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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068091

RESUMO

The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes5) processes oral sensory-motor information, but its role in the control of energy balance remains unexplored. Here, using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that the Mes5 expresses the melanocortin-4 receptor. Consistent with MC4R activation in other areas of the brain, we found that Mes5 microinjection of the MC4R agonist melanotan-II (MTII) suppresses food intake and body weight in the mouse. Furthermore, NTS POMC-projecting neurons to the Mes5 can be chemogenetically activated to drive a suppression in food intake. Taken together, these findings highlight the Mes5 as a novel target of melanocortinergic control of food intake and body weight regulation, although elucidating the endogenous role of this circuit requires future study. While we observed the sufficiency of Mes5 MC4Rs for food intake and body weight suppression, these receptors do not appear to be necessary for food intake or body weight control. Collectively, the data presented here support the functional relevance of the NTS POMC to Mes5 projection pathway as a novel circuit that can be targeted to modulate food intake and body weight.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807524

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal vagal afferents (VAs) play an important role in food intake regulation, providing the brain with information on the amount and nutrient composition of a meal. This is processed, eventually leading to meal termination. The response of gastric VAs, to food-related stimuli, is under circadian control and fluctuates depending on the time of day. These rhythms are highly correlated with meal size, with a nadir in VA sensitivity and increase in meal size during the dark phase and a peak in sensitivity and decrease in meal size during the light phase in mice. These rhythms are disrupted in diet-induced obesity and simulated shift work conditions and associated with disrupted food intake patterns. In diet-induced obesity the dampened responses during the light phase are not simply reversed by reverting back to a normal diet. However, time restricted feeding prevents loss of diurnal rhythms in VA signalling in high fat diet-fed mice and, therefore, provides a potential strategy to reset diurnal rhythms in VA signalling to a pre-obese phenotype. This review discusses the role of the circadian system in the regulation of gastrointestinal VA signals and the impact of factors, such as diet-induced obesity and shift work, on these rhythms.


Assuntos
Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Jejum/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
3.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803651

RESUMO

Malnutrition represents a major problem in the clinical management of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Presently, our understanding of the cross-link between eating behavior and intestinal inflammation is still in its infancy. Crohn's disease patients with active disease exhibit strong hedonic desires for food and emotional eating patterns possibly to ameliorate feelings of low mood, anxiety, and depression. Impulsivity traits seen in IBD patients may predispose them to palatable food intake as an immediate reward rather than concerns for future health. The upregulation of enteroendocrine cells (EEC) peptide response to food intake has been described in ileal inflammation, which may lead to alterations in gut-brain signaling with implications for appetite and eating behavior. In summary, a complex interplay of gut peptides, psychological, cognitive factors, disease-related symptoms, and inflammatory burden may ultimately govern eating behavior in intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Recompensa
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567505

RESUMO

Scope: To identify a metabolomic profile related to postprandial satiety sensations involved in appetite control would help for a better understanding of the regulation of food intake. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional analysis of plasma metabolites was conducted over 151 overweight/obese adults from the "Satiety Innovation"-SATIN study, a randomized clinical trial of a 12-week weight-loss maintenance period. Postprandial satiety sensations (3 h-iAUC) were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) at the beginning and at the end of the study. Fasting plasma metabolites were profiled using a targeted multiplatform metabolomics approach before each appetite test meal. Associations between 124 metabolites and iAUC-satiety were assessed using elastic net linear regression analyses. The accuracy of the multimetabolite weighted models for iAUC-VAS was evaluated using a 10-fold cross-validation (CV) approach and the Pearson's correlation coefficients were estimated. Five and three metabolites were selected in the first and the second assessments, respectively. Circulating glycine and linoleic acid concentrations were consistently and positively associated with higher iAUC-satiety in both visits. Sucrose and sphingomyelins (C32:2, C38:1) were negatively associated with iAUC-satiety in the first visit. The Pearson correlations coefficients between the metabolomic profiles and iAUC-satiety in the first and the second appetite assessments were 0.37 and 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: Higher glycine and linoleic acid were moderately but consistently associated with higher postprandial satiety in two different appetite assessments in overweight and obese subjects.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Transversais , Método Duplo-Cego , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Sacarose/sangue , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1041, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589633

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports that pharmacological application of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) suppresses appetite but also promotes sickness-like behaviors in rodents via GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL)-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, the endogenous regulation of GDF15 and its physiological effects on energy homeostasis and behavior remain elusive. Here we show, in four independent human studies that prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise only observed in pathophysiological conditions. This exercise-induced increase can be recapitulated in mice and is accompanied by increased Gdf15 expression in the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. However, whereas pharmacological GDF15 inhibits appetite and suppresses voluntary running activity via GFRAL, the physiological induction of GDF15 by exercise does not. In summary, exercise-induced circulating GDF15 correlates with the duration of endurance exercise. Yet, higher GDF15 levels after exercise are not sufficient to evoke canonical pharmacological GDF15 effects on appetite or responsible for diminishing exercise motivation.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Creatina Quinase/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/deficiência , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/administração & dosagem , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Motivação/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Insect Sci ; 28(1): 251-260, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065478

RESUMO

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is well documented for its essential role as a cue used in animal orientation or navigation. Recent evidence indicates that the absence of GMF (mimicked by the near-zero magnetic field, NZMF) can trigger stress-like responses such as reduced body weight, as we have previously shown in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. In this study, we found that consistent with the significantly decreased body weight of newly emerged female (-14.67%) and male (-13.17%) adult N. lugens, the duration of the phloem ingestion feeding waveform was significantly reduced by 32.02% in 5th instar nymphs reared under the NZMF versus GMF. Interestingly, 5th instar nymphs that exhibited reduced feeding had significantly higher glucose levels (+16.98% and +20.05%; 24 h and 48 h after molting), which are associated with food aversion, and expression patterns of their appetite-related neuropeptide genes (neuropeptide F, down-regulated overall; short neuropeptide F, down-regulated overall; adipokinetic hormone, up-regulated overall; and adipokinetic hormone receptor, down-regulated overall) were also altered under the absence of GMF in a manner consistent with diminishing appetite. Moreover, the expressions of the potential magnetosensor cryptochromes (Crys) were found significantly altered under the absence of GMF, indicating the likely upstream signaling of the Cry-mediated magnetoreception mechanisms. These findings support the hypothesis that strong changes in GMF intensity can reduce adult body weight through affecting insect feeding behavior and underlying regulatory processes including appetite regulation. Our results highlight that GMF could be necessary for the maintenance of energy homeostasis in insects.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Campos Magnéticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238373

RESUMO

Physical exercise is known to influence hormonal mediators of appetite, but the effect of short-term maximal intensity exercise on plasma levels of appetite hormones and cytokines has been little studied. We investigated the effect of a 30 s Wingate Test, followed by a postprandial period, on appetite sensations, food intake, and appetite hormones. Twenty-six physically active young males rated their subjective feelings of hunger, prospective food consumption, and fatigue on visual analogue scales at baseline, after exercise was completed, and during the postprandial period. Blood samples were obtained for the measurement of nesfatin-1, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), human growth factor (hGH) and cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), irisin and plasma lactate concentrations, at 30 min before exercise, immediately (210 s) after exercise, and 30 min following a meal and at corresponding times in control sedentary males without ad libitum meal intake, respectively. Appetite perceptions and food intake were decreased in response to exercise. Plasma levels of irisin, IL-6, lactate, nesfatin-1 and ghrelin was increased after exercise and then it was returned to postprandial/control period in both groups. A significant rise in plasma insulin, hGH and PP levels after exercise was observed while meal intake potentiated this response. In conclusion, an acute short-term fatiguing exercise can transiently suppress hunger sensations and food intake in humans. We postulate that this physiological response involves exercise-induced alterations in plasma hormones and the release of myokines such as irisin and IL-6, and supports the notion of existence of the skeletal muscle-brain-gut axis. Nevertheless, the detailed relationship between acute exercise releasing myokines, appetite sensations and impairment of this axis leading to several diseases should be further examined.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/genética , Apetite/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Fadiga/terapia , Adulto , Apetite/genética , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fadiga/sangue , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Fibronectinas/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Nucleobindinas/sangue , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171667

RESUMO

Phoenixin (PNX) neuropeptide is a cleaved product of the Smim20 protein. Its most common isoforms are the 14- and 20-amino acid peptides. The biological functions of PNX are mediated via the activation of the GPR173 receptor. PNX plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the female reproductive system where it potentiates LH secretion and controls the estrus cycle. Moreover, it stimulates oocyte maturation and increases the number of ovulated oocytes. Nevertheless, PNX not only regulates the reproduction system but also exerts anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and cell-protective effects. Furthermore, it is involved in behavior, food intake, sensory perception, memory, and energy metabolism. Outside the CNS, PNX exerts its effects on the heart, ovaries, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. This review presents all the currently available studies demonstrating the pleiotropic effects of PNX.


Assuntos
Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Sede/fisiologia , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120899

RESUMO

It is not known how acute sucralose and glucose alter signaling within the brain when individuals make decisions about available food. Here we examine this using Food Bid Task in which participants bid on visually depicted food items, while simultaneously undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Twenty-eight participants completed three sessions after overnight fast, distinguished only by the consumption at the start of the session of 300 mL cherry flavored water with either 75 g glucose, 0.24 g sucralose, or no other ingredient. There was a marginally significant (p = 0.05) effect of condition on bids, with 13.0% lower bids after glucose and 16.6% lower bids after sucralose (both relative to water). Across conditions, greater activity within regions a priori linked to food cue reactivity predicted higher bids, as did greater activity within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral frontal pole. There was a significant attenuation within the a priori region of interest (ROI) after sucralose compared to water (p < 0.05). Activity after glucose did not differ significantly from either of the other conditions in the ROI, but an attenuation in signal was observed in the parietal cortex, relative to the water condition. Taken together, these data suggest attenuation of central nervous system (CNS) signaling associated with food valuation after glucose and sucralose.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos , Glucose/farmacologia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Jejum , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Sacarose/farmacologia
10.
Nature ; 587(7834): 455-459, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116314

RESUMO

Reproduction induces increased food intake across females of many animal species1-4, providing a physiologically relevant paradigm for the exploration of appetite regulation. Here, by examining the diversity of enteric neurons in Drosophila melanogaster, we identify a key role for gut-innervating neurons with sex- and reproductive state-specific activity in sustaining the increased food intake of mothers during reproduction. Steroid and enteroendocrine hormones functionally remodel these neurons, which leads to the release of their neuropeptide onto the muscles of the crop-a stomach-like organ-after mating. Neuropeptide release changes the dynamics of crop enlargement, resulting in increased food intake, and preventing the post-mating remodelling of enteric neurons reduces both reproductive hyperphagia and reproductive fitness. The plasticity of enteric neurons is therefore key to reproductive success. Our findings provide a mechanism to attain the positive energy balance that sustains gestation, dysregulation of which could contribute to infertility or weight gain.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Mães , Neurônios/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/citologia , Estruturas Animais/inervação , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Feminino , Hiperfagia/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo
11.
Cell ; 182(6): 1589-1605.e22, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841600

RESUMO

Hunger and thirst have distinct goals but control similar ingestive behaviors, and little is known about neural processes that are shared between these behavioral states. We identify glutamatergic neurons in the peri-locus coeruleus (periLCVGLUT2 neurons) as a polysynaptic convergence node from separate energy-sensitive and hydration-sensitive cell populations. We develop methods for stable hindbrain calcium imaging in free-moving mice, which show that periLCVGLUT2 neurons are tuned to ingestive behaviors and respond similarly to food or water consumption. PeriLCVGLUT2 neurons are scalably inhibited by palatability and homeostatic need during consumption. Inhibition of periLCVGLUT2 neurons is rewarding and increases consumption by enhancing palatability and prolonging ingestion duration. These properties comprise a double-negative feedback relationship that sustains food or water consumption without affecting food- or water-seeking. PeriLCVGLUT2 neurons are a hub between hunger and thirst that specifically controls motivation for food and water ingestion, which is a factor that contributes to hedonic overeating and obesity.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Locus Cerúleo/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Rombencéfalo/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Retroalimentação , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glutamina/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Recompensa , Rombencéfalo/citologia , Rombencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Paladar/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia
12.
Horm Behav ; 125: 104825, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771417

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system (ECs) is a well known contributor to the hedonic regulation of food intake (FI) in mammals whereas in fish, the knowledge regarding hedonic mechanisms that control FI is limited. Previous studies reported the involvement of ECs in FI regulation in fish since anandamide (AEA) treatment induced enhanced FI and changes of mRNA abundance of appetite-related neuropeptides through cannabinoid receptor 1 (cnr1). However, no previous studies in fish evaluated the impact of palatable food like high-fat diets (HFD) on mechanisms involved in hedonic regulation of FI including the possible involvement of ECs. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding a HFD on the response of ECs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). First, we demonstrated a higher intake over 4 days of HFD compared with a control diet (CD). Then, we evaluated the postprandial response (1, 3 and 6 h) of components of the ECs in plasma, hypothalamus, and telencephalon after feeding fish with CD and HFD. The results obtained indicate that the increased FI of HFD occurred along with increased levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and AEA in plasma and in brain areas like hypothalamus and telencephalon putatively involved in hedonic regulation of FI in fish. Decreased mRNA abundance of EC receptors like cnr1, gpr55 and trpv1 suggest a feed-back counter-regulatory mechanism in response to the increased levels of EC. Furthermore, the results also suggest that neural activity players associated to FI regulation in mammals as cFOS, γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) systems could be involved in the hedonic eating response to a palatable diet in fish.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/genética , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Telencéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Telencéfalo/metabolismo
13.
Psychiatr Pol ; 54(2): 209-222, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772055

RESUMO

The vast majority of new neuropeptides feature unique biochemical properties as well as awide spectrum of physiological activity applied in numerous neuronal pathways, including hypothalamus and the limbic system. Special interest should be paid to nesfatin-1 - the relatively recently discovered and still intensively studied regulatory factor and a potential modulator of eating behaviors. New information about it now allows to consider this neuropeptide as a potentially important factor involved in the pathogenesis of many different mental disorders. The considered pharmacomodulation of nesfatinergic signaling may be potentially helpful in the future treatment of some neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders including anorexia nervosa. Although the results of some basic and clinical tests seem to be promising, all possible applications of the aforementioned neuropeptides, together with their agonists and antagonists still remain in the area of speculation. The intensive search of selective modulators of their known receptors may facilitate the opening of a promising chapter in the eating disorders therapy. This paper provides a review of recent scientific reports regarding the hypothetical role of nesfatin-1 in the neuronal pathways related to pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Nucleobindinas/metabolismo , Anorexia Nervosa/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Neuroquímica , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo
14.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604889

RESUMO

Exercise is an effective strategy for preventing and treating obesity and its related cardiometabolic disorders, resulting in significant loss of body fat mass, white adipose tissue browning, redistribution of energy substrates, optimization of global energy expenditure, enhancement of hypothalamic circuits that control appetite-satiety and energy expenditure, and decreased systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Novel exercise-inducible soluble factors, including myokines, hepatokines, and osteokines, and immune cytokines and adipokines are hypothesized to play an important role in the body's response to exercise. To our knowledge, no review has provided a comprehensive integrative overview of these novel molecular players and the mechanisms involved in the redistribution of metabolic fuel during and after exercise, the loss of weight and fat mass, and reduced inflammation. In this review, we explain the potential role of these exercise-inducible factors, namely myokines, such as irisin, IL-6, IL-15, METRNL, BAIBA, and myostatin, and hepatokines, in particular selenoprotein P, fetuin A, FGF21, ANGPTL4, and follistatin. We also describe the function of osteokines, specifically osteocalcin, and of adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. We also emphasize an integrative overview of the pleiotropic mechanisms, the metabolic pathways, and the inter-organ crosstalk involved in energy expenditure, fat mass loss, reduced inflammation, and healthy weight induced by exercise.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Peptídeos/fisiologia , Adipocinas/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Obesidade , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Perda de Peso
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1283-1291, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate regional neural activity and regulation of patterns in the reorganized neural network of obesity and explore the correlation between brain activities and eating behavior. METHODS: A total of 23 individuals with obesity and 23 controls with normal weight were enrolled. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired using 3.0-T MRI. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and functional connectivity (FC) analyses were conducted using Data Processing Assistant for resting-state fMRI and Resting-State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST). RESULTS: The group with obesity showed increased amplitude of low-frequency values in left fusiform gyrus/amygdala, inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, and bilateral caudate but decreased values in right superior temporal gyrus. The group with obesity showed increased FC between left caudate and right superior temporal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus/amygdala and left ITG, right caudate and left fusiform gyrus/amygdala, and right caudate and left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus. Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-Emotional scores were positively correlated with FC between left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus and right caudate but negatively correlated with FC between left fusiform gyrus/amygdala and left ITG. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the reorganized neural network presented as a bilateral cross-regulation pattern across hemispheres between reward and various appetite-related functional processing, thus affecting emotional and external eating behavior. These results could provide further evidence for neuropsychological underpinnings of food intake and their neuromodulatory therapeutic potential in obesity.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Nutr ; 124(10): 1044-1051, 2020 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513334

RESUMO

Normal-weight obesity (NWO) syndrome is associated with metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of a high-protein (HP) v. a standard protein (SP) diet on appetite, anthropometry and body composition in NWO women. In this clinical trial, fifty NWO women were randomly allocated to HP (n 25) or SP (n 25) diet groups. Women in the HP and SP groups consumed 25 and 15 % of their total energy intake from protein for 12 weeks. Weight, fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), waist circumference (WC) and appetite were evaluated at baseline and following their 3-month intervention. After 12 weeks, the LBM was higher in HP compared with no significant changes in the SP group (mean between-group difference = 1·5 kg; 95 % CI 3·1, 0·01; effect size (d) = 0·4). Furthermore, the HP group had lower FM (mean between-group difference -1·1 kg; 95 % CI 1, -3·3; d = -0·2), body fat percentage (BFP) (mean between-group difference -2 %; 95 % CI 0·7, -5·2; d = -0·3) and WC (mean between-group difference -1·4 cm; 95 % CI 0·6, -3·6; d = -0·2) at the end of the study in comparison with the SP group. In both groups, weight and appetite were unchanged over time without significant differences between groups. Twelve weeks of euenergetic diets with different dietary protein contents resulted in no significant weight loss in women with NWO. However, an HP diet significantly improved body composition (LBM, FM, BFP and WC) in this population.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saciação
17.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1520-1522, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427468

RESUMO

Accumulating data have now shown strong evidence that COVID-19 infection leads to the occurrence of neurological signs with different injury severity. Anosmia and agueusia are now well documented and included in the criteria list for diagnosis, and specialists have stressed that doctors screen COVID-19 patients for these two signs. The eventual brainstem dysregulation, due to the invasion of SARS CoV-2, as a cause of respiratory problems linked to COVID-19, has also been extensively discussed. All these findings lead to an implication of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here we provide additional elements that could explain other described signs like appetite loss, vomiting, and nausea. For this, we investigated the role of brainstem structures located in the medulla oblongata involved in food intake and vomiting control. We also discussed the possible pathways the virus uses to reach the brainstem, i.e., neurotropic and hematogenous (with its two variants) routes.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anorexia/etiologia , Área Postrema/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Nervo Olfatório , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Nervo Vago , Vômito/etiologia
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4765-4776, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229118

RESUMO

Dairy cows consume inadequate amounts of feed in early lactation and during conditions and diseases such as excessive fatness, heat stress, and infectious diseases. Affected cows often experience increases in plasma concentrations of acute phase proteins consistent with the negative effect of inflammation on appetite. The acute phase protein orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, was recently reported to reduce appetite in the mouse through its ability to bind the full-length leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and activate appetite-suppressing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. These observations raise the possibility that ORM1 exerts appetite-suppressing effects in dairy cattle during periods of increased inflammatory tone. The applicability of this model was assessed in 2 ways. First, we asked whether ORM1 is regulated during periods of inadequate appetite such as the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation and periods of increased inflammatory tone. Plasma ORM1 was invariant in late pregnancy but increased 2.5-fold between parturition and d 7 of lactation. Gene expression studies showed that liver was the major source of this elevation with little contribution by adipose tissue or mammary gland. Additional studies showed that plasma ORM1 was not increased further by excessive fatness or by reproductive dysfunction in early lactation and was completely unresponsive to inflammatory stimuli such as heat stress or intravascular administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide during established lactation. Second, we tested the ability of ORM1 to trigger STAT3 signaling through Ob-Rb using Chinese hamster ovary K1 (CHO-K1) cells transfected with a STAT3 expression plasmid. In this configuration, CHO-K1 cells did not express Ob-Rb and were incapable of leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Leptin responsiveness was conferred by co-transfecting with bovine Ob-Rb, with leptin causing increases of 5.7-fold in STAT3 phosphorylation and 2.1-fold in the expression of the STAT3-dependent gene, SOCS3. In contrast, neither bovine or human ORM1 triggered STAT3 phosphorylation irrespective of dose and period of incubation tested. In summary, bovine ORM1 is not increased during periods of increased inflammatory tone except in early lactation and is incapable of Ob-Rb-dependent STAT3 signaling. Overall, these data are inconsistent with ORM1 mediating the appetite-suppressing effects of inflammation in cattle through Ob-Rb.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Orosomucoide/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Leptina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Regulação para Cima
19.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325849

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of energy intake and macronutrients consumption throughout the day, and how its effect on nutritional status can be modulated by the presence of the rs3749474 polymorphism of the CLOCK gene in the Cantoblanco Platform for Nutritional Genomics ("GENYAL Platform"). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 898 volunteers between 18 and 69 years old (65.5% women). Anthropometric measurements, social issues and health, dietary, biochemical, genetic, and physical activity data were collected. Subsequently, 21 statistical interaction models were designed to predict the body mass index (BMI) considering seven dietary variables analyzed by three genetic models (adjusted by age, sex, and physical activity). The average BMI was 26.9 ± 4.65 kg/m2, 62.14% presented an excess weight (BMI > 25 kg/m2). A significant interaction was observed between the presence of the rs3749474 polymorphism and the evening carbohydrate intake (% of the total daily energy intake [%TEI]) (adjusted p = 0.046), when predicting the BMI. Participants carrying TT/CT genotype showed a positive association between the evening carbohydrate intake (%TEI) and BMI (ß = 0.3379, 95% CI = (0.1689,0.5080)) and (ß = 0.1529, 95% CI = (-0.0164,0.3227)), respectively, whereas the wild type allele (CC) showed a negative association (ß = -0.0321, 95% CI = (-0.1505,0.0862)). No significant interaction with the remaining model variables was identified. New dietary strategies may be implemented to schedule the circadian distribution of macronutrients according to the genotype. Clinical Trial number: NCT04067921.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/genética , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/genética , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272767

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the major social and health problems globally and often associated with various other pathological conditions. In addition to unregulated eating behaviour, circulating peptide-mediated hormonal secretion and signaling pathways play a critical role in food intake induced obesity. Amongst the many peptides involved in the regulation of food-seeking behaviour, somatostatin (SST) is the one which plays a determinant role in the complex process of appetite. SST is involved in the regulation of release and secretion of other peptides, neuronal integrity, and hormonal regulation. Based on past and recent studies, SST might serve as a bridge between central and peripheral tissues with a significant impact on obesity-associated with food intake behaviour and energy expenditure. Here, we present a comprehensive review describing the role of SST in the modulation of multiple central and peripheral signaling molecules. In addition, we highlight recent progress and contribution of SST and its receptors in food-seeking behaviour, obesity (orexigenic), and satiety (anorexigenic) associated pathways and mechanism.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo
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