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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4902, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994402

RESUMO

Living cells and tissues experience various complex modes of forces that are important in physiology and disease. However, how different force modes impact gene expression is elusive. Here we apply local forces of different modes via a magnetic bead bound to the integrins on a cell and quantified cell stiffness, chromatin deformation, and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) gene transcription. In-plane stresses result in lower cell stiffness than out-of-plane stresses that lead to bead rolling along the cell long axis (i.e., alignment of actin stress fibers) or at different angles (90° or 45°). However, chromatin stretching and ensuing DHFR gene upregulation by the in-plane mode are similar to those induced by the 45° stress mode. Disrupting stress fibers abolishes differences in cell stiffness, chromatin stretching, and DHFR gene upregulation under different force modes and inhibiting myosin II decreases cell stiffness, chromatin deformation, and gene upregulation. Theoretical modeling using discrete anisotropic stress fibers recapitulates experimental results and reveals underlying mechanisms of force-mode dependence. Our findings suggest that forces impact biological responses of living cells such as gene transcription via previously underappreciated means.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Fibras de Estresse/química , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia , Animais , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/genética , Células CHO , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Microscopia Intravital , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Miosina Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Fibras de Estresse/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras de Estresse/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913009

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a recently emerged respiratory coronavirus that has infected >23 million people worldwide with >800,000 deaths. Few COVID-19 therapeutics are available, and the basis for severe infections is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of type I (ß), II (γ), and III (λ1) interferons (IFNs), potent immune cytokines that are normally produced during infection and that upregulate IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) effectors to limit virus replication. IFNs are already in clinical trials to treat COVID-19. However, recent studies highlight the potential for IFNs to enhance expression of host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), suggesting that IFN therapy or natural coinfections could exacerbate COVID-19 by upregulating this critical virus entry receptor. Using a cell line model, we found that beta interferon (IFN-ß) strongly upregulated expression of canonical antiviral ISGs, as well as ACE2 at the mRNA and cell surface protein levels. Strikingly, IFN-λ1 upregulated antiviral ISGs, but ACE2 mRNA was only marginally elevated and did not lead to detectably increased ACE2 protein at the cell surface. IFN-γ induced the weakest ISG response but clearly enhanced surface expression of ACE2. Importantly, all IFN types inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner, and IFN-ß and IFN-λ1 exhibited potent antiviral activity in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Our data imply that type-specific mechanisms or kinetics shape IFN-enhanced ACE2 transcript and cell surface levels but that the antiviral action of IFNs against SARS-CoV-2 counterbalances any proviral effects of ACE2 induction. These insights should aid in evaluating the benefits of specific IFNs, particularly IFN-λ, as repurposed therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Repurposing existing, clinically approved, antiviral drugs as COVID-19 therapeutics is a rapid way to help combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Interferons (IFNs) usually form part of the body's natural innate immune defenses against viruses, and they have been used with partial success to treat previous new viral threats, such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. Nevertheless, IFNs can have undesirable side effects, and recent reports indicate that IFNs upregulate the expression of host ACE2 (a critical entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2), raising the possibility that IFN treatments could exacerbate COVID-19. Here, we studied the antiviral- and ACE2-inducing properties of different IFN types in both a human lung cell line model and primary human bronchial epithelial cells. We observed differences between IFNs with respect to their induction of antiviral genes and abilities to enhance the cell surface expression of ACE2. Nevertheless, all the IFNs limited SARS-CoV-2 replication, suggesting that their antiviral actions can counterbalance increased ACE2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interferons/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon Tipo I/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/efeitos adversos , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4611, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929072

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) are multifactorial and characterized by dysregulated inflammatory networks. Whether the proinflammatory cytokine IL-20 is involved in the complex networks of PDAC and CAC remains unclear. Here, we report that elevated IL-20 levels in tumor tissue correlate with poor overall survival in 72 patients with PDAC. In vivo, we establish a transgenic mouse model (KPC) and an orthotopic PDAC model and examine the therapeutic efficacy of an anti-IL-20 monoclonal antibody (7E). Targeting IL-20 not only prolongs survival and attenuates PD-L1 expression in both murine models but also inhibits tumor growth and mitigates M2-like polarization in the orthotopic PDAC model. Combination treatment with 7E and an anti-PD-1 antibody shows better efficacy in inhibiting tumor growth than either treatment alone in the orthotopic PDAC model. Finally, 7E mitigates cachexic symptoms in CAC models. Together, we conclude IL-20 is a critical mediator in PDAC progression.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Caquexia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4607, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929081

RESUMO

Drug tolerance is the basis for acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) including osimertinib, through mechanisms that still remain unclear. Here, we show that while AXL-low expressing EGFR mutated lung cancer (EGFRmut-LC) cells are more sensitive to osimertinib than AXL-high expressing EGFRmut-LC cells, a small population emerge osimertinib tolerance. The tolerance is mediated by the increased expression and phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), caused by the induction of its transcription factor FOXA1. IGF-1R maintains association with EGFR and adaptor proteins, including Gab1 and IRS1, in the presence of osimertinib and restores the survival signal. In AXL-low-expressing EGFRmut-LC cell-derived xenograft and patient-derived xenograft models, transient IGF-1R inhibition combined with continuous osimertinib treatment could eradicate tumors and prevent regrowth even after the cessation of osimertinib. These results indicate that optimal inhibition of tolerant signals combined with osimertinib may dramatically improve the outcome of EGFRmut-LC.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Anilina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6355-6372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922006

RESUMO

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are potent scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their antioxidant properties make CeO2NPs promising therapeutic agents for bone diseases and bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of CeO2NPs on intracellular ROS production in osteoclasts (OCs) are still unclear. Numerous studies have reported that intracellular ROS are essential for osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CeO2NPs on osteoclast differentiation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: The bidirectional modulation of osteoclast differentiation by CeO2NPs was explored by different methods, such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of CeO2NPs were detected by cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that although CeO2NPs were capable of scavenging ROS in acellular environments, they facilitated the production of ROS in the acidic cellular environment during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). CeO2NPs at lower concentrations (4.0 µg/mL to 8.0 µg/mL) promoted osteoclast formation, as shown by increased expression of Nfatc1 and C-Fos, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption. However, at higher concentrations (greater than 16.0 µg/mL), CeO2NPs inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted apoptosis of BMMs by reducing Bcl2 expression and increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, which may be due to the overproduction of ROS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CeO2NPs facilitate osteoclast formation at lower concentrations while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inducing the apoptosis of BMMs at higher concentrations by modulating cellular ROS levels.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cério/química , Osteoclastos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Life Sci ; 258: 118030, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739470

RESUMO

The risk of atherosclerosis (AS) ascends among post-menopausal women, while current hormone replacement therapy exerts several adverse effects. Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Alisma orientale, was reported to show multiple physiological activities, including regulating lipid metabolism. According to molecular docking analysis, it was predicted to bind with estrogen receptor α (ERα). In this study, we aimed to observe the effect of AB23A on preventing post-menopausal AS and explore whether the mechanism was mediated by ERα. In vitro, free fatty acid (FFA) was applied to induce the abnormal lipid metabolism of L02 cells. In vivo, the ApoE-/- mice were ovariectomized to mimic the cessation of estrogen. The high-fat diet was also given to induce post-menopausal AS. We demonstrated AB23A attenuated the accumulation of total cholesterol and triglyceride induced by free fatty acids in hepatocytes. In high-fat diet-ovariectomy-treated ApoE-/- mice, AB23A eliminated lipids in blood and liver. AB23A not only reduced the synthesis of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) through sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) but also suppressed the secretion of PCSK9 through silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1). Notably, AB23A promoted the expression of ERα in vivo and in vitro. The both ERα inhibitor and ERα siRNA were also applied in confirming whether the hepatic protective effect of AB23A was mediated by ERα. We found that AB23A significantly promoted the expression of ERα. AB23A could inhibit the synthesis and secretion of PCSK9 through ERα, lower the accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol, and prevent post-menopausal AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Colestenonas/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenonas/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ovariectomia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Life Sci ; 259: 118180, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758622

RESUMO

AIMS: Bufothionine had been used for gastric cancer (GC) treatment, and this study managed to uncover the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay. Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL assay were used to measure cell apoptosis ratio. Intracellular ROS was measured by DCFH-DA probes. qRT-PCR was used to determine miRNAs levels. Western Blot was performed to probe proteins. Dual-luciferase reporter gene system was employed to validate the binding sites of miR-133a-3p and 3'UTR regions of IGF1R mRNA. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to determine the expressions of Ki-67 in mice tumor tissues. KEY FINDINGS: Bufothionine inhibited cell viability, triggered ER stress and promoted ROS production in GC cells, and both ER stress inhibitor Salburinal (Sal) and ROS scavenger (NAC) abrogated Bufothionine induced GC cell death. Besides, miR-133a-3p was upregulated by Bufothionine, and Bufothionine-induced cell death was enhanced by miR-133a-3p overexpression while alleviated by miR-133a-3p knockdown. Furthermore, miR-133a-3p inactivated PI3K/Akt signal pathway by sponging IGF1R, and Bufothionine inhibited insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and inactivated PI3K/Akt cascade by upregulating miR-133a-3p. Notably, the promoting effects of overexpressed miR-133a-3p on Bufothionine-induced GC cell death were abrogated by overexpressing IGF1R, and aggravated by the PI3K/Akt cascade inhibitor (LY294002). SIGNIFICANCE: Bufothionine promoted GC cell death by triggering miR-133a-3p/IGF1R/PI3K/Akt axis mediated ER stress and ROS production.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Compostos de Quinolínio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Cromonas/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Proteína Oncogênica v-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Life Sci ; 258: 118240, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781072

RESUMO

As a dicarboxylic acid with the structural formula HOOCCH (OH) COOH, tartronic acid is considered as an inhibitor of the transformation of carbohydrates into fat under fat-deficient diet conditions. However, the effect of tartronic acid on lipogenesis under high-fat diet conditions has yet to be established. In this work, we investigated the regulatory role of tartronic acid in lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C57BL/6J mice. The results confirmed that tartronic acid promoted weight gain (without affecting food intake) and induced adipocyte hypertrophy in epididymal white adipose tissue and lipid accumulation in the livers of high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In vitro, tartronic acid promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by increasing the protein expression of FABP-4, PPARγ and SREBP-1. Moreover, the contents of both acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were significantly upregulated by treatment with tartronic acid, while the protein expression of CPT-1ß were inhibited. In summary, we proved that tartronic acid promotes lipogenesis by serving as substrates for fatty acid synthesis and inhibiting CPT-1ß, providing a new perspective for the study of tartronic acid.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/biossíntese , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Malonil Coenzima A/biossíntese , Tartronatos/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
9.
Life Sci ; 258: 118195, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781073

RESUMO

AIMS: The estrogen-ERα axis participates in osteoblast maturation. This study was designed to further evaluated the roles of the estrogen-ERα axis in bone healing and the possible mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Female ICR mice were created a metaphyseal bone defect in the left femurs and administered with methylpiperidinopyrazole (MPP), an inhibitor of ERα. Bone healing was evaluated using micro-computed tomography. Colocalization of ERα with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ERα translocation to mitochondria were determined. Levels of ERα, ERß, PECAM-1, VEGF, and ß-actin were immunodetected. Expression of chromosomal Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNAs and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and COXII mRNAs were quantified. Angiogenesis was measured with immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: Following surgery, the bone mass was time-dependently augmented in the bone-defect area. Simultaneously, levels of ERα were specifically upregulated and positively correlated with bone healing. Administration of MPP to mice consistently decreased levels of ERα and bone healing. As to the mechanisms, osteogenesis was enhanced in bone healing, but MPP attenuated osteoblast maturation. In parallel, expressions of osteogenesis-related ALP, Runx2, and osteocalcin mRNAs were induced in the injured zone. Treatment with MPP led to significant inhibition of the alp, runx2, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Remarkably, administration of MPP lessened translocation of ERα to mitochondria and expressions of mitochondrial energy production-related coxI and coxII genes. Furthermore, exposure to MPP decreased levels of PECAM-1 and VEGF in the bone-defect area. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed the contributions of the estrogen-ERα axis to bone healing through stimulation of energy production, osteoblast maturation, and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Osteoblastos/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822399

RESUMO

Environmental exposure to arsenite (As3+) has a strong association with the development of human urothelial cancer (UC) and is the 5th most common cancer in men and the 12th most common cancer in women. Muscle invasive urothelial cancer (MIUC) are grouped into basal or luminal molecular subtypes based on their gene expression profile. The basal subtype is more aggressive and can be associated with squamous differentiation, characterized by high expression of keratins (KRT1, 5, 6, 14, and 16) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) within the tumors. The luminal subtype is less aggressive and is predominately characterized by elevated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma (PPARγ) and forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1). We have previously shown that As3+-transformed urothelial cells (As-T) exhibit a basal subtype of UC expressing genes associated with squamous differentiation. We hypothesized that the molecular subtype of the As-T cells could be altered by inducing the expression of PPARγ and/or inhibiting the proliferation of the cells. Non-transformed and As-T cells were treated with Troglitazone (TG, PPARG agonist, 10 µM), PD153035 (PD, an EGFR inhibitor, 1 µM) or a combination of TG and PD for 3 days. The results obtained demonstrate that treatment of the As-T cells with TG upregulated the expression of PPARγ and FOXA1 whereas treatment with PD decreased the expression of some of the basal keratins. However, a combined treatment of TG and PD resulted in a consistent decrease of several proteins associated with the basal subtype of bladder cancers (KRT1, KRT14, KRT16, P63, and TFAP2A). Our data suggests that activation of PPARγ while inhibiting cell proliferation facilitates the regulation of genes involved in maintaining the luminal subtype of UC. In vivo animal studies are needed to address the efficacy of using PPARγ agonists and/or proliferation inhibitors to reduce tumor grade/stage of MIUC.


Assuntos
Arsenitos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Troglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , PPAR gama/agonistas , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante Heterólogo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109243, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861747

RESUMO

mTOR inhibitors are considered today to be one of the most promising anticancer drugs. Here to study the mechanism of the acquired resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to mTOR inhibitors two different models of the cell resistance were used: rapamycin-resistant MCF-7/Rap subline developed under long-term rapamycin treatment, and metformin-resistant MCF-7/M subline obtained by long-term metformin treatment. We have found that both resistant sublines were characterized by common features: increased expression of mTOR-interacting Raptor protein, increased phosphorylation of Akt, and activation of growth-related transcriptional factor AP-1. Cell response to mTOR inhibitors was partially restored under treatment with PI3K inhibitor wortmannin supporting the direct connection between Akt activation and poor cell response to therapeutic drugs. Transfection of mir-181c, one of the positive regulators of Akt and mTOR, led to an increase in the cell resistance to both mTOR inhibitors, rapamycin and metformin, which correlated with Raptor overexpression and activation of Akt/AP-1 signaling. In general, the effect of Raptor overexpression in the resistant cells, as well as the ability of mir-181c to modulate the Raptor expression, can open novel perspectives in the treatment of rapalogues-resistant cancers, based on the drugs design targeting mir-181c/Raptor axis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/metabolismo , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Life Sci ; 259: 118162, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The inhaled sevoflurane (sevo) is known to protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (MIRI), in which the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered. However, the effect of sevo regulating miR-204 on this disease remains unknown. This research aims to explore the roles of sevo and miR-204 in the progression of MIRI. METHODS: The MIRI mice models induced by coronary artery ligation were treated by sevo, miR-204 mimics or silenced coactosin-like protein-1 (Cotl1). The pathology of mice myocardial tissues, apoptosis and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were observed. The expression of miR-204, Cotl1, Bax and Bcl-2 was determined. The contents of oxidative stress-related factors and inflammatory factors in mouse myocardial tissues were assessed, and the serum levels of indicators that correlated with myocardial infarction were determined as well. The target relation between miR-204 and Cotl1 was confirmed. RESULTS: MiR-204 was down-regulated, and Cotl1 was up-regulated in myocardial tissues of MIRI mice, and Cotl1 was targeted by miR-204. Sevo, elevated miR-204 and inhibited Cotl1 could promote cardiac function of MIRI mice, and protect myocardial tissue against MIRI by repressing the cardiomyocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation reaction in MIRI mice. CONCLUSION: We found that sevo could up-regulate miR-204 to ameliorate MIRI in mice by inhibiting Cotl1 expression, which may provide candidates for the MIRI treatment.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/antagonistas & inibidores , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Life Sci ; 258: 118140, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730838

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was performed to investigate the expression profile of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and antiepileptic drugs on CYP1 expression in human astrocytoma MOG-G-CCM cells. MAIN METHODS: CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: MOG-G-CCM cells expressed various CYP isoforms. Among the CYP isoforms analyzed, CYP1B1 showed the highest expression level, followed by CYP1A1. Furthermore, CYP1B1 was localized in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. 3-Methylcholanthrene (3-MC), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and valproic acid (VPA) increased the expression of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1. The potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist GNF351 significantly suppressed the 3-MC- and VPA-mediated upregulation of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1. In addition, VPA potentiated the induction of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 by 3-MC, B[a]A, and B[a]P, although the augmentation of CYP1A1 was more remarkable than that of CYP1B1. In contrast, other antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenytoin) did not affect the 3-MC-mediated upregulation of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1. VPA is known to act as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Therefore, the effects of trichostatin A, a representative HDAC inhibitor, on CYP1 induction by 3-MC were examined. Trichostatin A enhanced the 3-MC-mediated upregulation of CYP1A1 but not CYP1B1. SIGNIFICANCE: These results partially indicated that VPA may augment the PAH-mediated induction of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 through the activation of transcription by HDAC inhibition.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3421, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647184

RESUMO

The OX40-OX40L pathway provides crucial co-stimulatory signals for CD4 T cell responses, however the precise cellular interactions critical for OX40L provision in vivo and when these occur, remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that provision of OX40L by dendritic cells (DCs), but not T cells, B cells nor group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s), is critical specifically for the effector Th1 response to an acute systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). OX40L expression by DCs is regulated by cross-talk with NK cells, with IFNγ signalling to the DC to enhance OX40L in a mechanism conserved in both mouse and human DCs. Strikingly, DC expression of OX40L is redundant in a chronic intestinal Th1 response and expression by ILC3s is necessary. Collectively these data reveal tissue specific compartmentalisation of the cellular provision of OX40L and define a mechanism controlling DC expression of OX40L in vivo.


Assuntos
Microambiente Celular , Ligante OX40/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Intestinos/citologia , Antígeno Ki-1/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Receptores OX40/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235556, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614916

RESUMO

To gain a better insight into the selenium nanoparticle (nSe) benefits/toxicity, this experiment was carried out to address the behavior of bitter melon seedlings to nSe (0, 1, 4, 10, 30, and 50 mgL-1) or bulk form (selenate). Low doses of nSe increased biomass accumulation, while concentrations of 10 mgL-1 and above were associated with stem bending, impaired root meristem, and severe toxicity. Responses to nSe were distinct from that of bulk in that the nano-type exhibited a higher efficiency to stimulate growth and organogenesis than the bulk. The bulk form displayed higher phytotoxicity than the nano-type counterpart. According to the MSAP-based analysis, nSe mediated substantial variation in DNA cytosine methylation, reflecting the epigenetic modification. By increasing the concentration of nSe, the expression of the WRKY1 transcription factor linearly up-regulated (mean = 7.9-fold). Transcriptions of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-Coumarate: CoA-ligase (4CL) genes were also induced. The nSe treatments at low concentrations enhanced the activity of leaf nitrate reductase (mean = 52%) in contrast with the treatment at toxic concentrations. The toxic concentration of nSe increased leaf proline concentration by 80%. The nSe supplement also stimulated the activities of peroxidase (mean = 35%) and catalase (mean = 10%) enzymes. The nSe-treated seedlings exhibited higher PAL activity (mean = 39%) and soluble phenols (mean = 50%). The nSe toxicity was associated with a disrupted differentiation of xylem conducting tissue. The callus formation and performance of the explants originated from the nSe-treated seedlings had a different trend than that of the control. This experiment provides new insights into the nSe-associated advantage/ cytotoxicity and further highlights the necessity of designing convincing studies to introduce novel methods for plant cell/tissue cultures and agriculture.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Selênio/química , Citosina/metabolismo , Momordica charantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica charantia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas/química , Nitrato Redutase/genética , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614927

RESUMO

Aortic aneurysm refers to dilatation of the aorta due to loss of elasticity and degenerative weakening of its wall. A preventive role for osteoprotegerin (Opg) in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm has been reported in the CaCl2-induced aneurysm model, whereas Opg was found to promote suprarenal aortic aneurysm in the AngII-induced ApoE knockout mouse aneurysm model. To determine whether there is a common underlying mechanism to explain the impact of Opg deficiency on the vascular structure of the two aneurysm models, we analyzed suprarenal aortic tissue of 6-month-old ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice after AngII infusion for 28 days. Less aortic dissection and aortic lumen dilatation, more adventitial thickening, and higher expression of collagen I and Trail were observed in ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice relative to ApoE-/-Opg+/+ mice. An accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin double-positive myofibroblasts was noted in the thickened adventitia of ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice. Our results suggest that fibrotic remodeling of the aorta induced by myofibroblast accumulation might be an important pathological event which tends to limit AngII-induced aortic dilatation in ApoE -/-Opg-/- mice.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Túnica Adventícia/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aorta Abdominal/fisiologia , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/deficiência , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639988

RESUMO

During type 1 immune responses, CD4 T helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD8 T cells are activated via IL-12 and contribute to the elimination of intracellular pathogens through interferon gamma (IFNγ) production. In this study, we identified Placenta-specific 8 (Plac8) as a gene that is uniquely expressed in Th1 CD4 T cells relative to other CD4 T cell subsets and hypothesized that Plac8 may represent a novel therapeutic target in Th1 CD4 T cells. First, we determined that Plac8 mRNA in CD4 T cells was induced following IL-12 stimulation via an indirect route that required new protein synthesis. Upon evaluating the functional relevance of Plac8 expression in Th1 CD4 T cells, we discovered that Plac8 was important for suppressing IFNγ mRNA and protein production by CD4 T cells 24 hours after IL-12 stimulation, however Plac8 did not contribute to pathogenic CD4 T cell function during two models of intestinal inflammation. We also noted relatively high basal expression of Plac8 in CD8 T cells which could be further induced following IL-12 stimulation in CD8 T cells. Furthermore, Plac8 expression was important for establishing an optimal CD8 T cell response against influenza A virus via a T cell-intrinsic manner. Altogether, these results implicate Plac8 as a potential regulator of Th1 CD4 and CD8 T cell responses during Th1 T cell-driven inflammation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/genética , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0228302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628668

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been recently shown to be a major obstacle to antiviral immunity by binding to its receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) on specific IFN-γ producing T cells in chronic hepatitis B. Currently, IFN-α is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but its antiviral effect vary greatly and the mechanism is not totally clear. We found that IFN-α/γ induced a marked increase of PD-L1 expression in hepatocytes. Signal and activators of transcription (Stat1) was then identified as a major transcription factor involved in IFN-α/γ-mediated PD-L1 elevation both in vitro and in mice. Blockage of the PD-L1/PD-1 interaction by a specific mAb greatly enhanced HBV-specific T cell activity by the gp96 adjuvanted therapeutic vaccine, and promoted HBV clearance in HBV transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate the IFN-α/γ-Stat1-PD-L1 axis plays an important role in mediating T cell hyporesponsiveness and inactivating liver-infiltrating T cells in the hepatic microenvironment. These data raise further potential interest in enhancing the anti-HBV efficacy of IFN-α and therapeutic vaccines.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/veterinária , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/química , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
Mutat Res ; 854-855: 503201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660825

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases. Sulforaphane (SFN), a bioactive compound found in cruciferous vegetables, activates the redox-sensitive nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In addition to its protective role, SFN exerts cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. However, there is a lack of information concerning the toxicity of SFN in normal cells. We investigated the effects of SFN on cell viability, antioxidant defenses, and gene expression in human stomach mucosa cells (MNP01). SFN reduced ROS formation and protected the cells against induced oxidative stress but high concentrations increased apoptosis. An intermediate SFN concentration (8 µM) was chosen for RNA sequencing studies. We observed upregulation of genes of the NRF2 (antioxidant) pathway, the DNA damage response, and apoptosis signaling; whereas SFN downregulated cell cycle and DNA repair pathway genes. SFN may be cytoprotective at low concentrations and cytotoxic at high concentrations.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
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