reveal its involvement in the host response to immune challenge by SGIV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bass , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Ranavirus/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Fator 5 Associado a Receptor de TNF/química
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 104-111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062237

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTLs) are important pathogen pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures. In present study, a C-type lectin domain family 4 member E-like gene from turbot, which tentatively named SmCLEC4E-like (SmCLEC4EL), was identified, and the expressional and functional analyses were performed. In our results, SmCLEC4EL showed conserved synteny with CLEC4E-like genes from several fish species in genome, and possessed a typical type II transmembrane CTL architecture: an N-terminal intracellular region, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal extracellular region which contained a predicted carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). In addition, SmCLEC4EL exhibited the highest expression level in spleen in healthy fish, and showed significantly induced expression in mucosal tissues, intestine and skin, under bacteria challenge. Finally, the recombinant SmCLEC4EL protein combined with LPS, PGN, LTA and five different kinds of bacteria in a dose-dependent manner, and agglutinated these bacteria strains in the presence of calcium. These findings collectively demonstrated that SmCLEC4EL, a calcium-dependent CTL, could function as a pattern recognition receptor in pathogen recognition and participate in host anti-bacteria immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados/genética , Linguados/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peptidoglicano/farmacologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ácidos Teicoicos/farmacologia
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 75-85, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091036

RESUMO

Thioredoxin domain-containing protein 17 (TXNDC17) is an important, highly conserved oxidoreductase protein, ubiquitously expressed in all living organisms. It is a small (~14 kDa) protein mostly co-expressed with thioredoxin 1 (TRx1). In the present study, we obtained the TXNDC17 gene sequence from a previously constructed yellowtail clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) (AcTXNDC17) database and studied its phylogeny as well as the protein's molecular characteristics, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. The full length of the AcTXNDC17 cDNA sequence was 862 bp with a 372 bp region encoding a 123 amino acid (aa) protein. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of AcTXNDC17 were 14.2 kDa and 5.75, respectively. AcTXNDC17 contained a TRX-related protein 14 domain and a highly conserved N-terminal Cys43-Pro44-Asp45-Cys46 motif. qPCR analysis revealed that AcTXNDC17 transcripts were ubiquitously and differently expressed in all the examined tissues. AcTXNDC17 expression in the spleen tissue was significantly upregulated in a time-dependent manner upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic-polycytidylic (poly I:C), and Vibrio harveyi. Besides, LPS-induced intrinsic apoptotic pathway (TNF-α, caspase-8, Bid, cytochrome C, caspase-9, and caspase-3) gene expression was significantly lower in AcTXNDC17-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells, as were NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Furthermore, the viability of H2O2-stimulated macrophages was significantly improved under AcTXNDC17 overexpression. Collectively, our findings indicate that AcTXNDC17 is involved in the innate immune response of the yellowtail clownfish.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/genética , Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Tiorredoxinas/química , Vibrio/fisiologia , Vibrioses/imunologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 142-149, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147612

RESUMO

Both the activation and attenuation of MAVS/IFN signaling are critical for host defensing against viral infection and thus lead to an elaborate regulation of MAVS-mediated signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms concerning MAVS/IFN signaling in teleost fish are not well understood. RIPK3 has been identified as a key regulator of necroptosis, apoptosis, and inflammatory signaling in human and mammals. Here we report the identification of the RIPK3 homologue from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (bcRIPK3) and describe its role in regulating MAVS/IFN signaling. qPCR results demonstrated that bcRIPK3 was transcriptionally activated in response to poly (I:C) or LPS stimulation. Immunoblot assay and immunofluorescent staining assay showed that bcRIPK3 was a cytosolic protein with molecular weights of 47 kDa. Like its mammalian counterparts, bcRIPK3 exhibited a conserved function in inducing cell death. The reporter assay and plaque assay showed that overexpression of bcRIPK3 restricted bcMAVS-activated transcription of the interferon promoters of black carp and zebrafish, and suppressed bcMAVS-mediated antiviral activity. Notably, EPC cells co-expressing bcRIPK3, bcRIPK1 and bcMAVS presented much attenuated antiviral activity than the cells co-expressing bcRIPK3 and bcMAVS; and the subsequent co-IP assay identified the interaction between bcRIPK3 and bcRIPK1. Our findings collectively elucidate for the first time in teleost that black carp RIPK3 interacts with RIPK1 to inhibit MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Filogenia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/química , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/imunologia , Rhabdoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 160-170, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147614

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTL) are a large group of pattern-recognition proteins and to play important roles in glycoprotein metabolism, multicellular integration, and immunity. Based on their overall domain structure, they can be classified as different groups that possess different physiological functions. A typical C-type lectin (named as OmLec1) was identified from the fish, Onychostoma macrolepis, an important cultured fish in China. Open reading frame of OmLec1 contains a 570 bp, encoding a protein of 189 amino acids that includes a signal peptide and a single carbohydrate-recognition domain. The phylogenetic analysis showed that OmLec1 could be grouped with C-type lectin from other fish. OmLec1 was expressed in all the tissues in our study, and the expression level was highest in liver. And its relative expression levels were significantly upregulated following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. The recombinant OmLec1 protein (rOmLec1) could agglutinate some Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro in the presence of Ca2+, showing a typical Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. Furthermore, rOmLec1 purified from E. coli BL21 (DE3), strongly bound to LPS and PGN, as well as all tested bacteria in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that OmLec1 plays a central role in the innate immune response and as a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes diverse pathogens among O. macrolepis.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
18.
Clin Immunol ; 229: 108765, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089859

RESUMO

Whether and how an acute immune challenge may affect DNA Damage Response (DDR) is unknown. By studying vaccinations against Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-based) we found acute increases of type-I interferon-inducible gene expression, oxidative stress and DNA damage accumulation in blood mononuclear cells of 9 healthy controls, coupled with effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody production in all. Increased DNA damage after SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, partly due to increased oxidative stress, was transient, whereas the inherent DNA repair capacity was found intact. In contrast, in 26 patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, who served as controls in the context of chronic immune activation, we validated increased DNA damage accumulation, increased type-I interferon-inducible gene expression and induction of oxidative stress, however aberrant DDR was associated with deficiencies in nucleotide excision repair pathways. These results indicate that acute immune challenge can indeed activate DDR pathways, whereas, contrary to chronic immune challenge, successful repair of DNA lesions occurs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/fisiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dano ao DNA , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26499, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ damage and the production of a variety of autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of SLE has not been fully defined, and it is difficult to treat. Our study aimed to identify candidate genes that may be used as biomarkers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of SLE. METHODS: We used the GEO2R tool to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SLE-related datasets retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). In addition, we also identified the biological functions of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. Additionally, we constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to identify hub genes, as well as the regulatory network of transcription factors related to DEGs. RESULTS: Two datasets were identified for use from the GEO (GSE50772, GSE4588), and 34 up-regulated genes and 4 down-regulated genes were identified by GEO2R. Pathway analysis of the DEGs revealed enrichment of the interferon alpha/beta signaling pathway; GO analysis was mainly enriched in response to interferon alpha, regulation of ribonuclease activity. PPIs were constructed through the STRING database and 14 hub genes were selected and 1 significant module (score = 12.923) was obtained from the PPI network. Additionally, 11 key transcription factors that interacted closely with the 14 hub DEGs were identified from the gene transcription factor network. CONCLUSIONS: Bioinformatic analysis is an effective tool for screening the original genomic data in the GEO database, and a large number of SLE-related DEGs were identified. The identified hub DEGs may be potential biomarkers of SLE.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Biologia Computacional , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(12): 2561-2569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104087

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we performed data mining and longitudinal data analysis using SARS-CoV-2-infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and ferrets, and the results confirmed the strong inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the induction of I-IFNs. Moreover, we identified genes that are negatively correlated with IFNB1 expression in vitro and in vivo based on Pearson correlation analysis. We found that SARS-CoV-2 activates numerous intrinsic pathways, such as the circadian rhythm, phosphatidylinositol signaling system, peroxisome, and TNF signaling pathways, to inhibit I-IFNs. These intrinsic inhibitory pathways jointly facilitate the successful immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2. Our study elucidates the underlying mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades the host innate antiviral response in vitro and in vivo, providing theoretical evidence for targeting these immune evasion-associated pathways to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , Brônquios/citologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Furões , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
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