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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1151, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza surveillance systems vary widely between countries and there is no framework to evaluate national surveillance systems in terms of data generation and dissemination. This study aimed to develop and test a comparative framework for European influenza surveillance. METHODS: Surveillance systems were evaluated qualitatively in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) by a panel of influenza experts and researchers from each country. Seven surveillance sub-systems were defined: non-medically attended community surveillance, virological surveillance, community surveillance, outbreak surveillance, primary care surveillance, hospital surveillance, mortality surveillance). These covered a total of 19 comparable outcomes of increasing severity, ranging from non-medically attended cases to deaths, which were evaluated using 5 comparison criteria based on WHO guidance (granularity, timing, representativeness, sampling strategy, communication) to produce a framework to compare the five countries. RESULTS: France and the United Kingdom showed the widest range of surveillance sub-systems, particularly for hospital surveillance, followed by Germany, Spain, and Italy. In all countries, virological, primary care and hospital surveillance were well developed, but non-medically attended events, influenza cases in the community, outbreaks in closed settings and mortality estimates were not consistently reported or published. The framework also allowed the comparison of variations in data granularity, timing, representativeness, sampling strategy, and communication between countries. For data granularity, breakdown per risk condition were available in France and Spain, but not in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. For data communication, there were disparities in the timeliness and accessibility of surveillance data. CONCLUSIONS: This new framework can be used to compare influenza surveillance systems qualitatively between countries to allow the identification of structural differences as well as to evaluate adherence to WHO guidance. The framework may be adapted for other infectious respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 79, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of cancer with types of diets, including vegetarian, fish, and poultry-containing diets, remain unclear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the association of type of diet with all cancers and 19 site-specific incident cancers in a prospective cohort study and then in a meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies. METHODS: A total of 409,110 participants from the UK Biobank study, recruited between 2006 and 2010, were included. The outcomes were incidence of all cancers combined and 19 cancer sites. Associations between the types of diets and cancer were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Previously published prospective cohort studies were identified from four databases, and a meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects models. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 10.6 years (IQR 10.0; 11.3). Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians (hazard ratio (HR) 0.87 [95% CI: 0.79 to 0.96]) and pescatarians (HR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87 to 1.00]) had lower overall cancer risk. Vegetarians also had a lower risk of colorectal and prostate cancers compared with meat-eaters. In the meta-analysis, vegetarians (Risk Ratio (RR): 0.90 [0.86 to 0.94]) and pescatarians (RR 0.91 [0.86; 0.96]) had lower risk of overall and colorectal cancer. No associations between the types of diets and prostate, breast, or lung cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians and pescatarians had a lower risk of overall, colorectal, and prostate cancer. When results were pooled in a meta-analysis, the associations with overall and colorectal cancer persisted, but the results relating to other specific cancer sites were inconclusive.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Aves Domésticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vegetarianos
3.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Smoking rates are known to be higher amongst those committed to prison than the general population. Those in prison suffer from high rates of comorbidities that are likely to increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), making it more difficult to manage. In 2016, a tobacco ban began to be implemented across prisons in England and Wales, UK. This study aims to measure the effect of the tobacco ban on predicted cardiovascular risk for those quitting smoking on admission to prison. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Using data from a prevalence study of CVD in prisons, the authors have assessed the effect of the tobacco ban on cardiovascular risk, using predicted age to CVD event, ten-year CVD risk and heart age, for those who previously smoked and gave up on admission to prison. FINDINGS: The results demonstrate measurable health gains across all age groups with the greatest gains found in those aged 50 years and older and who had been heavy smokers. Quitting smoking on admission to prison led to a reduced heart age of between two and seven years for all participants. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The data supports tobacco bans in prisons as a public health measure to reduce risk of CVD. Interventions are needed to encourage maintenance of smoking cessation on release from prison for the full health benefits to be realised.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Prisioneiros , Política Antifumo , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prisões , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Hematology ; 27(1): 691-699, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There are no real-world data describing infection morbidity in relapsed/refractory myeloma (RRMM) patients treated with anti-CD38 isatuximab in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone (IsaPomDex). In this UK-wide retrospective study, we set out to evaluate infections experienced by routine care patients who received this novel therapy across 24 cancer centres during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The primary endpoint was infection morbidity (incidence, grading, hospitalization) as well as infection-related deaths. Secondary outcomes were clinical predictors of increased incidence of any grade (G2-5) and high grade (≥G3) infections. RESULTS: In a total cohort of 107 patients who received a median (IQR) of 4 cycles (2-8), 23.4% of patients experienced ≥1 any grade (G2-5) infections (total of 31 episodes) and 18.7% of patients experienced ≥1 high grade (≥G3) infections (total of 22 episodes). Median time (IQR) from start of therapy to first episode was 29 days (16-75). Six patients experienced COVID-19 infection, of whom 5 were not vaccinated and 1 was fully vaccinated. The cumulative duration of infection-related hospitalizations was 159 days. The multivariate (MVA) Poisson Regression analysis demonstrated that a higher co-morbidity burden with Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI) score ≥4 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3, p = 0.012) and sub-optimal myeloma response less than a partial response (

Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dexametasona , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 617, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CheckMate 025 trial established nivolumab monotherapy as one of the standards of care in previously treated advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). However, supporting real-world data is lacking. This study investigated characteristics, treatment sequences and clinical outcomes of patients who received nivolumab monotherapy for previously treated aRCC in the UK. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of aRCC patients treated with nivolumab at second line or later (2L +) at 4 UK oncology centres. Eligible patients commenced nivolumab (index date) between 01 March 2016 and 30 June 2018 (index period). Study data were extracted from medical records using an electronic case report form. Data cut-off (end of follow-up) was 31 May 2019. RESULTS: In total, 151 patients were included with median follow-up of 15.2 months. Mean age was 66.9 years, male preponderance (72.2%), and mostly Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status grade 0-1 (71.5%). Amongst 112 patients with a known International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium score, distribution between favourable, intermediate, and poor risk categories was 20.5%, 53.6%, and 25.9% respectively. The majority of patients (n = 109; 72.2%) received nivolumab at 2L, and these patients had a median overall survival (OS) of 23.0 months [95% confidence interval: 17.2, not reached]. All patients who received nivolumab at 2L had received TKIs at 1L. Amongst the 42 patients (27.8%) who received nivolumab in third line or later (3L +) the median OS was 12.4 months [95% CI: 8.8, 23.2]. The most common reasons for nivolumab discontinuation were disease progression (2L: 61.2%; 3L: 68.8%) and adverse events (2L: 34.7%; 3L: 28.1%). CONCLUSION: This study provides real-world evidence on the characteristics, treatment sequences, and outcomes of aRCC patients who received 2L + nivolumab monotherapy in the UK. Nivolumab-specific survival outcomes were similar to those achieved in the CheckMate 025 trial.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675953

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia is often recurrent and severe in patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). However, there is little information regarding frequency or patterns of episodes to inform clinical management and future trial design. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We aimed to describe frequency and patterns of hypoglycemia by varying thresholds through a large continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) dataset. Through the UK CHI centers of excellence, data were analyzed from patients with CHI over a 5-year period. Hypoglycemia thresholds of 3.0 (H3.0), 3.5 (H3.5) and 3.9 (H3.9) mmol/L were used to test threshold change on hypoglycemia frequencies. RESULTS: From 63 patients, 3.4 million data points, representing 32 years of monitoring, were analyzed. By UK consensus threshold H3.5, patients experienced a mean 1.3 hypoglycemic episodes per day. Per cent time hypoglycemic increased from 1.2% to 3.3% to 6.9% when threshold changed from H3.0 to H3.5 and H3.9. Merged data showed periodicity of hypoglycemia risk in 24-hour periods in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have evaluated a large dataset to provide a comprehensive picture of the frequency and patterns of hypoglycemia for patients with CHI in the UK. These data establish a baseline risk of hypoglycemia by CGM and provide a framework for clinical management and clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Hiperinsulinismo Congênito , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/induzido quimicamente , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059311, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate effects of appropriately and inappropriately dosed apixaban/rivaroxaban versus warfarin on effectiveness and safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). DESIGN: Cohort study with nested case-control analyses using primary care electronic health records (IQVIA Medical Research Data UK database). SETTING: UK primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years with NVAF newly prescribed apixaban (N=14 701), rivaroxaban (N=14 288) or warfarin (N=16 175) between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2018, and followed up to 31 December 2018. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident cases of ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism (IS/SE) and intracranial bleeding (ICB). Cases were matched to controls on age, sex and OAC naïve status. Using logistic regression, adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated for the outcomes comparing apixaban/rivaroxaban use (appropriate or inappropriate dosing based on the product label criteria) and warfarin. RESULTS: For IS/SE, ORs (95% CIs) for apixaban versus warfarin were 1.19 (0.92-1.52) for appropriate dose and 1.01 (0.67-1.51) for inappropriate dose; for rivaroxaban versus warfarin, estimates were 1.07 (0.83-1.37) for appropriate dose and 1.21 (0.78-1.88) for inappropriate dose. For ICB, ORs (95% CIs) for apixaban versus warfarin were 0.67 (0.44-1.00) for appropriate dose and 0.45 (0.21-0.95) for inappropriate dose; for rivaroxaban versus warfarin, estimates were 0.81 (0.55-1.20) for appropriate dose and 1.14 (0.56-2.31) for inappropriate dose. CONCLUSIONS: Dosing appropriateness in NVAF was not associated with a significant difference in IS/SE risk or increase in ICB risk versus warfarin. These findings may reflect residual confounding and biases that were difficult to control, as also seen in other observational studies. They should, therefore, be interpreted with caution, and prescribers should adhere to the dosing instructions in the respective Summary of Product Characteristics. Further studies on this topic from real-world populations are needed.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Embolia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9239, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654993

RESUMO

Multicollinearity refers to the presence of collinearity between multiple variables and renders the results of statistical inference erroneous (Type II error). This is particularly important in environmental health research where multicollinearity can hinder inference. To address this, correlated variables are often excluded from the analysis, limiting the discovery of new associations. An alternative approach to address this problem is the use of principal component analysis. This method, combines and projects a group of correlated variables onto a new orthogonal space. While this resolves the multicollinearity problem, it poses another challenge in relation to interpretability of results. Standard hypothesis testing methods can be used to evaluate the association of projected predictors, called principal components, with the outcomes of interest, however, there is no established way to trace the significance of principal components back to individual variables. To address this problem, we investigated the use of sparse principal component analysis which enforces a parsimonious projection. We hypothesise that this parsimony could facilitate the interpretability of findings. To this end, we investigated the association of 20 environmental predictors with all-cause mortality adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, physiological, and behavioural factors. The study was conducted in a cohort of 379,690 individuals in the UK. During an average follow-up of 8.05 years (3,055,166 total person-years), 14,996 deaths were observed. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Cox models were fitted to the standardised environmental predictors (a) without any transformation (b) transformed with PCA, and (c) transformed with SPCA. The comparison of findings underlined the potential of SPCA for conducting inference in scenarios where multicollinearity can increase the risk of Type II error. Our analysis unravelled a significant association between average noise pollution and increased risk of all-cause mortality. Specifically, those in the upper deciles of noise exposure have between 5 and 10% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to the lowest decile.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Exposição Ambiental , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(7): 547-554, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term psychosocial outcomes of UK armed forces personnel who sustained serious combat injuries during deployment to Afghanistan are largely unknown. We aimed to assess rates of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and mental health-associated multimorbidity in a representative sample of serving and ex-serving UK military personnel with combat injuries, compared with rates in a matched sample of uninjured personnel. METHODS: This analysis used baseline data from the ADVANCE cohort study, in which injured individuals were recruited from a sample of UK armed forces personnel who were deployed to Afghanistan and had physical combat injuries, according to records provided by the UK Ministry of Defence. Participants from the uninjured group were frequency-matched by age, rank, regiment, deployment, and role on deployment. Participants were recruited through postal, email, and telephone invitations. Participants completed a comprehensive health assessment, including physical health assessment and self-reported mental health measures (PTSD Checklist, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7). The mental health outcomes were rates of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and mental health-associated multimorbidity in the injured and uninjured groups. The ADVANCE study is ongoing and is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN57285353. FINDINGS: 579 combat-injured participants (161 with amputation injuries and 418 with non-amputation injuries) and 565 uninjured participants were included in the analysis. Participants had a median age of 33 years (IQR 30-37 years) at the time of assessment. 90·3% identified as White and 9·7% were from all other ethnic groups. The rates of PTSD (16·9% [n=89] vs 10·5% [n=53]; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1·67 [95% CI 1·16-2·41], depression (23·6% [n=129] vs 16·8% [n=87]; AOR 1·46 [1·08-2·03]), anxiety (20·8% [n=111] vs 13·5% [n=71]; AOR 1·56 [1·13-2·24]) and mental health-associated multimorbidity (15·3% [n=81] vs 9·8% [n=49]; AOR 1·62 [1·12-2·49]) were greater in the injured group than the uninjured group. Minimal differences in odds of reporting any poor mental health outcome were noted between the amputation injury subgroup and the uninjured group (AOR range 0·77-0·97), whereas up to double the odds were noted for the non-amputation injury subgroup compared with the uninjured group (AOR range 1·74-2·02). INTERPRETATION: Serious physical combat injuries were associated with poor mental health outcomes. However, the type of injury sustained influenced this relationship. Regardless of injury, this cohort represents a group who present with greater rates of PTSD than the general population, as well as increased psychological burden from multimorbidity. FUNDING: The ADVANCE Charity.


Assuntos
Militares , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059844, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725268

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the COVID-19 health information needs of older adults from ethnic minority groups in the UK. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Indian and Nepalese older adults (≥65 years), their families (≥18 years) and healthcare professionals (HCPs) (≥18 years) engaging with these communities. Participants were recruited between July and December 2020 from Kent, Surrey and Sussex through community organisations. RESULTS: 24 participants took part in the study; 13 older adults, 7 family members and 4 HCPs. Thirteen participants were female, and the majority (n=17) spoke a language other than English at home. Older participants mostly lived in multigenerational households, and family and community were key for providing support and communicating about healthcare needs. Participants' knowledge of COVID-19 varied widely; some spoke confidently about the subject, while others had limited information. Language and illiteracy were key barriers to accessing health information. Participants highlighted the need for information in multiple formats and languages, and discussed the importance of culturally appropriate avenues, such as community centres and religious sites, for information dissemination. CONCLUSION: This study, undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic, provides insight into how health information can be optimised for ethnic minority older adults in terms of content, format and cultural relevance. The study highlights that health information interventions should recognise the intersection between multigenerational living, family structure, and the health and well-being of older adults, and should promote intergenerational discussion.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos Minoritários , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10298, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717348

RESUMO

Following the first detection in the United Kingdom of Usutu virus (USUV) in wild birds in 2020, we undertook a multidisciplinary investigation that combined screening host and vector populations with interrogation of national citizen science monitoring datasets to assess the potential for population impacts on avian hosts. Pathological findings from six USUV-positive wild passerines were non-specific, highlighting the need for molecular and immunohistochemical examinations to confirm infection. Mosquito surveillance at the index site identified USUV RNA in Culex pipiens s.l. following the outbreak. Although the Eurasian blackbird (Turdus merula) is most frequently impacted by USUV in Europe, national syndromic surveillance failed to detect any increase in occurrence of clinical signs consistent with USUV infection in this species. Furthermore, there was no increase in recoveries of dead blackbirds marked by the national ringing scheme. However, there was regional clustering of blackbird disease incident reports centred near the index site in 2020 and a contemporaneous marked reduction in the frequency with which blackbirds were recorded in gardens in this area, consistent with a hypothesis of disease-mediated population decline. Combining results from multidisciplinary schemes, as we have done, in real-time offers a model for the detection and impact assessment of future disease emergence events.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Aves Canoras , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Mosquitos Vetores , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 201, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle weakness, which increases in prevalence with age, is a major public health concern. Grip strength is commonly used to identify weakness and an improved understanding of its determinants is required. We aimed to investigate if total and central adiposity are causally associated with grip strength. METHODS: Up to 470,786 UK Biobank participants, aged 38-73 years, with baseline data on four adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip-ratio (WHR)) and maximum grip strength were included. We examined sex-specific associations between each adiposity indicator and grip strength. We explored whether associations varied by age, by examining age-stratified associations (< 50 years, 50-59 years, 60-64 years,65 years +). Using Mendelian randomisation (MR), we estimated the strength of the adiposity-grip strength associations using genetic instruments for each adiposity trait as our exposure. RESULTS: In males, observed and MR associations were generally consistent: higher BMI and WC were associated with stronger grip; higher BF% and WHR were associated with weaker grip: 1-SD higher BMI was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.45 kg, 0.53 kg) stronger grip; 1-SD higher WHR was associated with 0.45 kg (95% CI:0.41 kg, 0.48 kg) weaker grip (covariate adjusted observational analyses). Associations of BMI and WC with grip strength were weaker at older ages: in males aged < 50 years and 65 years + , 1-SD higher BMI was associated with 0.93 kg (95% CI: 0.84 kg, 1.01 kg) and 0.13 kg (95% CI: 0.05 kg, 0.21 kg) stronger grip, respectively. In females, higher BF% was associated with weaker grip and higher WC was associated with stronger grip; other associations were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Using different methods to triangulate evidence, our findings suggest causal links between adiposity and grip strength. Specifically, higher BF% (in both sexes) and WHR (males only) were associated with weaker grip strength.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Adiposidade/genética , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Euro Surveill ; 27(22)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656834

RESUMO

Between 7 and 25 May, 86 monkeypox cases were confirmed in the United Kingdom (UK). Only one case is known to have travelled to a monkeypox virus (MPXV) endemic country. Seventy-nine cases with information were male and 66 reported being gay, bisexual, or other men who have sex with men. This is the first reported sustained MPXV transmission in the UK, with human-to-human transmission through close contacts, including in sexual networks. Improving case ascertainment and onward-transmission preventive measures are ongoing.


Assuntos
Monkeypox , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Animais , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Monkeypox/diagnóstico , Monkeypox/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos/genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 210, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35692035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite early interest in the health effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), there is still substantial controversy and uncertainty on the evidence linking PUFA to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the effect of plasma concentration of omega-3 PUFA (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total omega-3 PUFA) and omega-6 PUFA (i.e. linoleic acid and total omega-6 PUFA) on the risk of CVDs using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We conducted the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating PUFA to date including a sample of 114,999 individuals and incorporated these data in a two-sample Mendelian randomization framework to investigate the involvement of circulating PUFA on a wide range of CVDs in up to 1,153,768 individuals of European ancestry (i.e. coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, aortic aneurysm, venous thromboembolism and aortic valve stenosis). RESULTS: GWAS identified between 46 and 64 SNPs for the four PUFA traits, explaining 4.8-7.9% of circulating PUFA variance and with mean F statistics >100. Higher genetically predicted DHA (and total omega-3 fatty acids) concentration was related to higher risk of some cardiovascular endpoints; however, these findings did not pass our criteria for multiple testing correction and were attenuated when accounting for LDL-cholesterol through multivariable Mendelian randomization or excluding SNPs in the vicinity of the FADS locus. Estimates for the relation between higher genetically predicted linoleic acid (and total omega-6) concentration were inconsistent across different cardiovascular endpoints and Mendelian randomization methods. There was weak evidence of higher genetically predicted linoleic acid being related to lower risk of ischemic stroke and peripheral artery disease when accounting by LDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: We have conducted the largest GWAS of circulating PUFA to date and the most comprehensive Mendelian randomization analyses. Overall, our Mendelian randomization findings do not support a protective role of circulating PUFA concentration on the risk of CVDs. However, horizontal pleiotropy via lipoprotein-related traits could be a key source of bias in our analyses.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , AVC Isquêmico , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , LDL-Colesterol , Ácidos Graxos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(4)2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704709

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal postnatal depression and completion of infant vaccinations.Methods: We conducted a cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large UK primary care electronic health record database. We identified 196,329 mother-infant pairs in which the infant was born between 2006 and 2015. Postnatal depression was identified through antidepressant prescriptions or diagnoses or symptoms of depression in first year after childbirth. Primary outcome was completion of three 5-in-1 vaccination doses in infants before 1 year of age; this vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We used Poisson regression models to compare likelihood of infant 5-in-1 vaccine uptake among children of women with a record of postnatal depression to likelihood among those without.Results: Of the 196,329 women, 20,802 (10.6%) had a record of postnatal depression and/or antidepressant prescription. There was no difference in infants' 5-in-1 vaccination completion between those of mothers with a record and those of mothers' without (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02). Those from more socially deprived areas were less likely to complete infant vaccinations compared to those from the least deprived areas (IRR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.93). Likelihood of completing infant vaccination decreased over time, comparing 2014-2015 to 2006-2007 (IRR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.92).Conclusions: Among mothers who engage with primary care, maternal postnatal depression is not associated with lower rates of infant vaccination, though more research is needed to conclude if either more severe depression or unrecognized depression is associated with lower completion rates.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Vacinação
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057464, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the disease burden of acute lower respiratory tract disease (aLRTD) and its subsets (pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and heart failure) in hospitalised adults in Bristol, UK. SETTING: Single-centre, secondary care hospital, Bristol, UK. DESIGN: We estimated aLRTD hospitalisations incidence in adults (≥18 years) in Bristol, UK, using two approaches. First, retrospective International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code analysis (first five positions/hospitalisation) identified aLRTD events over a 12-month period (March 2018 to February 2019). Second, during a 21-day prospective review (19 August 2019 to 9 September 2019), aLRTD admissions were identified, categorised by diagnosis and subsequently annualised. Hospital catchment denominators were calculated using linked general practice and hospitalisation data, with each practice's denominator contribution calculated based on practice population and per cent of the practices' hospitalisations admitted to the study hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Prospective review: 1322 adults screened; 410 identified with aLRTD. Retrospective review: 7727 adult admissions. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of aLRTD and its subsets in the adult population of Southmead Hospital, Bristol UK. RESULTS: Based on ICD-10 code analysis, annual incidences per 100 000 population were: aLRTD, 1901; pneumonia, 591; LRTI, 739; heart failure, 402. aLRTD incidence was highest among those ≥65 years: 65-74 (3684 per 100 000 adults), 75-84 (6962 per 100 000 adults) and ≥85 (11 430 per 100 000 adults). During the prospective review, 410/1322 (31%) hospitalised adults had aLRTD signs/symptoms and annualised incidences closely replicated retrospective analysis results. CONCLUSIONS: The aLRTD disease burden was high, increasing sharply with age. The aLRTD incidence is probably higher than estimated previously due to criteria specifying respiratory-specific symptoms or radiological change, usage of only the first diagnosis code and mismatch between case count sources and population denominators. This may have significant consequences for healthcare planning, including usage of current and future vaccinations against respiratory infection.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pneumonia , Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060931, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics of individuals recorded as having a dementia diagnosis in different routinely collected records and to examine the extent of overlap of dementia coding across data sources. Also, to present comparisons of secondary and primary care records providing value for researchers using routinely collected records for dementia outcome capture. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 25 639 men and women in Norfolk, aged 40-79 years at recruitment (1993-1997) followed until 2018 linked to routinely collected to identify dementia cases. Data sources include mortality from death certification and National Health Service (NHS) hospital or secondary care records. Primary care records for a subset of the cohort were also reviewed. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Diagnosis of dementia (any-cause). RESULTS: Over 2000 participants (n=2635 individuals) were found to have a dementia diagnosis recorded in one or more of the data sources examined. Limited concordance was observed across the secondary care data sources. We also observed discrepancies with primary care records for the subset and report on potential linkage-related selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Use of different types of record linkage from varying parts of the UK's health system reveals differences in recorded dementia diagnosis, indicating that dementia can be identified to varying extents in different parts of the NHS system. However, there is considerable variation, and limited overlap in those identified. We present potential selection biases that might occur depending on whether cause of death, or primary and secondary care data sources are used. With the expansion of using routinely collected health data, researchers must be aware of these potential biases and inaccuracies, reporting carefully on the likely extent of limitations and challenges of the data sources they use.


Assuntos
Demência , Medicina Estatal , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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