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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 234, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) are considered as a major cause of diarrhea and death in newly weaned piglets. Oral passive immunization with chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) have attracted considerable attention for treatment of gastrointestinal infection due to its high specificity. In this study it was estimated the protective effect of anti-K88 fimbriae IgY against E. coli K88 adhesion to piglet intestinal mucus in vitro and to investigate the potential use of IgY for controlling E. coli-induced diarrhea in weaned piglets in vivo. RESULTS: E. coli K88 was incubated with IgY for 24 h, and the bacterial growth profiles showed that specific IgY with a concentration higher than 5 mg/mL was observed to significantly inhibit the growth of E. coli K88 compared to nonspecific yolk powder in a liquid medium. Moreover, pretreatment with 50 mg/mL of IgY was found to significantly decrease the adhesion ability of E. coli K88 to porcine jejunal and ileal mucus, further supported by the observations from our immunofluorescence microscopic analysis. In vivo, administration of IgY successfully protected piglets from diarrhea caused by E. coli K88 challenge. Additionally, IgY treatment efficiently alleviated E. coli-induced intestinal inflammation in piglets as the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-22, IL-6 and IL-1ß in IgY-treated piglets remained unchanged after E. coli K88 infection. Furthermore, IgY significantly prevented E. coli K88 adhering to the jejunal and ileal mucosa of piglets with E. coli infection and significantly decreased E. coli and enterotoxin expression in colonic contents. CONCLUSION: Outcome of the study demonstrated that IgY against the fimbrial antigen K88 was able to significantly inhibit the growth of E. coli K88, block the binding of E. coli to small intestinal mucus, and protect piglets from E. coli-induced diarrhea. These results indicate that passive immunization with IgY may be useful to prevent bacterial colonization and to control enteric diseases due to E. coli infection. The study has great clinical implication to provide alternative therapy to antibiotics in E coli induced diarrhea.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/complicações , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/imunologia , Proteínas de Fímbrias/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2887, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253760

RESUMO

Understanding how immune challenges elicit different responses is critical for diagnosing and deciphering immune regulation. Using a modular strategy to interpret the complex transcriptional host response in mouse models of infection and inflammation, we show a breadth of immune responses in the lung. Lung immune signatures are dominated by either IFN-γ and IFN-inducible, IL-17-induced neutrophil- or allergy-associated gene expression. Type I IFN and IFN-γ-inducible, but not IL-17- or allergy-associated signatures, are preserved in the blood. While IL-17-associated genes identified in lung are detected in blood, the allergy signature is only detectable in blood CD4+ effector cells. Type I IFN-inducible genes are abrogated in the absence of IFN-γ signaling and decrease in the absence of IFNAR signaling, both independently contributing to the regulation of granulocyte responses and pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection. Our framework provides an ideal tool for comparative analyses of transcriptional signatures contributing to protection or pathogenesis in disease.


Assuntos
Candidíase/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Melioidose/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/metabolismo , Animais , Burkholderia pseudomallei , Candida albicans , Candidíase/imunologia , Candidíase/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Interferon Tipo I/sangue , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon gama/sangue , Interferon gama/genética , Pulmão , Melioidose/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta , Receptores de Interferon , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia
3.
Nature ; 571(7764): 211-218, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207603

RESUMO

Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Epistasia Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Genótipo , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral
4.
Nature ; 571(7764): 265-269, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207605

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T cells are essential mediators of protective immunity to viral infection and malignant tumours and are a key target of immunotherapy approaches. However, prolonged exposure to cognate antigens often attenuates the effector capacity of T cells and limits their therapeutic potential1-4. This process, known as T cell exhaustion or dysfunction1, is manifested by epigenetically enforced changes in gene regulation that reduce the expression of cytokines and effector molecules and upregulate the expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell-death 1 (PD-1)5-8. The underlying molecular mechanisms that induce and stabilize the phenotypic and functional features of exhausted T cells remain poorly understood9-12. Here we report that the development and maintenance of populations of exhausted T cells in mice requires the thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box (TOX) protein13-15. TOX is induced by high antigen stimulation of the T cell receptor and correlates with the presence of an exhausted phenotype during chronic infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice and hepatitis C virus in humans. Removal of its DNA-binding domain reduces the expression of PD-1 at the mRNA and protein level, augments the production of cytokines and results in a more polyfunctional T cell phenotype. T cells with this deletion initially mediate increased effector function and cause more severe immunopathology, but ultimately undergo a massive decline in their quantity, notably among the subset of TCF-1+ self-renewing T cells. Altogether, we show that TOX is a critical factor for the normal progression of T cell dysfunction and the maintenance of exhausted T cells during chronic infection, and provide a link between the suppression of effector function intrinsic to CD8 T cells and protection against immunopathology.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Coriomeningite Linfocítica/virologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Vírus da Coriomeningite Linfocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Timócitos/citologia , Timócitos/imunologia , Transcrição Genética
5.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(3): 179-186, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187404

RESUMO

Endometrial epithelial cells play a key defensive role as part of the innate immune response of cow uterus. An association between risk of acquiring infectious diseases and increased levels of free fatty acids postpartum has been suggested, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a beneficial strategy to improve immunity and fertility. The goal of our study was to demonstrate the presence of free fatty acid (FFA)-1 and 4 receptors in endometrial cells and to investigate their role on DHA interference in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory endometrial activation. We demonstrated that the bovine endometrial (BEND) cells line and bovine endometrium express both FFA1 and FFA4 receptors. FFA1 and FFA4 receptors were localized in the epithelium lining the endometrial cavity and in endometrial glands whereas in BEND cells a characteristic cell membrane localization of both receptors was observed. DHA, a FFA4 natural agonist, increased intracellular calcium mobilization in BEND cells, but the FFA1 agonists oleic and linoleic acids did not increase this response. DHA-induced intracellular calcium mobilization was inhibited by the FFA4 and FFA1 antagonists AH7614 and GW1100, respectively. DHA significantly reduced LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, but none of the antagonists reduced the effect produced by DHA. On the contrary, linoleic acid increased LPS-induced PGE2 production. In conclusion, endometrial cells express FFA4 and FFA1 receptors, and DHA induces intracellular calcium release via FFA4 and FFA1 receptors. DHA reduces PGE2, but this response was not mediated by FFA4 or FFA1 receptors.


Assuntos
Endométrio/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Endométrio/citologia , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2603, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197149

RESUMO

During thymic negative selection, autoreactive thymocytes carrying T cell receptor (TCR) with overtly strong affinity to self-MHC/self-peptide are removed by Bim-dependent apoptosis, but how Bim is specifically regulated to link TCR activation and apoptosis induction is unclear. Here we identify a murine T cell-specific genomic enhancer EBAB (Bub1-Acoxl-Bim), whose deletion leads to accumulation of thymocytes expressing high affinity TCRs. Consistently, EBAB knockout mice have defective negative selection and fail to delete autoreactive thymocytes in various settings, with this defect accompanied by reduced Bim expression and apoptosis induction. By contrast, EBAB is dispensable for maintaining peripheral T cell homeostasis via Bim-dependent pathways. Our data thus implicate EBAB as an important, developmental stage-specific regulator of Bim expression and apoptosis induction to enforce thymic negative selection and suppress autoimmunity. Our study unravels a part of genomic enhancer codes that underlie complex and context-dependent gene regulation in TCR signaling.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Timo/citologia , Timo/imunologia
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 297-307, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059811

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in defense response to pathogens in mollusk. In this study the first TLR from Sepiella japonica (named as SjTLR) was functionally characterized, and its full-length cDNA consisted of 3914bp (GenBank accession no. AQY56780.1) including an open reading frame of 3582bp, encoding a putative protein of 1193 amino acids. Its theoretical molecular weight was 137.87 KDa and the predicted isoelectric point was 3.69. The derived amino acids sequence comprised of an extracellular domain including 26 amino acids signal peptide and eleven leucine-rich repeats (LRR), capped with LRRCT and LRRNT followed by transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic Toll/IL-1R domain (TIR). In addition, 12 potential N-linked glycosylation sites were present in the ectodomain to influence protein trafficking, surface presentation and ligand recognition. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that SjTLR shared the highest similarity to that of Euprymna scolopes and they fell into the same clade. Real-time PCR showed SjTLR expressed constitutively in all tested tissues, including gill, liver, brain, muscle, intestine, heart, lobus opticus and stomach, but showed different expression levels with genders. The highest expression was in the liver, and the lowest was in stomach for both genders. The functional domain region sequences encoding LRRs domain protein and TIR domain containing protein (TcpB) were expressed in BL21(DE3) respectively and purified with Ni-NAT Superflow resin conforming to the expected molecular weight. The cellular localization of SjTLR in HEK293 cells was conducted and plasma membrane localization was detected. SjLRRs internalization upon the activation of LPS was also observed, and dramatic redistribution of SjLRRs in the cytoplasm with distinct perinuclear accumulation was found. After SjTLR transfection Toll/NF-κB signaling pathway was active in HEK293 treated with LPS and TNFɑ. The nuclear related genes may also be activated by NF-κB in the nucleus, and the corresponding mRNA was transferred through the intracellular signal transduction pathway, so that IL-6 cytokines could be synthesized and released. After infection by Vibrio parahemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila the expression of SjTLR were upregulated with time-dependent manner. These findings might be valuable for understanding the innate immune signaling pathways of S.japonica and enabling future studies on host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/genética , Decapodiformes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/química , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 413-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063803

RESUMO

Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are interferon (IFN)-inducible Dynamin-like GTPases, which play an important role in antiviral immunity. Three Mx genes (Mx1-3) have been cloned previously in rainbow trout. In this study, an additional six Mx genes were cloned that reside in four chromosomal loci. Further bioinformatics analysis suggests the presence of three teleost Mx groups (TMG) each with a characteristic gene organisation. Salmonid Mx belong to TMG1 and TMG2. The increased salmonid Mx gene copies are due mainly to local gene duplications that happened before and after salmonid speciation, in a lineage/species specific manner. Trout Mx molecules have been diversified in the loop 1 and 4 regions, and in the nuclear localisation signal in loop 4. The trout Mx genes were shown to be differentially expressed in tissues, with high levels of expression of TMG1 (Mx1-4) in blood and TMG2 (Mx5-9) in intestine. The expression of the majority of the trout Mx genes was induced by poly IC in vitro and in vivo, and increased during development. In addition, induction by antiviral (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines was studied, and showed that type I IFN, IFNγ and IL-1ß can induce Mx gene expression in an Mx gene-, cytokine- and cell line-dependent manner. These results show that salmonids possess a large number Mx genes as well as complex regulatory pathways, which may contribute to their success in an anadromous life style.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/imunologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Família Multigênica/imunologia , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/química , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 288-296, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071462

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides have a wide range of antimicrobial activity and widely occur in different organisms including mollusks, crustaceans and vertebrates. Hepcidins are a group of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are active against a variety of pathogens including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as viruses. In this study, the hepcidin gene of Caspian trout (CtHep) was identified and characterized. Our results showed that CtHep cDNA has a 267-bp Open Reading Frame (ORF), which is translated to 88 amino acids. The CtHep was classified in the HAMP1 class of hepcidins. Comparison of DNA and cDNA sequences showed that CtHep has 3 exons and 2 introns. The signal, prodomain and mature part of CtHep have 24, 39 and 25 amino acids, respectively. The mature peptide has a molecular weight of 2881.43 Da and a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.53. The expression of CtHep mRNA was detected in different tissues of healthy and infected fish. CtHep expression in the liver, head kidney, spleen and skin was significantly enhanced after bacterial challenge. Expression of CtHep in different embryonic development stages was also substantial. Antibacterial activity of synthetic CtHep peptides was investigated against a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. CtHep inhibited some pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus iniae and Aeromonas hydrophila. In the in vivo experiment, CtHep upregulated the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in both kidney and spleen tissues after 24 h of the peptide injection. In conclusion, our study showed that CtHep plays an important role in the immune system of Caspian trout and also in the embryonic stages. Moreover, CtHep peptide has a potential to be used as an antimicrobial therapeutic agent as well as an immunostimulant in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepcidinas/genética , Hepcidinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Truta/genética , Truta/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Hepcidinas/química , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 404-412, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077847

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that have been reported to play a vital role in mediating host-pathogen interactions. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to identify and illuminate mRNAs and miRNAs from grouper infected with Vibrio alginolyticus. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the most significate DEGs are associated with Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. We obtained 374 known miRNAs and 116 novel miRNAs. During them, there are 31 up-regulated miRNAs and 93 down-regulated miRNAs. miRNA-mRNA GO and KEGG analysis show that there are 90 miRNAs associated with the immune system. The target genes of immune-related miRNAs (miR-142, miR-146, miR-150, miR-155, miR-203, miR-205, miR-24, miR-31) and genes (CD80, IL-2, AMPK, PI3K) in Epinephelus coioddes were predicted and validated. This study provides an opportunity to further understanding the molecular mechanisms especially the immune system of miRNA regulation in Epinephelus coioddes host-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Animais , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 165-172, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039440

RESUMO

Pax5 (Paired Box 5), a nuclear transcription factor expressed in B cell specifically, is a key regulator for B cell activation. In this study, we cloned and identified a Pax5 gene (OnPax5) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which has an open reading frame of 1278 bp, encoding deduced amino acid sequence of 425 residues. OnPax5 contains a conserved DNA-binding domain encoding the paired box, an octapeptide, a homeobox homology region, a transactivation and a repressor domain. OnPax5 is constitutively expressed in various analyzed tissues of tilapia, with a relatively high expression in lymphoid organs, including spleen (SPL), anterior kidney (AK), and thymus. What's more, OnPax5 is highly expressed in leukocytes especially in IgM+ lymphocytes sorted from peripheral blood (PBL), SPL and AK. When stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo, OnPax5 expression was significantly up-regulated in PBL, SPL and AK. Upon stimulation with LPS, pokeweed mitogen and mouse anti-OnIgM monoclonal antibody in vitro, the expression of OnPax5 was also significantly up-regulated in leukocytes from SPL and AK. Taken together, Pax5, the B cell lineage specific activator factor, might get involved in B cell activation in Nile tilapia.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 102-108, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048038

RESUMO

The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members play crucial roles in regulating immune signal pathways by acting as inhibitors of cytokine receptor signaling. In this study, 10 SOCS genes were identified in soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila), an economically important aquaculture mugilid species in China and other Asian countries. Sequence comparison showed that the sequence identity between mullet SOCSs and their counterparts from other vertebrates ranged from 38.2% to 92.5%. All mullet SOCS genes were constitutively expressed in tissues examined, but their expression patterns were different. Further, following Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection, all mullet SOCS genes exhibited distinct expression patterns in tissues. These results suggest that SOCSs are involved in immune response to bacterial infection and provide the basis for understanding the complex cytokine regulatory network of teleosts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Smegmamorpha/genética , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de Proteína/veterinária , Smegmamorpha/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/metabolismo
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 141-149, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055020

RESUMO

Metamorphosis is a transformation process in larval development associated with changes in morphological and physiological features, including the immune system. The gastrointestinal tract harbors a plethora of bacteria, which might affect the digestion and absorption of nutrients, immunity, and gut-brain crosstalk in the host. In this study, we have performed metagenomic and transcriptomic analyses on the intestines of grouper at the pre-, mid- and post-metamorphosis stages. The sequencing data of 16S rRNA gene showed drastic changes in the microbial communities at different developmental stages. The transcriptomic data revealed that the leukocyte transendothelial migration and the phagosome pathways might play important roles in mediating immunity in grouper at the three developmental stages. This information will increase our understanding of the metamorphosis process in grouper larvae, and shed light on the development of antimicrobial strategy during larval development.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Bass/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Metagenômica , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Metamorfose Biológica/imunologia
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 126-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059814

RESUMO

To investigate the role of the Rab7 effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein) in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the full-length cDNA of RILP (LvRILP) was cloned in Litopenaeus vannamei, which consists of 1595 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 411 amino acids. Sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment displayed that LvRILP contained a conserved RILP region from 277 amino acid to 325 amino acid. Both the LvRILP and Rab7 mRNA were most highly expressed in stomach and most lowly expressed in hemocyte, which were significantly up-regulated and exhibited similar kinetics post WSSV infection. The interaction of Rab7 with LvRILP was verified by both GST Pull-down and ELISA. Meanwhile, the results of Pull-down assays showed that the GST-tagged VP28 (GST-VP28), His-tagged Rab7 (His-Rab7) and His-RILP formed a tripartite complex. After silencing by specific LvRILP dsRNA, the LvRILP mRNA level exhibited a significant reduction, and the expression levels of three WSSV genes ie1, wsv477 and vp28 all exhibited decreases at 24, 36 and 48 h post WSSV infection. These results suggested that the Rab7 effector RILP was involved in WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(3): 187-195, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104196

RESUMO

The emergence of virulent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), causing atypical and severe outbreaks, has been notified worldwide. This study assesses the expression, distribution and kinetics of PRRSV N-protein, CD163 and CD107a in the lung and tonsil from experimentally-infected piglets with three different PRRSV-1 strains: a virulent PRRSV-1 subtype 3 strain (SU1-bel) and two low-virulent subtype 1 strains, Lelystad virus (LV) and 215-06. SU1-bel replicated more efficiently in the lungs and tonsils. The number of CD163+ cells decreased in both tissues from all infected groups at 7 dpi, followed by an increase at the end of the study, highlighting a negative correlation with the number of N-protein+-infected cells. A significant increase in CD107a was observed in all infected groups at 35 dpi but no differences were observed among them. Whereas the initial decrease of CD163+ cells appears to be associated to virus replication and cell death, the later recovery of the CD163+ population may be due to either the induction of CD163 in immature cells, the recruitment of CD163+ cells in the area of infection, or both. These results highlight the ability of macrophage subpopulations in infected animals to recover and restore their potential biological functions at one-month post-infection, with the greatest improvement observed in SU1-bel-infected animals.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Tonsila Palatina/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Suínos , Virulência/imunologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 157, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to clarify the changes in complete blood count, blood biochemistry, and the gene expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines of peripheral white blood cells in postpartum dairy cows with metritis. RESULTS: The cows were assigned to the control group (n = 28) or the metritis group (n = 28), retrospectively. Blood samples were taken 7 days before the estimated parturition (- 7 d), on the day of parturition (0 d), and 7 and 30 d after parturition. There was no difference in blood indexes between the control group and the metritis group at - 7 d. The WBC, granulocytes and monocytes were generally higher at 7 and 30 d in the metritis group than the control. In comparison with the controls, all liver function parameters and triglyceride levels at 0, 7 and 30 d, and the creatinine level at 7 and 30 d were higher in cows with metritis. The concentrations of Ca and P at 0, 7 and 30 d, and of glucose at 0 d were lower for cows in the metritis group compared with cows in the control group. Among these parameters, the WBC at 30 d, the aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) at 7 d exceeded normal ranges (WBC: 5.0 ~ 16.0 × 109/L; AST: 42.5 ~ 98 U/L), whereas the concentrations of glucose and Ca from 0 to 30 d were below normal ranges (glucose: 2.5 ~ 4.5 mmol/L; Ca: 2.2 ~ 2.5 mmol/L) in the metritis group. The gene expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the metritis group were higher than those in the control group, including the IL-1α at 7d, the IL-1ß at - 7, 0 and 7 d, the IL-6 at - 7, 0, 7 and 30 d, the IL-8 at 0, 7 and 30 d, and the TNF-α at 7 and 30 d. CONCLUSION: The cows with metritis experienced systemic inflammation for 4 weeks after calving, the impaired hepatic function, and the altered metabolic status with increased triglyceride level and decreased concentrations of glucose, Ca and P.


Assuntos
Citocinas/genética , Endometrite/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Endometrite/sangue , Endometrite/imunologia , Endometrite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 647-659, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936047

RESUMO

Organisms possess a cellular antioxidant defense system inclusive of ROS scavengers to maintain the homeostasis of antioxidant levels. Catalase is a major ROS scavenger enzyme that plays a significant role in the antioxidant defense mechanism of organisms by reducing toxic hydrogen peroxide molecules into a nontoxic form of oxygen and water with a high turnover rate. In the present study, we performed molecular and functional characterization of the catalase homolog from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCat). The HaCat cDNA sequence was identified as a 1578 bp ORF (open reading frame) that encodes a polypeptide of 526 amino acids with 59.33 kDa molecular weight. Its estimated pI value is 7.7, and it does not have any signal sequences. HaCat shared a conserved domain arrangement including the catalase proximal active site signature and heme ligand signature domain with the previously identified catalase counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis displayed close evolutionary relationships between HaCat and catalases from other teleost fish. According to our qPCR results, ubiquitous expression of HaCat transcripts were observed in all the tested tissues with high expression in the kidney followed by liver. Significant modulations of HaCat transcription were observed in blood, liver, and kidney tissues post-challenge with Streptococcus iniae, Edwardsiella tarda, poly I:C, and LPS. Peroxidase activity of recombinant HaCat (rHaCat) was evaluated using an ABTS assay and the ROS removal effect was further confirmed by oxidative DNA damage protection and cell viability assays. The rHaCat showed more than 97% activity over a temperature and pH range of 10 °C-40 °C and 5 to 6, respectively. The above results suggest that HaCat plays an indispensable role in the oxidative homeostasis of the seahorse during pathogenic attack.


Assuntos
Catalase/genética , Catalase/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Smegmamorpha/genética , Smegmamorpha/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Catalase/química , Clonagem Molecular , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 468-476, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940578

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7 are key regulators of type I interferon (IFN) gene expression for the antiviral immune response. In the present study, interferon regulatory factor 3 and 7 from Asian seabass, namely AsIRF3 and AsIRF7 were cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA sequence of IRF3 and IRF7 consisted of 2965 and 2343 bp respectively. AsIRF3 and AsIRF7 were true orthologes of vertebrate IRF3/7 and showed similar domain organization, with an N-terminal DBD which consisted five tryptophan residues in IRF3 and four in IRF7, a C-terminal IRF3 domain and a serine rich region. Both IRF3 and 7 constitutively expressed during the ontogenesis and in all tissues of healthy fish. The expression of both genes was up-regulated following NNV challenge with obvious transcript abundance in brain heart and kidney. Ectopic expression of AsIRF3 and AsIRF7 displayed activation of ISRE/NF-κB promoters and modulation of interferon, ISGs and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. These observations indicated that IRF3 and IRF7 play an important role in Asian seabass's antiviral defense and the RIG-IRF-IFN axis is conserved in the species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Perciformes/genética , Perciformes/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/química , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/química , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/genética , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/imunologia , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 384-392, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951853

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential component of innate immunity of invertebrates. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), as a main type of AMPs in crustaceans, attends in the disease prevention in general. In this research, a novel Group D ALF was identified and characterized from Penaeus monodon, named PenmonALF8. It was an anionic peptide, with both the full-length peptide and lipopolysaccharide binding domain (LBD) a low isoelectric point. PenmonALF8, composed of a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature peptide of 98 amino acids, probably contained three alpha helixes and four beta sheets. Moreover, PenmonALF8 was detected in all tested tissues of P. monodon, and the expression level in hemocyte and intestine was relatively high. When challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, PenmonALF8 showed 30-100 times higher expression level in all the tissues except in hemocyte and intestine, indicating that PenmonALF8 played a very important role in the immune response of P. monodon. By fusing to a SUMO protein, PenmonALF8 was successfully over-expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Additionally, the reconstituted PenmonALF8 and its LBD region displayed modest antimicrobial activity. This is the first research about the Group D ALF in P. monodon, which provides more information for humoral immunity study of shrimps.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio/imunologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 448-457, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974220

RESUMO

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays an important role in the innate immune response. In this study, a novel mannose-binding lectin was cloned from the swimmimg crab Portunus trituberculatus (designated as PtMBL). The complete cDNA of PtMBL gene was 1208 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 732 bp that encoded 244 amino acid proteins. PtMBL shared lower amino acid similarity with other MBLs, yet it contained the conserved carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) with QPD motif and was clearly member of the collectin family. PtMBL transcripts were mainly detected in eyestalk and gill with sexually dimorphic expression. The temporal expression of PtMBL in hemocytes showed different activation times after challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus, Micrococcus luteus and Pichia pastoris. The recombinant PtMBL protein revealed antimicrobial activity against the tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It could also bind and agglutinate (Ca2+-dependent) both bacteria and yeast. Furthermore, the agglutinating activity could be inhibited by both d-galactose and d-mannose, suggesting the broader pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition spectrum of PtMBL. These results together indicate that PtMBL could serve as not only a PRR in immune recognition but also a potential antibacterial protein in the innate immune response of crab.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/genética , Braquiúros/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/genética , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Lectina de Ligação a Manose/química , Micrococcus luteus/fisiologia , Filogenia , Pichia/fisiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
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