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1.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(11): 1520-1522, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427468

RESUMO

Accumulating data have now shown strong evidence that COVID-19 infection leads to the occurrence of neurological signs with different injury severity. Anosmia and agueusia are now well documented and included in the criteria list for diagnosis, and specialists have stressed that doctors screen COVID-19 patients for these two signs. The eventual brainstem dysregulation, due to the invasion of SARS CoV-2, as a cause of respiratory problems linked to COVID-19, has also been extensively discussed. All these findings lead to an implication of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here we provide additional elements that could explain other described signs like appetite loss, vomiting, and nausea. For this, we investigated the role of brainstem structures located in the medulla oblongata involved in food intake and vomiting control. We also discussed the possible pathways the virus uses to reach the brainstem, i.e., neurotropic and hematogenous (with its two variants) routes.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Náusea/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Vômito/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anorexia/etiologia , Área Postrema/fisiopatologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Náusea/etiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Nervo Olfatório , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Nervo Vago , Vômito/etiologia
2.
Cell ; 180(1): 25-32, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923398

RESUMO

The function of central appetite neurons is instructing animals to ingest specific nutrient factors that the body needs. Emerging evidence suggests that individual appetite circuits for major nutrients-water, sodium, and food-operate on unique driving and quenching mechanisms. This review focuses on two aspects of appetite regulation. First, we describe the temporal relationship between appetite neuron activity and consumption behaviors. Second, we summarize ingestion-related satiation signals that differentially quench individual appetite circuits. We further discuss how distinct appetite and satiation systems for each factor may contribute to nutrient homeostasis from the functional and evolutional perspectives.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Fome/fisiologia , Sede/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Neurônios/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968008

RESUMO

Stress is prevalent in modern society and can affect human health through its effects on appetite. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite in healthy, non-obese males during fasting. In total, 22 volunteers participated in two experiments (stress and control conditions) on different days. The participants performed a stress-inducing speech-and-mental-arithmetic task under both conditions, and then viewed images of food, during which, their neural activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the stress condition, the participants were told to perform the speech-and-mental-arithmetic task again subsequently to viewing the food images; however, another speech-and-mental-arithmetic task was not performed actually. Subjective levels of stress and appetite were then assessed using a visual analog scale. Electrocardiography was performed to assess the index of heart rate variability reflecting sympathetic nerve activity. The findings showed that subjective levels of stress and sympathetic nerve activity were increased in the MEG session in the stress condition, whereas appetite gradually increased in the MEG session only in the control condition. The decrease in alpha band power in the frontal pole caused by viewing the food images was greater in the stress condition than in the control condition. These findings suggest that acute stress can suppress the increase of appetite, and this suppression is associated with the frontal pole. The results of the present study may provide valuable clues to gain a further understanding of the neural mechanisms by which acute stress affects appetite. However, since the stress examined in the present study was related to the expectation of forthcoming stressful event, our present findings may not be generalized to the stress unrelated to the expectation of forthcoming stressful event.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Jejum/psicologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640123

RESUMO

Long-term maintenance of weight loss requires sustained energy balance at the reduced body weight. This could be attained by coupling low total daily energy intake (TDEI) with low total daily energy expenditure (TDEE; low energy flux), or by pairing high TDEI with high TDEE (high energy flux). Within an environment characterized by high energy dense food and a lack of need for movement, it may be particularly difficult for weight-reduced individuals to maintain energy balance in a low flux state. Most of these individuals will increase body mass due to an inability to sustain the necessary level of food restriction. This increase in TDEI may lead to the re-establishment of high energy flux at or near the original body weight. We propose that following weight loss, increasing physical activity can effectively re-establish a state of high energy flux without significant weight regain. Although the effect of extremely high levels of physical activity on TDEE may be constrained by compensatory reductions in non-activity energy expenditure, moderate increases following weight loss may elevate energy flux and encourage physiological adaptations favorable to weight loss maintenance, including better appetite regulation. It may be time to recognize that few individuals are able to re-establish energy balance at a lower body weight without permanent increases in physical activity. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for more research to better understand the role of energy flux in long-term weight maintenance.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Resistência Física
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 90, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating rate is a basic determinant of appetite regulation: people who eat more slowly feel sated earlier and eat less. A high eating rate contributes to overeating and potentially to weight gain. Previous studies showed that an augmented fork that delivers real-time feedback on eating rate is a potentially effective intervention to decrease eating rate in naturalistic settings. This study assessed the impact of using the augmented fork during a 15-week period on eating rate and body weight. METHODS: In a parallel randomized controlled trial, 141 participants with overweight (age: 49.2 ± 12.3 y; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.48 kg/m2) were randomized to intervention groups (VFC, n = 51 or VFC+, n = 44) or control group (NFC, n = 46). First, we measured bite rate and success ratio on five consecutive days with the augmented fork without feedback (T1). The intervention groups (VFC, VFC+) then used the same fork, but now received vibrotactile feedback when they ate more than one bite per 10 s. Participants in VFC+ had additional access to a web portal with visual feedback. In the control group (NFC), participants ate with the fork without either feedback. The intervention period lasted four weeks, followed by a week of measurements only (T2) and another measurement week after eight weeks (T3). Body weight was assessed at T1, T2, and T3. RESULTS: Participants in VFC and VFC+ had a lower bite rate (p < .01) and higher success ratio (p < .0001) than those in NFC at T2. This effect persisted at T3. In both intervention groups participants lost more weight than those in the control group at T2 (p < .02), with no rebound at T3. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that an augmented fork with vibrotactile feedback is a viable tool to reduce eating rate in naturalistic settings. Further investigation may confirm that the augmented fork could support long-term weight loss strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The research reported in this manuscript was registered on 4 November 2015 in the Netherlands Trial Register with number NL5432 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/5432 ).


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/instrumentação , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Retroalimentação , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547205

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that habitual physical activity improves postprandial appetite regulation. We evaluated the direct association between physical activity level (PAL) and postprandial appetite regulation, and the effect of day-to-day variations in PAL on improving postprandial appetite regulation in lean young males. Fourteen young male adults wore a triaxial accelerometer for at least 6 consecutive days to evaluate their PAL. Two random liquid preload tests were performed on separate days to evaluate the competence of postprandial appetite regulation. In the preload test, participants ate sandwiches ad libitum 75 min after drinking one of two liquids containing different energy densities. When a participant had an adequate regulation of their postprandial appetite, the difference in energy intake from sandwiches was expected to be close to the energy gap between both liquids. Average daily PAL (r = -0.558, p < 0.05), but not the SD of PAL, which is indicative of the day-to-day variations in PAL (r = -0.437, p > 0.1), correlated with the difference in energy intake from the sandwiches. In addition, higher average PAL was closer to the energy gap between the two liquids. These results suggest that average daily PAL, rather than day-to-day variations in PAL, predicts inter-individual variation in postprandial appetite regulation, at least for lean young males.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Bebidas , Metabolismo Energético , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(11): e12554, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal nutrition impacts offspring appetite regulation in animal models. However, evidence from humans is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between indicators of prenatal nutrition and appetite regulation among young children. METHODS: Participants included 454 low-income mother/child dyads (mean child age = 45.2 months [SD = 9.7]). Children's appetite regulation was ascertained with the maternal-reported Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire and objectively assessed using the Eating in the Absence of Hunger protocol. Using hierarchical linear regression, we modelled child appetite regulation measures as a function of prenatal nutrition indicators (child birthweight z scores [BWz, BWz2 ]; maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index [BMI], gestational weight gain [GWG]), adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Among girls, higher and lower birthweight were associated with greater energy consumed in the absence of hunger, primarily sweet foods, coeff (95% CI): BWz 0.17 (0.05, 0.28), BWz2 0.15 (0.04, 0.26), but not food responsiveness or food enjoyment. Higher birthweight was also associated with greater satiety responsiveness among girls. Among boys, birthweight was unrelated to measures of appetite regulation. Associations between maternal BMI and GWG and child appetite regulation were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Among low-income girls, but not boys, indicators of adverse prenatal conditions were associated with poor objectively measured appetite regulation during early childhood.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pobreza , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 102: 362-370, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121198

RESUMO

We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of appetite regulating hormones in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models with Hedges' g as the effect size estimate. We identified 31 eligible studies, investigating the levels of 7 appetite regulating hormones (adiponectin, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, orexin, resistin and visfatin) in 1792 FEP patients and 1364 controls. The insulin levels in FEP patients were higher than in controls (g = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.19 - 0.49, p < 0.001), even considering only antipsychotic-naïve patients (g = 0.39, 95%CI: 0.12 - 0.66, p = 0.005). The severity of negative symptoms was positively associated with the effect size estimates (ß = 0.08, 95%CI: 0.01 - 0.16, p = 0.030). Moreover, we found lower levels of leptin in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients (g = -0.62, 95%CI: -1.11 - 0.12, p = 0.015). Impaired appetite regulation, in terms of elevated insulin levels and decreased leptin levels, occurs in early psychosis, before antipsychotic treatment. Hyperinsulinemia might be related to negative symptoms.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações
9.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev ; 47(4): 215-222, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082986

RESUMO

We explore the novel hypothesis that carbohydrate availability is involved in the regulation of energy balance with exercise, via hormonal and neural signals. We propose that carbohydrate availability could play a direct mechanistic role and partially explain previously documented relations between a more active lifestyle and tighter control of energy balance.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Glicogênio Hepático/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
10.
Peptides ; 114: 38-43, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953667

RESUMO

The recently discovered peptide phoenixin was initially implicated in reproduction as a regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary. Subsequently, various functions of phoenixin have been demonstrated including mediation of itching sensation, stimulation of vasopressin secretion, stimulation of white adipogenesis and hypothalamic nutrient sensing. Subsequently, additional actions of phoenixin have been described, namely effects on behavior. A systematic search of four data bases was performed and original articles selected accordingly. The present systematic review will present the current knowledge on the effects of phoenixin on different behaviors such as anxiety and food intake as well as cognition. Lastly, gaps in knowledge will be mentioned to stimulate further research.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ratos
11.
Nature ; 568(7750): 93-97, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918407

RESUMO

Sodium is the main cation in the extracellular fluid and it regulates various physiological functions. Depletion of sodium in the body increases the hedonic value of sodium taste, which drives animals towards sodium consumption1,2. By contrast, oral sodium detection rapidly quenches sodium appetite3,4, suggesting that taste signals have a central role in sodium appetite and its satiation. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms of chemosensory-based appetite regulation remain poorly understood. Here we identify genetically defined neural circuits in mice that control sodium intake by integrating chemosensory and internal depletion signals. We show that a subset of excitatory neurons in the pre-locus coeruleus express prodynorphin, and that these neurons are a critical neural substrate for sodium-intake behaviour. Acute stimulation of this population triggered robust ingestion of sodium even from rock salt, while evoking aversive signals. Inhibition of the same neurons reduced sodium consumption selectively. We further demonstrate that the oral detection of sodium rapidly suppresses these sodium-appetite neurons. Simultaneous in vivo optical recording and gastric infusion revealed that sodium taste-but not sodium ingestion per se-is required for the acute modulation of neurons in the pre-locus coeruleus that express prodynorphin, and for satiation of sodium appetite. Moreover, retrograde-virus tracing showed that sensory modulation is in part mediated by specific GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-producing neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This inhibitory neural population is activated by sodium ingestion, and sends rapid inhibitory signals to sodium-appetite neurons. Together, this study reveals a neural architecture that integrates chemosensory signals and the internal need to maintain sodium balance.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sódio/farmacologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Paladar/fisiologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/genética , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Locus Cerúleo/citologia , Locus Cerúleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Paladar/genética
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(5): 813-821, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sustained morning fasting or breakfast consumption on metabolism, energy intake, and appetite in healthy adults with obesity. METHODS: An independent-measures randomized controlled trial with baseline and follow-up laboratory assessment days separated by a 6-week intervention of either morning fasting (0 kcal until 12:00 pm) or daily breakfast (> 700 kcal by 11:00 am) was performed. Measures included metabolic outcomes (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids), hormones regulating appetite (total/acylated ghrelin, peptide YY, leptin), and energy expenditure (diet-induced thermogenesis) parameters throughout a laboratory test day and ad libitum intake following a fixed breakfast. RESULTS: Allocation to fasting versus breakfast resulted in minimal adaptation as reflected by the metabolic outcomes or the majority of appetite regulatory outcomes for either area under curve or time-course-based measures (P > 0.05). Ad libitum lunch intake was not different (P = 0.13), nor was diet-induced thermogenesis or a composite appetite score (both P > 0.10). However, there was a reduced total area under the curve for peptide YY (P = 0.05) and increased postprandial hunger ratings (P = 0.05) in the breakfast group. CONCLUSIONS: There was little evidence of metabolic adaptation to acute feeding or negative consequences from sustained morning fasting. This indicates that previously observed differences between breakfast consumers and skippers may be acute effects of feeding or may have resulted from other lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Desjejum , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Physiol Rep ; 7(7): e14048, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927343

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery is associated with significant and sustained weight loss and improved metabolic outcomes. It is unclear if weight loss alone is the main mechanism of improved metabolic health. The purpose of this trial was to compare indices of appetite regulation, insulin sensitivity and energy intake (EI) between participants achieving 10 kg of weight loss via Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) or dietary restriction (DIET); intake of a very low calorie liquid diet (800 kcal/d; 40% protein, 40% fat, 20% carbohydrate that matched the post-RYGB dietary protocol). Adults qualifying for bariatric surgery were studied before and after 10 kg of weight loss (RYGB [n = 6]) or DIET [n = 17]). Appetite (hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption [PFC]), appetite-related hormones, and metabolites (ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids [FFA], and triglycerides [TG]) were measured in the fasting state and every 30 min for 180 min following breakfast. Participants were provided lunch to evaluate acute ad libitum EI, which was similarly reduced in both groups from pre to post weight loss. Fasting ghrelin was reduced to a greater extent following RYGB compared to DIET (P = 0.04). Area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.01), hunger (P < 0.01) and PFC (P < 0.01) increased after DIET compared to RYGB, following 10 kg weight loss. Satiety AUC increased after RYGB and decreased after DIET (P < 0.01). Glucose and insulin (fasting and AUC) decreased in both groups. FFA increased in both groups, with a greater increase in AUC seen after RYGB versus DIET (P = 0.02). In summary, appetite-related indices were altered in a manner that, if maintained, may promote a sustained reduction in energy intake with RYGB compared to DIET. Future work with a larger sample size and longer follow-up will be important to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Dieta Redutora , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/fisiologia
14.
Brain Res Bull ; 148: 131-135, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862486

RESUMO

The long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 suppresses food intake and decreases body weight. However, the mediating site(s) of action of the anorectic effects induced by peripheral administration of GLP-1R agonists are not well known. The present study investigated the effects of bilateral lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) on the suppression of chow and high-sucrose food intake by exendin-4 in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with bilateral sham or electrolytic lesions (400 µA; 25 s) of the CeA were used for this experiment. No significant difference was found in the daily chow intake and high-sucrose food intake in rats with CeA lesion compared to sham-operated rats. Bilateral lesions of the CeA significantly attenuated the suppression of high-sucrose food intake by i.p. exendin-4, but not the suppression of chow intake. These results suggest that a mediating role of the CeA on the peripheral effects of exendin-4.


Assuntos
Núcleo Central da Amígdala/efeitos dos fármacos , Exenatida/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exenatida/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Prog Neurobiol ; 177: 33-72, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786258

RESUMO

Many see the periaqueductal gray (PAG) as a region responsible for the downstream control of defensive reactions. Here we provide a detailed review of anatomical and functional data on the different parts of the PAG together with the dorsal raphe, which completes the circle of periaqueductal nuclei. Based on anatomical features, we propose a new subdivision of the periaqueductal gray that accounts for the distinct characteristics of the area. We provide a comprehensive functional view of the periaqueductal gray, going beyond simple panic and escape to integrate data on fear, anxiety, and depression. Importantly, we conclude that this periaqueductal cluster of nuclei is broadly involved in motivated behavior controlling not only aversive but also appetitive behavior and with some involvement in more complex motivational processes such as approach-avoidance conflict resolution. In sum, these highly conserved nuclei surrounding the aqueduct appear to be the simplest, foundational, elements of integrated motivated goal-directed control of all types.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/anatomia & histologia , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Motivação/fisiologia
16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 1903-1913, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to impaired gestational glucose tolerance has been shown to have sex-specific associations with offspring obesity risk, perhaps by affecting the development of appetite regulation. We examined the extent to which prenatal exposure to impaired glucose tolerance was associated with eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) in early adolescent offspring, and in turn, whether EAH was cross-sectionally associated with body composition. METHODS: We included data from 1097 adolescents participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth longitudinal cohort. We obtained the results of two-stage prenatal glycemic screening (50 g glucose challenge test, followed if abnormal by 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) at 26-28 weeks of gestation, and categorized mothers as having normal glucose tolerance, isolated hyperglycemia (IH, n = 92, 8.4%), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 36, 3.3%), or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, n = 52, 4.7%). At a median age of 13 years, offspring reported on two modified items of the Eating in the Absence of Hunger in Children and Adolescents questionnaire, we measured height and weight, and performed dual X-ray absorptiometry scans to assess fat and fat-free mass. We used multivariable linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and prenatal covariates, including maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: On a ten-point scale, the mean (SD) EAH score was 4.4 points (SD = 1.5) in boys and 4.4 (SD = 1.4) in girls. In girls, prenatal exposure to both IH and IGT was associated with more EAH compared with normal glucose tolerance (e.g., for IH: 0.56 points, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.96), whereas in boys, prenatal exposure to IGT was associated with less EAH (-0.81 points, 95% CI: -1.41, -0.21). We did not observe an association between exposure to GDM and EAH, nor did we observe associations between EAH and body composition in early adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest sex-specific associations of exposure to impaired gestational glucose tolerance with offspring EAH in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
J Neurosci ; 39(14): 2649-2663, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683681

RESUMO

The anterior lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (alBST) expresses glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) and receives input from caudal brainstem GLP1 neurons. GLP1 administered centrally reduces food intake and increases anxiety-like behavior and plasma corticosterone (cort) levels in rats, whereas central GLP1R antagonism has opposite effects. Anxiogenic threats and other stressors robustly activate c-fos expression in both GLP1-producing neurons and also in neurons within alBST subregions expressing GLP1R. To examine the functional role of GLP1R signaling within the alBST, adult male Sprague Dawley rats received bilateral alBST-targeted injections of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down the translation of GLP1R mRNA (GLP1R-KD rats), or similar injections of a control AAV (CTRL rats). In situ hybridization revealed that GLP1R mRNA is expressed in a subset of GABAergic alBST neurons, and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that GLP1R-KD rats displayed a significant 60% reduction in translatable GLP1R mRNA. Compared with CTRL rats, GLP1R-KD rats gained more body weight over time and displayed less anxiety-like behavior, including a loss of light-enhanced acoustic startle and less stress-induced hypophagia. Conversely, while baseline plasma cort levels were similar in GLP1R-KD and CTRL rats, GLP1R-KD rats displayed a prolonged stress-induced elevation of plasma cort levels. GLP1R-KD and CTRL rats displayed similar home cage food intake and a similar hypophagic response to systemic Exendin-4, a GLP1R agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier. We conclude that GLP1R expressed within the alBST contributes to multiple behavioral responses to anxiogenic threats, yet also serves to limit the plasma cort response to acute stress.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Anxiety is an affective and physiological state that supports threat avoidance. Identifying the neural bases of anxiety-like behaviors in animal models is essential for understanding mechanisms that contribute to normative and pathological anxiety in humans. In rats, anxiety/avoidance behaviors can be elicited or enhanced by visceral or cognitive threats that increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) signaling from the caudal brainstem to the hypothalamus and limbic forebrain. Data reported here support a role for limbic GLP1 receptor signaling to enhance anxiety-like behavior and to attenuate stress-induced elevations in plasma cort levels in rats. Improved understanding of central GLP1 neural pathways that impact emotional responses to stress could expand potential therapeutic options for anxiety and other stress-related disorders in humans.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/genética , Masculino , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 681-694.e5, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472090

RESUMO

Understanding the neural framework behind appetite control is fundamental to developing effective therapies to combat the obesity epidemic. The paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) is critical for appetite regulation, yet, the real-time, physiological response properties of PVH neurons to nutrients are unknown. Using a combination of fiber photometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and neural manipulation strategies, we determined the population dynamics of four molecularly delineated PVH subsets implicated in feeding behavior: glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (PVHGlp1r), melanocortin-4 receptor (PVHMc4r), oxytocin (PVHOxt), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (PVHCrh). We identified both calorie- and state-dependent sustained activity increases and decreases in PVHGlp1r and PVHCrh populations, respectively, while observing transient bulk changes of PVHMc4r, but no response in PVHOxt, neurons to food. Furthermore, we highlight the role of PVHGlp1r neurons in orchestrating acute feeding behavior, independent of the anti-obesity drug liraglutide, and demonstrate the indispensability of PVHGlp1r and PVHMc4r, but not PVHOxt or PVHCrh neurons, in body weight maintenance.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo , Animais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453036

RESUMO

The regulation of feeding is a complex process that involves coordination between various signals. Feeding hormones can be described as orexigenic (stimulate food intake, e.g. orexin and neuropeptide Y - NPY) or anorexigenic (inhibit food intake, e.g. cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript - CART). Reproduction and energy homeostasis are closely linked, as factors that affect appetite have also been shown to influence reproductive hormones and behaviors. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of the most influential factors controlling reproduction. Although our understanding of the endocrine regulation of feeding and reproduction in fish is progressing, many gaps still remain, particularly in catfish. Glass catfish (Kryptopterus vitreolus) are freshwater fish known for their natural transparency. In this study, we isolated cDNA encoding reproductive hormones (GnRH1, GnRH2) and appetite regulators (orexin, NPY, and CART) from glass catfish and examined their distribution in various tissues. All peptides had wide distributions across various brain and peripheral tissues, except CART, which was only present in brain. In order to assess whether limited energy supply affects these peptides, we examined the effects of fasting on their brain mRNA expression levels. Fasting increased the expression of both the orexigenic (i.e. orexin and NPY) and anorexigenic (i.e. CART) hormones, and decreased expression levels of GnRH1, but did not affect GnRH2. Overall, our results suggest that fasting affects the expression of peptides involved in both feeding and reproduction, and provides new insights on the endocrine mechanisms that regulate feeding and reproduction in catfish.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Apetite/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Jejum/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/química , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1773-1780, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28704315

RESUMO

Kojima, C, Kasai, N, Ishibashi, A, Murakami, Y, Ebi, K, and Goto, K. Appetite regulations after sprint exercise under hypoxic condition in female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1773-1780, 2019-The present study determined changes in appetite-regulating hormones and energy intake after high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) under hypoxic conditions (HYP) in trained female athletes. Fifteen female athletes completed 3 trials on different days of either HIIT under HYP, HIIT under normoxic conditions (NOR), or rest in normoxia (CON). Exercise trials consisted of 2 successive sets of 8 repeated bouts of a 6-second maximal sprint separated by a 30-second rest. Blood samples were obtained to measure plasma acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during an ad libitum buffet meal test was evaluated 30 minutes after exercise or rest. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (p ≤ 0.001), but no difference was observed between the HYP and NOR. Plasma GLP-1 concentrations did not differ after exercise, with no difference between the HYP and NOR. Although absolute energy intake in the HYP (634 ± 67 kcal) and NOR (597 ± 63 kcal) was significantly lower than that in the CON (756 ± 63 kcal, p = 0.006), no difference was observed between the HYP and NOR. These results show that HIIT under hypoxic and NOR lowered plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and energy intake.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Atletas , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Descanso/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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