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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502200

RESUMO

Bioactive gibberellic acids (GAs) are diterpenoid plant hormones that are biosynthesized through complex pathways and control various aspects of growth and development. Although GA biosynthesis has been intensively studied, the downstream metabolic pathways regulated by GAs have remained largely unexplored. We investigated Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutant lines of Medicago truncatula with a dwarf phenotype by forward and reverse genetics screening and phylogenetic, molecular, biochemical, proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Three Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutant lines of the gibberellin 3-beta-dioxygenase 1 gene (GA3ox1) with a dwarf phenotype were identified, in which the synthesis of GAs (GA3 and GA4) was inhibited. Phenotypic analysis revealed that plant height, root and petiole length of ga3ox1 mutants were shorter than those of the wild type (Medicago truncatula ecotype R108). Leaf size was also much smaller in ga3ox1 mutants than that in wild-type R108, which is probably due to cell-size diminution instead of a decrease in cell number. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of ga3ox1/R108 leaves revealed that in the ga3ox1 mutant, flavonoid isoflavonoid biosynthesis was significantly up-regulated, while nitrogen metabolism was down-regulated. Additionally, we further demonstrated that flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis was induced by prohexadione calcium, an inhibitor of GA3ox enzyme, and inhibited by exogenous GA3. In contrast, nitrogen metabolism was promoted by exogenous GA3 but inhibited by prohexadione calcium. The results of this study further demonstrated that GAs play critical roles in positively regulating nitrogen metabolism and transport and negatively regulating flavonoid biosynthesis through GA-mediated signaling pathways in leaves.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago truncatula/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicago truncatula/genética , Medicago truncatula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500550

RESUMO

Global warming is impacting the growth and development of economically important but sensitive crops, such as soybean (Glycine max L.). Using pleiotropic signaling molecules, melatonin can relieve the negative effects of high temperature by enhancing plant growth and development as well as modulating the defense system against abiotic stresses. However, less is known about how melatonin regulates the phytohormones and polyamines during heat stress. Our results showed that high temperature significantly increased ROS and decreased photosynthesis efficiency in soybean plants. Conversely, pretreatment with melatonin increased plant growth and photosynthetic pigments (chl a and chl b) and reduced oxidative stress via scavenging hydrogen peroxide and superoxide and reducing the MDA and electrolyte leakage contents. The inherent stress defense responses were further strengthened by the enhanced activities of antioxidants and upregulation of the expression of ascorbate-glutathione cycle genes. Melatonin mitigates heat stress by increasing several biochemicals (phenolics, flavonoids, and proline), as well as the endogenous melatonin and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine). Furthermore, the positive effects of melatonin treatment also correlated with a reduced abscisic acid content, down-regulation of the gmNCED3, and up-regulation of catabolic genes (CYP707A1 and CYP707A2) during heat stress. Contrarily, an increase in salicylic acid and up-regulated expression of the defense-related gene PAL2 were revealed. In addition, melatonin induced the expression of heat shock protein 90 (gmHsp90) and heat shock transcription factor (gmHsfA2), suggesting promotion of ROS detoxification via the hydrogen peroxide-mediated signaling pathway. In conclusion, exogenous melatonin improves the thermotolerance of soybean plants and enhances plant growth and development by activating antioxidant defense mechanisms, interacting with plant hormones, and reprogramming the biochemical metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 207: 112032, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412012

RESUMO

The increasing need for agricultural production on the one hand, and requirements for greener and more sustainable agricultural practices on the other, have led to a growing demand for efficient and eco-friendly materials for the delivery of agrochemicals. Here we describe, the use of layered double hydroxide (LDH) particles as a carrier for a plant hormone. Magnesium-aluminum LDH intercalated with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was synthesized by co-precipitation method, characterized, and examined for real-life applications. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that both pristine and IAA-intercalated LDH particles exhibit hexagonal platelet morphology. X-ray diffraction showed a hydrotalcite-like structure and, together with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, verified the efficacious intercalation of IAA anions. The intercalation protected the IAA from enzymatic degradation and allowed its sustained release, as demonstrated by enzymatic stability and release tests, correspondingly. In-vivo assay revealed that intercalation inside LDH significantly increases the biological activity of IAA in promoting adventitious root development in plant cuttings. Results demonstrate the applicability of LDH as an advanced, effective, and sustainable carrier that overcomes the practical limitations of agrochemicals and significantly enhances their efficiency.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Hidróxidos , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439819

RESUMO

With the introduction of the new auxinic herbicide halauxifen-methyl into the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) market, there is a need to understand how this new molecule interacts with indigenous plant hormones (e.g., IAA) in terms of crop response. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular background by using different growth conditions under which three different auxinic herbicides were administered. These were halauxifen-methyl (Hal), alone and together with aminopyralid (AP) as well as picloram (Pic). Three different hormone classes were determined, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) as a precursor for ethylene, and abscisic acid (ABA) at two different temperatures and growth stages as well as over time (2-168 h after treatment). At 15 °C growth temperature, the effect was more pronounced than at 9 °C, and generally, the younger leaves independent of the developmental stage showed a larger effect on the alterations of hormones. IAA and ACC showed reproducible alterations after auxinic herbicide treatments over time, while ABA did not. Finally, a transcriptome analysis after treatment with two auxinic herbicides, Hal and Pic, showed different expression patterns. Hal treatment leads to the upregulation of auxin and hormone responses at 48 h and 96 h. Pic treatment induced the hormone/auxin response already after 2 h, and this continued for the other time points. The more detailed analysis of the auxin response in the datasets indicate a role for GH3 genes and genes encoding auxin efflux proteins. The upregulation of the GH3 genes correlates with the increase in conjugated IAA at the same time points and treatments. Also, genes for were found that confirm the upregulation of the ethylene pathway.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Aminoácidos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Picloram/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Piridinas/farmacologia , Temperatura , Transcriptoma
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9930210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395628

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at isolating endophytic fungi from the Asian culinary and medicinal plant Lilium davidii and analyzing its antifungal and plant growth-promoting effects. In this study, the fungal endophyte Acremonium sp. Ld-03 was isolated from the bulbs of L. davidii and identified through morphological and molecular analysis. The molecular and morphological analysis confirmed the endophytic fungal strain as Acremonium sp. Ld-03. Antifungal effects of Ld-03 were observed against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium fujikuroi. The highest growth inhibition, i.e., 78.39 ± 4.21%, was observed for B. dothidea followed by 56.68 ± 4.38%, 43.62 ± 3.81%, and 20.12 ± 2.45% for B. cinerea, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, respectively. Analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction through UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS revealed putative secondary metabolites which included xanthurenic acid, valyl aspartic acid, gancidin W, peptides, and cyclic dipeptides such as valylarginine, cyclo-[L-(4-hydroxy-Pro)-L-leu], cyclo(Pro-Phe), and (3S,6S)-3-benzyl-6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)piperazine-2,5-dione. Other metabolites included (S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)propanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 9-octadecenamide, D-erythro-C18-Sphingosine, N-palmitoyl sphinganine, and hydroxypalmitoyl sphinganine. The strain Ld-03 showed indole acetic acid (IAA) production with or without the application of exogenous tryptophan. The IAA ranged from 53.12 ± 3.20 µg ml-1 to 167.71 ± 7.12 µg ml-1 under different tryptophan concentrations. The strain was able to produce siderophore, and its production was significantly decreased with increasing Fe(III) citrate concentrations in the medium. The endophytic fungal strain also showed production of organic acids and phosphate solubilization activity. Plant growth-promoting effects of the strain were evaluated on in vitro seedling growth of Allium tuberosum. Application of 40% culture dilution resulted in a significant increase in root and shoot length, i.e., 24.03 ± 2.71 mm and 37.27 ± 1.86 mm, respectively, compared to nontreated control plants. The fungal endophyte Ld-03 demonstrated the potential of conferring disease resistance and plant growth promotion. Therefore, we conclude that the isolated Acremonium sp. Ld-03 should be further investigated before utilization as a biocontrol agent and plant growth stimulator.


Assuntos
Acremonium/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilium/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acremonium/isolamento & purificação , Acremonium/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/química , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resistência à Doença , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361665

RESUMO

In vitro cultures of scarlet flax (Linum grandiflorum L.), an important ornamental flax, have been established as a new possible valuable resource of lignans and neolignans for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory applications. The callogenic potential at different concentrations of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and thidiazuron (TDZ), alone or in combinations, was evaluated using both L. grandiflorum hypocotyl and cotyledon explants. A higher callus induction frequency was observed on NAA than TDZ, especially for hypocotyl explants, with a maximum frequency (i.e., 95.2%) on 1.0 mg/L of NAA. The presence of NAA (1.0 mg/L) in conjunction with TDZ tended to increase the frequency of callogenesis relative to TDZ alone, but never reached the values observed with NAA alone, thereby indicating the lack of synergy between these two plant growth regulators (PGRs). Similarly, in terms of biomass, NAA was more effective than TDZ, with a maximum accumulation of biomass registered for medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of NAA using hypocotyls as initial explants (DW: 13.1 g). However, for biomass, a synergy between the two PGRs was observed, particularly for cotyledon-derived explants and for the lowest concentrations of TDZ. The influence of these two PGRs on callogenesis and biomass is discussed. The HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lignans (secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and lariciresinol (LARI) and neolignan (dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [DCA]) naturally accumulated in their glycoside forms. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities performed for both hypocotyl- and cotyledon-derived cultures were also found maximal (DPPH: 89.5%, FRAP 866: µM TEAC, ABTS: 456 µM TEAC) in hypocotyl-derived callus cultures as compared with callus obtained from cotyledon explants. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activities revealed high inhibition (COX-1: 47.4% and COX-2: 51.1%) for extract of hypocotyl-derived callus cultures at 2.5 mg/L TDZ. The anti-inflammatory action against COX-1 and COX-2 was supported by the IC50 values. This report provides a viable approach for enhanced biomass accumulation and efficient production of (neo)lignans in L. grandiflorum callus cultures.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Butileno Glicóis/análise , Cotilédone/química , Linho/química , Furanos/análise , Hipocótilo/química , Lignanas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cotilédone/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura/métodos , Linho/metabolismo , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361731

RESUMO

Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid plant hormones that play a role in the response of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses. When released into the rhizosphere, they are perceived by both beneficial symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic plants. Due to their multiple roles, SLs are potentially interesting agricultural targets. Indeed, the use of SLs as agrochemicals can favor sustainable agriculture via multiple mechanisms, including shaping root architecture, promoting ideal branching, stimulating nutrient assimilation, controlling parasitic weeds, mitigating drought and enhancing mycorrhization. Moreover, over the last few years, a number of studies have shed light onto the effects exerted by SLs on human cells and on their possible applications in medicine. For example, SLs have been demonstrated to play a key role in the control of pathways related to apoptosis and inflammation. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind their action has inspired further investigations into their effects on human cells and their possible uses as anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Agroquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Agroquímicos/metabolismo , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/metabolismo , Micorrizas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/biossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 368, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is considered a potential plant growth regulator to enhance the growth of plants and increase tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, melatonin's role in mediating stress response in different plant species and growth cycles still needs to be explored. This study was conducted to understand the impact of different melatonin concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 150 µM) applied as a soil drench to maize seedling under drought stress conditions. A decreased irrigation approach based on watering was exposed to maize seedling after drought stress was applied at 40-45% of field capacity. RESULTS: The results showed that drought stress negatively affected the growth behavior of maize seedlings, such as reduced biomass accumulation, decreased photosynthetic pigments, and enhanced the malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, melatonin application enhanced plant growth; alleviated ROS-induced oxidative damages by increasing the photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzyme activities, relative water content, and osmo-protectants of maize seedlings. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin treatment also enhanced the stomatal traits, such as stomatal length, width, area, and the number of pores under drought stress conditions. Our data suggested that 100 µM melatonin application as soil drenching could provide a valuable foundation for improving plant tolerance to drought stress conditions.


Assuntos
Melatonina/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Estresse Oxidativo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Prolina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zea mays/enzimologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361835

RESUMO

The present study compared the effects of natural senescence and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) treatment on the levels of terpene trilactones (TTLs; ginkgolides and bilobalide), phenolic acids, and flavonoids in the primary organs of Ginkgo biloba leaves, leaf blades, and petioles. Levels of the major TTLs, ginkgolides B and C, were significantly higher in the leaf blades of naturally senesced yellow leaves harvested on 20 October compared with green leaves harvested on 9 September. In petioles, a similar effect was found, although the levels of these compounds were almost half as high. These facts indicate the importance of the senescence process on TTL accumulation. Some flavonoids and phenolic acids also showed changes in content related to maturation or senescence. Generally, the application of JA-Me slightly but substantially increased the levels of TTLs in leaf blades irrespective of the difference in its application side on the leaves. Of the flavonoids analyzed, levels of quercetin, rutin, quercetin-4-glucoside, apigenin, and luteolin were dependent on the JA-Me application site, whereas levels of (+) catechin and (-) epicatechin were not. Application of JA-Me increased ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid esters in the petiole but decreased the levels of these compounds in the leaf blade. The content of p-coumaric acid glycosides and caffeic acid esters was only slightly modified by JA-Me. In general, JA-Me application affected leaf senescence by modifying the accumulation of ginkogolides, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. These effects were also found to be different in leaf blades and petioles. Based on JA-Me- and aging-related metabolic changes in endogenous levels of the secondary metabolites in G. biloba leaves, we discussed the results of study in the context of basic research and possible practical application.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Ginkgo biloba/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Ginkgo biloba/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgo biloba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Lactonas/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 361, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Priming of seed prior chilling is regarded as one of the methods to promote seeds germination, whole plant growth, and yield components. The application of biostimulants was reported as beneficial for protecting many plants from biotic or abiotic stresses. Their value was as important to be involved in improving the growth parameters of plants. Also, they were practiced in the regulation of various metabolic pathways to enhance acclimation and tolerance in coriander against chilling stress. To our knowledge, little is deciphered about the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ameliorative impact of biostimulants in the context of understanding the link and overlap between improved morphological characters, induced metabolic processes, and upregulated gene expression. In this study, the ameliorative effect(s) of potassium silicate, HA, and gamma radiation on acclimation of coriander to tolerate chilling stress was evaluated by integrating the data of growth, yield, physiological and molecular aspects. RESULTS: Plant growth, yield components, and metabolic activities were generally diminished in chilling-stressed coriander plants. On the other hand, levels of ABA and soluble sugars were increased. Alleviation treatment by humic acid, followed by silicate and gamma irradiation, has notably promoted plant growth parameters and yield components in chilling-stressed coriander plants. This improvement was concomitant with a significant increase in phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrate contents, antioxidants defense system, and induction of large subunit of RuBisCO enzyme production. The assembly of Toc complex subunits was maintained, and even their expression was stimulated (especially Toc75 and Toc 34) upon alleviation of the chilling stress by applied biostimulators. Collectively, humic acid was the best the element to alleviate the adverse effects of chilling stress on growth and productivity of coriander. CONCLUSIONS: It could be suggested that the inducing effect of the pretreatments on hormonal balance triggered an increase in IAA + GA3/ABA hormonal ratio. This ratio could be linked and engaged with the protection of cellular metabolic activities from chilling injury against the whole plant life cycle. Therefore, it was speculated that seed priming in humic acid is a powerful technique that can benefit the chilled along with non-chilled plants and sustain the economic importance of coriander plant productivity.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Coriandrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aclimatação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/análise , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/efeitos da radiação , Coriandrum/efeitos dos fármacos , Coriandrum/efeitos da radiação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Raios gama , Substâncias Húmicas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos de Potássio/química , Compostos de Potássio/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos da radiação
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2289: 301-312, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270079

RESUMO

Hybrid varieties dominate the red beet market. The breeding process necessary to produce these cultivars is very difficult and time consuming. The application of in vitro gynogenesis can reduce the time needed to produce the corresponding homozygous pure lines to a few months. Our research team has developed a method to obtain red beet doubled haploid plants by gynogenesis. The best medium for gynogenesis induction is the B5 medium with the addition of 0.5 mg/L IAA, 0.2 mg/L BA, and 322 mg/L putrescine, whereas the best medium for shoot induction from embryos proved to be the MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA, 0.1 mg/L BA, and 0.5 mg/L putrescine. The shoots obtained were rooted on MS medium containing half the concentration of microelements and 3 mg/L NAA, 160 mg/L putrescine, and 20 g/L sucrose. Ploidy evaluation of gynogenetic plants was performed by flow cytometry and homozygosity or heterozygosity was determined by two isoenzymatic systems: PGI and AAT.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Haploidia , Homozigoto , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299234

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are known to be essential regulators for wood formation in herbaceous plants and poplar, but their roles in secondary growth and xylem development are still not well-defined, especially in pines. Here, we treated Pinus massoniana seedlings with different concentrations of exogenous BRs, and assayed the effects on plant growth, xylem development, endogenous phytohormone contents and gene expression within stems. Application of exogenous BR resulted in improving development of xylem more than phloem, and promoting xylem development in a dosage-dependent manner in a certain concentration rage. Endogenous hormone determination showed that BR may interact with other phytohormones in regulating xylem development. RNA-seq analysis revealed that some conventional phenylpropanoid biosynthesis- or lignin synthesis-related genes were downregulated, but the lignin content was elevated, suggesting that new lignin synthesis pathways or other cell wall components should be activated by BR treatment in P. massoniana. The results presented here reveal the foundational role of BRs in regulating plant secondary growth, and provide the basis for understanding molecular mechanisms of xylem development in P. massoniana.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Pinus/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Lignina/metabolismo , Floema/efeitos dos fármacos , Floema/metabolismo , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Madeira/genética , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilema/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199940

RESUMO

In this special issue entitled, "Advances in the Molecular Mechanisms of Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins Functions in Plants", eight articles are collected, with five reviews and three original research papers, which broadly cover different topics on the abscisic acid (ABA) field and, to a lesser extent, on gibberellins (GAs) research [...].


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 323, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient low temperature accumulation is the key strategy to break bud dormancy and promote subsequent flowering in tree peony anti-season culturing production. Exogenous gibberellins (GAs) could partially replace chilling to accelerate dormancy release, and different kinds of GAs showed inconsistent effects in various plants. To understand the effects of exogenous GA3 and GA4 on dormancy release and subsequent growth, the morphological changes were observed after exogenous GAs applications, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the contents of endogenous phytohormones, starch and sugar were measured, respectively. RESULTS: Morphological observation and photosynthesis measurements indicated that both GA3 and GA4 applications accelerated bud dormancy release, but GA3 feeding induced faster bud burst, higher shoot and more flowers per plant. Full-length transcriptome of dormant bud was used as the reference genome. Totally 124 110 459, 124 015 148 and 126 239 836 reads by illumina transcriptome sequencing were obtained in mock, GA3 and GA4 groups, respectively. Compared with the mock, there were 879 DEGs and 2 595 DEGs in GA3 and GA4 group, 1 179 DEGs in GA3 vs GA4, and 849 DEGs were common in these comparison groups. The significant enrichment KEGG pathways of 849 DEGs highlighted plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, cell cycle, DNA replication, etc. Interestingly, the contents of endogenous GA1, GA3, GA4, GA7 and IAA significantly increased, ABA decreased after GA3 and GA4 treatments by LC-MS/MS. Additionally, the soluble glucose, fructose and trehalose increased after exogenous GAs applications. Compared to GA4 treatment, GA3 induced higher GA1, GA3 and IAA level, more starch degradation to generate more monosaccharide for use, and promoted cell cycle and photosynthesis. Higher expression levels of dormancy-related genes, TFL, FT, EBB1, EBB3 and CYCD, and lower of SVP by GA3 treatment implied more efficiency of GA3. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GA3 and GA4 significantly accelerated bud dormancy release and subsequent growth by increasing the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs, IAA, and soluble glucose such as fructose and trehalose, and accelerated cell cycle process, accompanied by decreasing ABA contents. GA3 was superior to GA4 in tree peony forcing culture, which might because tree peony was more sensitive to GA3 than GA4, and GA3 had a more effective ability to induce cell division and starch hydrolysis. These results provided the value data for understanding the mechanism of dormancy release in tree peony.


Assuntos
Flores/fisiologia , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Paeonia/fisiologia , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Congelamento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Paeonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Paeonia/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 308, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Chalkiness, the opaque part in the kernel endosperm formed by loosely piled starch and protein bodies. Chalkiness is a complex quantitative trait regulated by multiple genes and various environmental factors. Phytohormones play important roles in the regulation of chalkiness formation but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear at present. RESULTS: In this research, Xiangzaoxian24 (X24, pure line of indica rice with high-chalkiness) and its origin parents Xiangzaoxian11 (X11, female parent, pure line of indica rice with high-chalkiness) and Xiangzaoxian7 (X7, male parent, pure line of indica rice with low-chalkiness) were used as materials. The phenotype, physiological and biochemical traits combined with transcriptome analysis were conducted to illustrate the dynamic process and transcriptional regulation of rice chalkiness formation. Impressively, phytohormonal contents and multiple phytohormonal signals were significantly different in chalky caryopsis, suggesting the involvement of phytohormones, particularly ABA and auxin, in the regulation of rice chalkiness formation, through the interaction of multiple transcription factors and their downstream regulators. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that chalkiness formation is a dynamic process associated with multiple genes, forming a complex regulatory network in which phytohormones play important roles. These results provided informative clues for illustrating the regulatory mechanisms of chalkiness formation in rice.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Endosperma/efeitos dos fármacos , Endosperma/metabolismo , Endosperma/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Amido/metabolismo , Amido/ultraestrutura , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 306, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of insect pests in paddy fields cause heavy losses in global rice yield annually, a threat projected to be aggravated by ongoing climate warming. Although significant progress has been made in the screening and cloning of insect resistance genes in rice germplasm and their introgression into modern cultivars, improved rice resistance is only effective against either chewing or phloem-feeding insects. RESULTS: In this study, the results from standard and modified seedbox screening, settlement preference and honeydew excretion tests consistently showed that Qingliu, a previously known leaffolder-resistant rice variety, is also moderately resistant to brown planthopper (BPH). High-throughput RNA sequencing showed a higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the infestation site, with 2720 DEGs in leaves vs 181 DEGs in sheaths for leaffolder herbivory and 450 DEGs in sheaths vs 212 DEGs in leaves for BPH infestation. The leaf-specific transcriptome revealed that Qingliu responds to leaffolder feeding by activating jasmonic acid biosynthesis genes and genes regulating the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways that are essential for the biosynthesis of salicylic acid, melatonin, flavonoids and lignin defensive compounds. The sheath-specific transcriptome revealed that Qingliu responds to BPH infestation by inducing salicylic acid-responsive genes and those controlling cellular signaling cascades. Taken together these genes could play a role in triggering defense mechanisms such as cell wall modifications and cuticular wax formation. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted the key defensive responses of a rarely observed rice variety Qingliu that has resistance to attacks by two different feeding guilds of herbivores. The leaffolders are leaf-feeder while the BPHs are phloem feeders, consequently Qingliu is considered to have dual resistance. Although the defense responses of Qingliu to both insect pest types appear largely dissimilar, the phenylpropanoid pathway (or more specifically phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes) could be a convergent upstream pathway. However, this possibility requires further studies. This information is valuable for breeding programs aiming to generate broad spectrum insect resistance in rice cultivars.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/parasitologia , Floema/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208343

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a gaseous environmental pollutant that can enter leaves through stomatal pores and cause damage to foliage. It can induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that can actively participate in stomatal closing or opening in plants. A number of phytohormones, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) are involved in stomatal regulation in plants. The effects of ozone on these phytohormones' ability to regulate the guard cells of stomata have been little studied, however, and the goal of this paper is to explore and understand the effects of ozone on stomatal regulation through guard cell signaling by phytohormones. In this review, we updated the existing knowledge by considering several physiological mechanisms related to stomatal regulation after response to ozone. The collected information should deepen our understanding of the molecular pathways associated with response to ozone stress, in particular, how it influences stomatal regulation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, and phytohormone signaling. After summarizing the findings and noting the gaps in the literature, we present some ideas for future research on ozone stress in plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ozônio/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 316, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergot, caused by the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea, infects the female flowers of a range of cereal crops, including wheat. To understand the interaction between C. purpurea and hexaploid wheat we undertook an extensive examination of the reprogramming of the wheat transcriptome in response to C. purpurea infection through floral tissues (i.e. the stigma, transmitting and base ovule tissues of the ovary) and over time. RESULTS: C. purpurea hyphae were observed to have grown into and down the stigma at 24 h (H) after inoculation. By 48H hyphae had grown through the transmitting tissue into the base, while by 72H hyphae had surrounded the ovule. By 5 days (D) the ovule had been replaced by fungal tissue. Differential gene expression was first observed at 1H in the stigma tissue. Many of the wheat genes differentially transcribed in response to C. purpurea infection were associated with plant hormones and included the ethylene (ET), auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid (GA), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic and signaling pathways. Hormone-associated genes were first detected in the stigma and base tissues at 24H, but not in the transmitting tissue. Genes associated with GA and JA pathways were seen in the stigma at 24H, while JA and ET-associated genes were identified in the base at 24H. In addition, several defence-related genes were differential expressed in response to C. purpurea infection, including antifungal proteins, endocytosis/exocytosis-related proteins, NBS-LRR class proteins, genes involved in programmed cell death, receptor protein kinases and transcription factors. Of particular interest was the identification of differential expression of wheat genes in the base tissue well before the appearance of fungal hyphae, suggesting that a mobile signal, either pathogen or plant-derived, is delivered to the base prior to colonisation. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple host hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways were significantly perturbed from an early stage in the wheat - C. purpurea interaction. Differential gene expression at the base of the ovary, ahead of arrival of the pathogen, indicated the potential presence of a long-distance signal modifying host gene expression.


Assuntos
Claviceps/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299210

RESUMO

Conjugation of phytohormones with glucose is a means of modulating their activities, which can be rapidly reversed by the action of ß-glucosidases. Evaluation of previously characterized recombinant rice ß-glucosidases found that nearly all could hydrolyze abscisic acid glucose ester (ABA-GE). Os4BGlu12 and Os4BGlu13, which are known to act on other phytohormones, had the highest activity. We expressed Os4BGlu12, Os4BGlu13 and other members of a highly similar rice chromosome 4 gene cluster (Os4BGlu9, Os4BGlu10 and Os4BGlu11) in transgenic Arabidopsis. Extracts of transgenic lines expressing each of the five genes had higher ß-glucosidase activities on ABA-GE and gibberellin A4 glucose ester (GA4-GE). The ß-glucosidase expression lines exhibited longer root and shoot lengths than control plants in response to salt and drought stress. Fusions of each of these proteins with green fluorescent protein localized near the plasma membrane and in the apoplast in tobacco leaf epithelial cells. The action of these extracellular ß-glucosidases on multiple phytohormones suggests they may modulate the interactions between these phytohormones.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ésteres/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/química , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Família Multigênica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/genética
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073871

RESUMO

Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses restricting plant growth and development. Application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) is a possible practical means for minimizing salinity-induced yield losses, and can be used in addition to or as an alternative to crop breeding for enhancing salinity tolerance. The PGRs auxin, cytokinin, nitric oxide, brassinosteroid, gibberellin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene have been advocated for practical use to improve crop performance and yield under saline conditions. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the effectiveness of various PGRs in ameliorating the detrimental effects of salinity on plant growth and development, and elucidates the physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying this process by linking PGRs with their downstream targets and signal transduction pathways. It is shown that, while each of these PGRs possesses an ability to alter plant ionic and redox homeostasis, the complexity of interactions between various PGRs and their involvement in numerous signaling pathways makes it difficult to establish an unequivocal causal link between PGRs and their downstream effectors mediating plants' adaptation to salinity. The beneficial effects of PGRs are also strongly dependent on genotype, the timing of application, and the concentration used. The action spectrum of PGRs is also strongly dependent on salinity levels. Taken together, this results in a rather narrow "window" in which the beneficial effects of PGR are observed, hence limiting their practical application (especially under field conditions). It is concluded that, in the light of the above complexity, and also in the context of the cost-benefit analysis, crop breeding for salinity tolerance remains a more reliable avenue for minimizing the impact of salinity on plant growth and yield. Further progress in the field requires more studies on the underlying cell-based mechanisms of interaction between PGRs and membrane transporters mediating plant ion homeostasis.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos
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