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4.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1831717, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073725

RESUMO

In recent decades, bold steps taken by the government of Nepal to liberalise its abortion law and increase the affordability and accessibility of safe abortion and family planning have contributed to significant improvements in maternal mortality and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. The Trump administration's Global Gag Rule (GGR) - which prohibits foreign non-governmental organisations (NGOs) from receiving US global health assistance unless they certify that they will not use funding from any source to engage in service delivery, counselling, referral, or advocacy related to abortion - threatens this progress. This paper examines the impact of the GGR on civil society, NGOs, and SRH service delivery in Nepal. We conducted 205 semi-structured in-depth interviews in 2 phases (August-September 2018, and June-September 2019), and across 22 districts. Interview participants included NGO programme managers, government employees, facility managers and service providers in the NGO and private sectors, and service providers in public sector facilities. This large, two-phased study complements existing anecdotal research by capturing impacts of the GGR as they evolved over the course of a year, and by surfacing pathways through which this policy affects SRH outcomes. We found that low policy awareness and a considerable chilling effect cut across levels of the Nepali health system and exacerbated impacts caused by routine implementation of the GGR, undermining the ecology of SRH service delivery in Nepal as well as national sovereignty.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nepal , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095788

RESUMO

In this paper, the interaction strategies and the evolutionary game analysis of the actions taken by the government and the public in the early days of the epidemic are incorporated into the natural transmission mechanism model of the epidemic, and then the transmission frequency equations of COVID-19 epidemic is established. According to the cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK and China, the upper limit of the spread of COVID-19 in different evolutionary scenarios is set. Using SPSS to perform logistic curve fitting, the frequency fitting equations of cumulative confirmed cases under different evolution scenarios are obtained respectively. The analysis result shows that the emergency response strategy adopted by the government in the early days of the epidemic can effectively control the spread of the epidemic. Combined with the transmission frequency equation of COVID-19 epidemic, measures taken by the government are analyzed. The influence of each measure on the frequency variable is judged and then the influence on the spread of the epidemic is obtained. Finally, based on the above analysis, the government is advised to adhere to the principles of scientific, initiative and flexibility when facing major epidemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Teoria do Jogo , Regulamentação Governamental , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Emergências , Previsões/métodos , Governo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095814

RESUMO

Understanding the influence of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy and the Chinese government's emergency measures to ease the economic impacts of viral spread can offer urgently-needed lessons while this virus continues to spread across the globe. Thus, this study collected over 750,000 words upon the topic of COVID-19 and agriculture from the largest two media channels in China: WeChat and Sina Weibo, and employed web crawler technology and text mining method to explore the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural economy and mitigation measures in China. The results show that: (1) the impact of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy at the very first phase is mainly reflected in eight aspects as crop production, agricultural products supply, livestock production, farmers' income and employment, economic crop development, agricultural products sales model, leisure agriculture development, and agricultural products trade. (2) The government's immediate countermeasures include resuming agricultural production and farmers' work, providing financial support, stabilizing agricultural production and products supply, promoting agricultural products sale, providing subsidies, providing agricultural technology guidance and field management, and providing assistance to poor farmers to reduce poverty. (3) The order of government's immediate countermeasures is not all in line with the order of impact aspects, which indicates that more-tailored policies should be implemented to mitigate the strikes of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Fazendas/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Produção Agrícola/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendas/legislação & jurisprudência , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Gado , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
9.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020502, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110585

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has hit all corners of the world, challenging governments to act promptly in controlling the spread of the pandemic. Due to limited resources and inferior technological capacities, developing countries including Vietnam have faced many challenges in combating the pandemic. Since the first cases were detected on 23 January 2020, Vietnam has undergone a 3-month fierce battle to control the outbreak with stringent measures from the government to mitigate the adverse impacts. In this study, we aim to give insights into the Vietnamese government's progress during the first three months of the outbreak. Additionally, we relatively compare Vietnam's response with that of other Southeast Asia countries to deliver a clear and comprehensive view on disease control strategies. Methods: The data on the number of COVID-19 confirmed and recovered cases in Vietnam was obtained from the Dashboard for COVID-19 statistics of the Ministry of Health (https://ncov.vncdc.gov.vn/). The review on Vietnam's country-level responses was conducted by searching for relevant government documents issued on the online database 'Vietnam Laws Repository' (https://thuvienphapluat.vn/en/index.aspx), with the grey literature on Google and relevant official websites. A stringency index of government policies and the countries' respective numbers of confirmed cases of nine Southeast Asian countries were adapted from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (https://www.bsg.ox.ac.uk/research/research-projects/coronavirus-government-response-tracker). All data was updated as of 24 April 2020. Results: Preliminary positive results have been achieved given that the nation confirmed no new community-transmitted cases since 16 April and zero COVID-19 - related deaths throughout the 3-month pandemic period. To date, the pandemic has been successfully controlled thanks to the Vietnamese government's prompt, proactive and decisive responses including mobilization of the health care systems, security forces, economic policies, along with a creative and effective communication campaign corresponding with crucial milestones of the epidemic's progression. Conclusions: Vietnam could be one of the role models in pandemic control for low-resource settings. As the pandemic is still ongoing in an unpredictable trajectory, disease control measures should continue to be put in place in the foreseeable short term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia
10.
N Z Med J ; 133(1524): 111-118, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119574

RESUMO

This article discusses the three types of nurse prescriber currently registered in New Zealand (nurse practitioners, registered nurse prescribers (RNP) in primary health and specialty teams and registered nurse prescribers (RNPCH) in community health). It also provides an overview of the evolution of each group, as well as a summary of the current legislation, prescribing restrictions and models of supervision required for each type of prescriber.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos , Regulamentação Governamental , Legislação de Medicamentos , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/história , Nova Zelândia , Profissionais de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how health issues affect voting behaviour by considering the COVID-19 pandemic, which offers a unique opportunity to examine this interplay. DESIGN: We employ a survey experiment in which treatment groups are exposed to key facts about the pandemic, followed by questions intended to elicit attitudes toward the incumbent party and government responsibility for the pandemic. SETTING: The survey was conducted amid the lockdown period of 15-26 April 2020 in three large democratic countries with the common governing language of English: India, the United Kingdom and the United States. Due to limitations on travel and recruitment, subjects were recruited through the M-Turk internet platform and the survey was administered entirely online. Respondents numbered 3648. RESULTS: Our expectation was that respondents in the treatment groups would favour, or disfavour, the incumbent and assign blame to government for the pandemic compared with the control group. We observe no such results. Several reasons may be adduced for this null finding. One reason could be that public health is not viewed as a political issue. However, people do think health is an important policy area (>85% agree) and that government has some responsibility for health (>90% agree). Another reason could be that people view public health policies through partisan lenses, which means that health is largely endogenous, and yet we find little evidence of polarisation in our data. Alternatively, it could be that the global nature of the pandemic inoculated politicians from blame and yet a majority of people do think the government is to blame for the spread of the pandemic (~50% agree). CONCLUSIONS: While we cannot precisely determine the mechanisms at work, the null findings contained in this study suggest that politicians are unlikely to be punished or rewarded for their failures or successes in managing COVID-19 in the next election. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Initial research hypotheses centred on expected variation between two treatments, as set forth in a detailed pre-analysis plan, registered at E-Gap: http://egap.org/registration/6645. Finding no difference between the treatments, we decided to focus this paper on the treatment/control comparison. Importantly, results that follow the pre-analysis plan strictly are entirely consistent with results presented here: null findings obtained throughout.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Regulamentação Governamental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Palmas; [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde]; 20200000. 22 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1120798

RESUMO

Regimento para estabelecer normas, competências e procedimentos da Comissão Permanente de Integração Ensino-Serviço do Estado do Tocantins - CIES Estadual/CIB-TO, que é uma instância intersetorial e interinstitucional permanente que participa da formulação, condução, monitoramento e avaliação da Política de Educação Permanente em Saúde ­ EPS e atende o disposto no artigo 14 da Lei 8.080/1990, regulamentada pelo Decreto Presidencial N°. 7.508, de 28 de junho de 2011, e a Norma Operacional Básica de Recursos Humanos em Saúde (NOB/RH-SUS).


Rules to establish rules, competences and procedures of the Permanent Commission for Teaching-Service Integration of the State of Tocantins - State CIES / CIB-TO, which is a permanent intersectoral and interinstitutional body that participates in the formulation, conduction, monitoring and evaluation of the Education Policy Permanent in Health - EPS and meets the provisions of article 14 of Law 8.080 / 1990, regulated by Presidential Decree N °. 7,508, of June 28, 2011, and the Basic Operational Standard for Human Resources in Health (NOB / RH-SUS).


Normas para establecer normas, competencias y procedimientos de la Comisión Permanente de Integración Docente-Servicio del Estado de Tocantins - Estatal CIES / CIB-TO, que es un órgano permanente intersectorial e interinstitucional que participa en la formulación, conducción, seguimiento y evaluación de la Política Educativa. Permanente en Salud - EPS y cumple con lo dispuesto en el artículo 14 de la Ley 8.080 / 1990, reglamentado por Decreto Presidencial N °. 7,508, del 28 de junio de 2011, y la Norma Básica Operativa de Recursos Humanos en Salud (NOB / RH-SUS).


Assuntos
Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Organizações/normas , Colaboração Intersetorial , Guias como Assunto/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Educação Continuada/organização & administração , Direção e Governança do Setor de Saúde/normas , Conselho Diretor/normas
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22668-22670, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868425

RESUMO

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) provides expert advice to inform agency decision-making. Recent regulations have decreased the representation of academic scientists on the EPA SAB and increased the representation of industry scientists. In an experiment, we asked how the US public views the goals and legitimacy of the board as a function of its composition. Respondents perceived SABs with a majority of industry scientists to be more likely to promote business interests than SABs with a majority of academic scientists. Liberals were less likely than conservatives to perceive industry-majority SABs as promoting human health and the environment, and making unbiased and evidence-based decisions. Our findings underscore the potential for politicization of scientific advice to the government.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Laboratório/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Membro de Comitê , Regulamentação Governamental , Saúde/economia , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório/economia , Política , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
20.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 109, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944506

RESUMO

Background: Korea has achieved health policy objectives in pandemic management so far, namely minimizing mortality, flattening the epidemic curve, and limiting the socio-economic burden of its measures. The key to the Korean government's success in combating COVID-19 lies with the latest digital technologies (DTs). The prompt and effective application of DTs facilitates both containment as well as mitigation strategies and their sub-policy measures. Methods: This article uses an experiential analysis based on an exploratory case study - analysis on field applications of the government's interventions. Information is collected by qualitative methods such as literature analysis, meeting materials, and a review of various government reports (including internal ones) along with academic and professional experiences of the authors. Findings: The article presents the unique Korean health policy approaches in the COVID-19 crisis. First, DTs allow the Korean government to embrace various policy measures together listed in containment strategy, namely altering and warning, epidemiological investigation, quarantine of contacts, case-finding, social distancing, and mask-wearing. Second, DTs allow Korea to integrate containment and mitigation strategies simultaneously. Along with the above measures in containment, healthcare service, medical treatment, and prophylaxis (presymptomatic testing) within mitigation are utilized to prevent a COVID-19 spread. Conclusions: Korea develops DTs in an integrated manner in the early pandemic stage under strong and coordinated government leadership. Above all, the DTs' functions in each pandemic developmental stage are continuously upgraded. Instead of prioritizing policy measures or strategies, therefore, Korea can implement diverse policies simultaneously by integrating DTs effectively. During the COVID-19 outbreak, DTs work as the enablers to connect these two strategies and their measures in Korea. Recommendations: DTs should be at the center of the disaster management paradigm, especially during a pandemic. DTs are facilitators and integrators of containing and mitigating strategies and their policy measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Betacoronavirus , Defesa Civil/métodos , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração
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