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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131477, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303046

RESUMO

Global solid waste is expected to increase by at least 70% annually until year 2050. The mixture of solid waste including food waste from food industry and domestic diaper waste in landfills is causing environmental and human health issues. Nevertheless, food and diaper waste containing high lignocellulose can easily degrade using lignocellulolytic enzymes thereby converted into energy for the development and growth of mushroom. Therefore, this study explores the potential of recycling biomass waste from coffee ground, banana, eggshell, tea waste, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust and diaper waste as raw material for Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultivation. Using 2% of diaper core with sawdust biowaste leading to the fastest 100% mushroom mycelium spreading completed in one month. The highest production yield is 71.45 g mushroom; this represents about 36% production biological efficiency compared to only 21% as in commercial substrate. The high mushroom substrate reduction of 73% reflect the valorisation of landfill waste. The metabolomics profiling showed that the Lingzhi mushroom produced is of high quality with a high content of triterpene being the bioactive compounds that are medically important for treating assorted disease and used as health supplement. In conclusion, our study proposed a potential resource management towards zero-waste and circular bioeconomy for high profitable mushroom cultivation.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Eliminação de Resíduos , Reishi , Biomassa , Alimentos , Humanos
2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120443, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619507

RESUMO

The popularmedicinal mushroomGanodermalucidum was often cultivated by the natural-log. Generally the short log after cultivation were discarded and became pollutant. Rapid and less destructive method of analysis technical by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Two-dimension Infrared (2DIR) correlation spectroscopy were selected to determine the composition changes of the logs after G.lucidum cultivation after first year to fifth year. The FTIR accumulated spectra formed without processed baseline showed the samples relied upon a sequenced increase of higher level than spectrum control Q (Q = Quercus acuttisima) from L + Q-5 (L = Lingzhi), L + Q-3, L + Q-1 to L + Q-2. The spectrum L + Q-4 has the optimum highest peak at box B, C and E from this lumped spectral view. The split spectra pinpointed on the fingerprint region of a sample begins from peak 1737 cm-1. ascribed C = O stretching vibration on acetyl and carboxyl hemicellulose group bonding gradually faded from L + Q-1 to L + Q-4 but appeared again on L + Q-5, possibly due to the degradation of hemicellulose. The absorption of peak around 1626 cm-1,1318 cm-1 and 781 cm-1 could be the characteristic absorption peak of calcium oxalate monohydrate. The correlation table indicated, most of the original structure of the building block of the wooden part was deteriorated and marked the lowest correlation value of the 4th year sample with control Q. The sudden changing pattern of 2nd derivative spectrum L + Q-3 to more flatten pattern spectrum L + Q-4 ascribed the changing contents of cellulose and hemicellulose included the lignin within one year during the G. lucidum cultivation. The 2DIR spectrum of the raw material sample precisely showed that the active site with red color was clustered with the area around 1800-1700 cm-1, 1450-800 cm-1 and 750-400 cm-1. In between, the range 1450-800 cm-1 was the most active cluster. Each of the sample showed the different sequence of autopeak comparison. This study has examined the impact of G. lucidum on the degradation of Q. acuttisima in term of their ecosystem life chain. The components of healthy Q. acuttisima wood including lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and calcium oxalate monohydrate underwent changes after different years of G. lucidum cultivation.


Assuntos
Quercus , Reishi , Ecossistema , Análise de Fourier , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126916, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798539

RESUMO

Development of an efficient liquid fermentation method is helpful for food and pharmaceutical applications. This study investigated the effect of ultrasonication on the liquid fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum, a popular edible and medical fungi. Significant changes at both metabolic and transcriptional levels in mycelia were induced by ultrasound treatment. Compared with the control, 857 differential metabolites were identified (578 up- and 279 down-regulated metabolites), with more metabolites biosynthesis after sonication; 569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (267 up- and 302 down-) and 932 DEGs (378 up- and 554 down-) were identified in ultrasound-treated samples with recovery time of 0.5 and 3 h, respectively. Furthermore, 334 DEGs were continuously induced within the recovery time of 3 h, indicating the lasting influence of sonication on mycelia. The DEGs and differential metabolites were mainly involved in pathways of carbohydrate, energy metabolism, amino acids, terpenoids biosynthesis and metabolism and membrane transport, suggesting that ultrasound induced multifaceted effects on primary and secondary metabolism. Ultrasonication enhanced the triterpenoids production of G. lucidum (34.96 %) by up-regulating the expression of terpenoids synthase genes. This study shows that the application of ultrasound in liquid fermentation of G. lucidum is an efficient approach to produce more metabolites.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Reishi , Ultrassom , Fermentação/efeitos da radiação , Metaboloma/efeitos da radiação , Reishi/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos da radiação
4.
J Basic Microbiol ; 62(1): 82-91, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927265

RESUMO

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) participate in many physiological and cellular processes in eukaryotes. However, their functions remain unclear in the macro basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum). In this study, a gene encoding bHLH TF, GlbHLH, was identified in G. lucidum. The knockdown of GlbHLH by RNA interference reduced hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and resistant to osmotic, oxidative, and cell wall stress. The content of cell wall components ß-1,3 glucan and chitin and the expression of their synthesis genes were decreased in the GlbHLH knockdown strains. The knockdown of GlbHLH led to an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species by decreasing the enzyme activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the production of intracellular polysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides was greatly decreased in the GlbHLH mutants. These results suggested that GlbHLH is involved in hyphal growth, stress response, and polysaccharide biosynthesis in G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Reishi , Triterpenos , Hifas , Polissacarídeos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt A): 131374, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717092

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum spore is widely accepted as functional food. Polysaccharides are the predominant bioactive components in G. lucidum spore and contribute much to its health benefits. However, their structural characteristics remain unclear. In this work, water-soluble polysaccharides (GLSP) were obtained by hot water extraction. Three monosaccharides, including arabinose (Ara), glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal), were presented in GLSP. 1D and 2D NMR data revealed that GLSP were composed mainly by two polysaccharides, ß-glucan and arabinogalactan. The arabinogalactan had a backbone of galactan with Araf in the side chain. ß-Glucan was the dominant polysaccharide in G. lucidum spore. The molecular weight was measured. GLSP could induce IEC-6 cells proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, GLSP possessed a strong anti-inflammatory activity through inhibiting the overproduction of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) induced by LPS. These results implied the potential of GLSP on gut barrier protection.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Reishi , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Água
6.
Intern Med ; 60(24): 3897-3903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911873

RESUMO

A 61-year-old man who underwent surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma developed multiple hepatic nodules. The nodules were 1-3 cm without a capsular structure or contrast enhancement on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, findings that were atypical for adenocarcinoma metastases. A biopsy showed the aggregation of eosinophils without larval bodies, ova, or granulomas. Laboratory tests showed a marked increase in eosinophils and a slight liver enzyme elevation. He had been taking the commercial herbal medicine Ganoderma lucidum for his liver function. After discontinuing G. lucidum, the eosinophil counts and liver enzyme levels rapidly resolved, and the nodules disappeared completely. This is a rare case of hypereosinophilia with hepatic nodules reactive to herbal medicine rather than a parasitic infection.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Reishi , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5072-5079, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738403

RESUMO

Polysaccharide is among the main active components of Ganoderma lucidum for tumor prevention and treatment. Howe-ver, it remains unclear whether it has synergy with tumor immunotherapy. This study evaluated the effect of G. lucidum polysaccharides(GLP) on the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor and the underlying mechanism, in order to provide a reference for its application in tumor immunotherapy. GLP were prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation combined with Sevag method and then given(intraperitoneal injection) to the mice bearing B16-F10 cells at 25, 50 and 100 mg kg~(-1), respectively, to evaluate the effect on tumor growth. The infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells and the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in tumor were detected by immunohistochemistry. EA.hy926 cells were treated with 50, 100 and 200 µg·mL~(-1) GLP, and the expression of ICAM-1 was determined by Western blot. The adhesion of EA.hy926 cells treated with GLP was measured with fluorescence-labeled Jurkat cells. To analyze the mechanism based on NF-κB pathway, this study determined the protein levels of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) p65, alpha inhibitor of NF-κB(IκBα), p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα by Western blot. The results showed that GLP can significantly inhibit the tumor growth in mice bearing B16-F10 cells, promote the infiltration of CD3~+ and CD8~+ T cells in tumor, and increase the expression of ICAM-1 in tumor. Meanwhile, GLP could also enhance the expression of ICAM-1 in EA.hy926 cells, thus strengthen the adhesion to Jurkat cells, induce phosphorylation and protein degradation of IκBα, and raise the expression and phosphorylation level of NF-κB p65. These results suggested that GLP could promote the expression of ICAM-1 through NF-κB pathway and further enhance the infiltration of T lymphocytes into tumor, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. This study lays a foundation for the further application of GLP in tumor immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Reishi , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(43): 12730-12740, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666484

RESUMO

An investigation of the fruiting bodies of edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum produced 13 steroids, containing one new lanostane-type triterpene compound, named ganoderterpene A (1). Nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data were used to deduce these structures. All the isolates were evaluated for their ability to suppress NO generation in BV-2 microglial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exhibited moderate to strong inhibition effects, with IC50 values in the range 7.15-36.88 µM. Among the tested compounds, compound 1 exhibited the most marked activity with an IC50 value of 7.15 µM, and the structure-activity relationships were studied. This study showed that compound 1 significantly suppressed the activation of MAPK and TLR-4/NF-κB signaling pathways, as evidenced by an immunofluorescence assay and a molecular docking experiment. Furthermore, compound 1 effectively improved the LPS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. These findings suggest that ganoderterpene A could exert protective effects in microglial cells from apoptosis by restraining the inflammatory response. Hence, G. lucidum could be used as a novel preventative agent for neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Reishi , Triterpenos , Apoptose , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Triterpenos/farmacologia
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8675-8688, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716786

RESUMO

A 28-kDa polysaccharide-peptide (PGL) with antidepressant-like activities was isolated from spores of the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. It was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose. Its internal amino acid sequences manifested pronounced similarity with proteins from the mushrooms Lentinula edodes and Agaricus bisporus. The monosaccharides present in 28-kDa PGL comprised predominantly of glucose (over 90%) and much fewer galactose, mannose residues, and other residues. PGL manifested antidepressant-like activities as follows. It enhanced viability and DNA content in corticosterone-injured PC12 cells(a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla with an embryonic origin from the neural crest containing a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells) and reduced LDH release. A single acute PGL treatment shortened the duration of immobility of mice in both tail suspension and forced swimming tests. PGL treatment enhanced sucrose preference and shortened the duration of immobility in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Chronic PGL treatment reversed the decline in mouse brain serotonin and norepinephrine levels but did not affect dopamine levels. PGL decreased serum corticosterone levels and increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels and increased synapsin I and PSD95 levels in the prefrontal cortex. This effect was completely blocked by pretreatment with the BDNF antagonist K252a, indicating that PGL increased synaptic proteins in a BDNF-dependent manner.Key points• An antidepressive polysaccharide-peptide PGL was isolated from G. lucidum spores.• PGL protected PC12 nerve cells from the toxicity of corticosterone.• PGL upregulated BDNF expression and influenced key factors in the prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Reishi , Agaricus , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico , Sacarose , Regulação para Cima
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(8): 25-37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587423

RESUMO

Continuous monoculture can increase plant morbidity and reduce crop yields. However, the Ganoderma lucidum mushroom possesses unique nutrient acquisition methods and displays an altered response to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effects of continuous cropping on G. lucidum remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of consecutive monoculture soil on the yield, bioactive components, antioxidant properties, nutrient metabolism, and enzyme activity of G. lucidum. The results showed no significant differences in terms of yield between the control check and treatment groups after 2 years. However, the content of polysaccharides and triterpenoids after 2 years of treatment and the content of total phenols and flavonoids after 3 years of treatment significantly increased. Moreover, the antioxidant activity (AOA) of the polysaccharides under consecutive monoculture soil treatments also significantly increased. These differences were caused by changes in nutrient metabolism and the activities of antioxidant and ligninolytic enzymes. Under continuous monoculture soil treatment, the content of reducing sugars, water-soluble sugars, free amino acids, and water-soluble proteins significantly increased. The activities of superoxide dismutase, manganese peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase increased with the time of continuous monoculture, while the activities of peroxidase, catalase, and laccase decreased. The increase in ligninolytic enzymes was postulated to mediate the ROS scavenging ability of G. lucidum. In conclusion, continuous cropping soil could increase the levels of bioactive components and AOAs of G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Reishi , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides , Solo
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0258065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591932

RESUMO

The changes in lignocellulosic biomass composition and in vitro rumen digestibility of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after pre-treatment with the fungus Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the pre-treatment for 2-12 weeks has gradually degraded the OPEFB in a time-dependent manner; whereby lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose were respectively degraded by 41.0, 20.5, and 26.7% at the end of the incubation period. The findings were corroborated using the physical examination of the OPEFB by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the OPEFB pre-treated for 12 weeks has shown the highest in vitro digestibility of dry (77.20%) and organic (69.78%) matter, where they were enhanced by 104.07 and 96.29%, respectively, as compared to the untreated control. The enhancement in the in vitro ruminal digestibility was negatively correlated with the lignin content in the OPEFB. Therefore, biologically delignified OPEFB with G. lucidum fungal culture pre-treatment have the potential to be utilized as one of the ingredients for the development of a novel ruminant forage.


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Reishi , Biomassa
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7353-7365, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515845

RESUMO

The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is the core catalytic subunit of telomerase. Its canonical function is synthesizing telomeric repeats to maintain telomere length and chromosomal stability. Accumulating evidence suggests that TERT has other important fundamental functions in addition to its catalytic telomere repeat synthesis activity. However, the non-canonical roles of TERT independent of its enzymatic activity are not clear in filamentous fungi. In the present study, we characterized the GlTert gene in Ganoderma lucidum. The non-canonical roles of GlTert were explored using GlTert-silenced strains (Terti8 and Terti25) obtained by RNA interference. Silencing GlTert delayed the fungal growth, decreased the length between hyphal branches, and induced fungal resistance to oxidative stress in G. ludicum. Further examination revealed that the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels were increased while the enzyme activities of the antioxidant systems (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase) were decreased in GlTert-silenced strains. In addition, silencing GlTert decreased the ganoderic acid (GA) biosynthesis of G. lucidum. Taken together, our results indicate that GlTert plays a fundamental function on fungal growth, oxidative stress, and GA biosynthesis in G. lucidum, providing new insights for the canonical functions of TERT in filamentous fungi. KEY POINTS: • GlTert affected fungal growth and hyphal branching of G. lucidum. • Silencing GlTert increased the intracellular ROS levels of G. lucidum. • GlTert regulated GA biosynthesis of G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Reishi , Telomerase , Estresse Oxidativo , Telomerase/genética , Triterpenos
13.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577024

RESUMO

Previous studies of Ganoderma lucidum have focused on its medicinal applications. Limited information is available about its antibacterial activity against plant pathogens. Thus, the goal of this study was to purify and characterize the antibacterial activity against plant pathogenic bacteria from culture fluids of G. lucidum. The nature of the bioactive components was determined using heat boiling, organic solvents, dialysis tubing, gel exclusion chromatography (GEC), proteinase sensitivity, HPLC, HPLC-APCI-MS, and GC-MS. The bioactive compounds were neither lipid, based on their solubility, nor proteic in nature, based on proteinase digestion and heat stability. The putative-bioactive polysaccharides have molecular weights that range from 3500 to 4500 Daltons as determined by dialysis tubing, GEC and APCI-MS analysis. The composition of the antibacterial compounds was determined by GC-MS. This is the first report of small polysaccharides produced by G. lucidum with activity against bacterial plant pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Reishi , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
14.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(5): 1-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347990

RESUMO

Since December 2019, a de novo pattern of pneumonia, later named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused grave upset throughout the global population. COVID-19 is associated with several comorbidities; thus, preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting those comorbidities along with the causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), seem imperative. In this state-of-the-art review, edible and medicinal mushrooms are featured in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 pathomanifestations, and comorbid issues. Because this is not an original research article, we admit our shortcomings in inferences. Yet we are hopeful that mushroom-based therapeutic approaches can be used to achieve a COVID-free world. Among various mushroom species, reishi or lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) seem most suitable as anti-COVID agents for the global population.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Reishi/química , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361637

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum extract is a potent traditional remedy for curing various ailments. Drying is the most important postharvest step during the processing of Ganoderma lucidum. The drying process mainly involves heat (36 h at 60 °C) and freeze-drying (36 h at -80 °C). We investigated the effects of different postharvest drying protocols on the metabolites profiling of Ganoderma lucidum using GC-MS, followed by an investigation of the anti-neuroinflammatory potential in LPS-treated BV2 microglial cells. A total of 109 primary metabolites were detected from heat and freeze-dried samples. Primary metabolite profiling showed higher levels of amino acids (17.4%) and monosaccharides (8.8%) in the heat-dried extracts, whereas high levels of organic acids (64.1%) were present in the freeze-dried samples. The enzymatic activity, such as ATP-citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatase dehydrogenase, glutamine synthase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, related to the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly high in the heat-dried samples. We also observed a decreased phosphorylation level of the MAP kinase (Erk1/2, p38, and JNK) and NF-κB subunit p65 in the heat-dried samples of the BV2 microglia cells. The current study suggests that heat drying improves the production of ganoderic acids by the upregulation of TCA-related pathways, which, in turn, gives a significant reduction in the inflammatory response of LPS-induced BV2 cells. This may be attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling pathways in cells treated with heat-dried extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dessecação , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(6): 79-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369736

RESUMO

Mushrooms can be employed as functional foods or medicines for the prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, since they are rich sources of bioactive metabolites. Nonetheless, the therapeutic value of Algerian mushrooms remains largely unexplored. To date, there are no published studies concerning the different medicinal properties of endemic Ganoderma lucidum in Algeria. This study aimed to compare the antioxidant potential of an endemic specimen collected in the Lake Tonga Forest of El Kala National Park in Northeast Algeria with findings from other countries. To this end, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using three solvents of increasing polarity (chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol). The mushroom specimen was identified as G. lucidum based on strong molecular evidence using internal transcribed spacer, large subunit, and small subunit sequences. Our study showed that ethyl acetate extract contained higher total phenolic content (171.1 ± 1.06 µg gallic acid equivalents/mg and 102.5 ± 0.69 µg pyrocatechol equivalents/mg extract) and total flavonoid content (25.48 ± 0.13 µg quercetin equivalents/mg and 40.45 ± 0.83 µg rutin equivalents/mg extract) than the other mushroom extracts (chloroform and butanolic). The ethyl acetate extract also showed good antioxidant activity in DPPH (28.51 ± 0.24 µg/mL), ABTS·+ (10.06 ± 0.13 µg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (15.46 ± 0.48 µg/mL), reducing power (22.74 ± 0.30 µg/mL), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (21.36 ± 0.04 µg/mL), and phenanthroline (12.87 ± 0.26 µg/mL) assays. These results suggest that G. lucidum could be used as a source of strong natural antioxidants for the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Reishi , Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Fenóis
17.
Phytother Res ; 35(11): 6030-6062, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411377

RESUMO

Reishi owes an exceptional value in nutritional, cosmeceutical, and medical treatments; however, none of the studies has provided its future-driven critical assessment. This study documents an up-to-date review (2015-2020, wherever applicable) and provide valuable insights (preclinical and clinical evidence-based) with comprehensive and critical assessments. Various databases 'Google scholar', 'Web of Science', 'ScienceDirect', 'PubMed', 'Springer Link', books, theses, and library resources were used. The taxonomic chaos of G. lucidum and its related species was discussed in detail with solution-oriented emphasis. Reishi contains polysaccharides (α/ß-D-glucans), alkaloids, triterpenoids (ganoderic acids, ganoderenic acids, ganoderol, ganoderiol, lucidenic acids), sterols/ergosterol, proteins (LZ-8, LZ-9), nucleosides (adenosine, inosine, uridine), and nucleotides (guanine, adenine). Some active drugs are explored at an optimum level to make them potential drug candidates. The pharmacological potential was observed in diabetes, inflammation, epilepsy, neurodegeneration, cancer, anxiety, sedation, cardiac diseases, depression, hepatic diseases, and immune disorders; however, most of the studies are preclinical with a number of drawbacks. In particular, quality clinical data are intensely needed to support pharmacological activities for human use. The presence of numerous micro-, macro, and trace elements imparts an essential nutritional and cosmeceutical value to Reishi, and various marketed products are available already, but the clinical studies regarding safety and efficacy, interactions with foods/drinks, chronic use, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity are missing for Reishi. Reishi possesses many valuable pharmacological activities, and the number of patents and clinical trials is increasing for Reishi. Yet, a gap in research exists for Reishi, which is discussed in detail in the forthcoming sections.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cosmecêuticos , Neoplasias , Reishi , Humanos
18.
J Food Biochem ; 45(9): e13906, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409623

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is known as a potent alleviator against chronic inflammatory disease like atherosclerosis (AS), but its mechanisms against AS have not been unveiled. This research aimed to identify the key compounds(s) and mechanism(s) of GL against AS through network pharmacology. The compounds from GL were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS), and SwissADME screened their physicochemical properties. Then, the target(s) associated with the screened compound(s) or AS related targets were identified by public databases, and we selected the overlapping targets using a Venn diagram. The networks between overlapping targets and compounds were visualized, constructed, and analyzed by RStudio. Finally, we performed a molecular docking test (MDT) to explore key target(s), compound(s), on AutoDockVina. A total of 35 compounds in GL were detected via GC-MS, and 34 compounds (accepted by Lipinski's rule) were selected as drug-like compounds (DLCs). A total of 34 compounds were connected to the number of 785 targets, and DisGeNET and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) identified 2,606 AS-related targets. The final 98 overlapping targets were extracted between the compounds-targets and AS-related targets. On Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment, the number of 27 signaling pathways were sorted out, and a hub signaling pathway (MAPK signaling pathway), a core gene (PRKCA), and a key compound (Benzamide, 4-acetyl-N-[2,6-dimethylphenyl]) were selected among the 27 signaling pathways via MDT. Overall, we found that the identified 3 DLCs from GL have potent anti-inflammatory efficacy, improving AS by inactivating the MAPK signaling pathway. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been used as a medicinal or edible mushroom for chronic inflammatory patients: diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, especially atherosclerosis (AS). Until now, the majority of mushroom research has been implemented regarding ß-glucan derivatives with very hydrophilic physicochemical properties. It implies that ß-glucan or its derivatives have poor bioavailability. Hence, we have involved GC-MS in identifying lipophilic compounds from GL, which filtered them in silico to sort drug-like compounds (DLCs). Then, we retrieved targets associated with the DLCs, and identified a key signaling pathway, key targets, and key compounds against AS. In this paper, we utilized bioinformatics and network pharmacology theory to understand the uncovered pharmacological mechanism of GL on AS. To sum things up, our analysis elucidates the relationships between signaling pathways, targets, and compounds in GL. Ultimately, this work provides biochemical evidence to identify the therapeutic effect of GL on AS, and a scientific basis for deciphering the key mechanism on DLCs of GL against AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Reishi , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444885

RESUMO

Medicinal mushrooms are rich sources of pharmacologically active compounds. One of the mushrooms commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine is Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. Ex Fr.) Karst. In Asian countries it is treated as a nutraceutical, whose regular consumption provides vitality and improves health. Ganoderma lucidum is an important source of biologically active compounds. The pharmacologically active fraction of polysaccharides has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antineurodegenerative and antidiabetic activities. In this review, we summarize the activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/parasitologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(7): 51-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375518

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the bioactivities of Lentinus polychrous polysaccharide extracts with Ganoderma lucidum. Three hot water-extracted polysaccharide fractions of L. polychrous (LPE), including immature fruiting bodies (im-LPE), mature fruiting bodies (ma-LPE), and mycelium (my-LPE), were analyzed for their phytochemical contents and bioactivities (e.g., anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects) compared with G. lucidum extract (GLE). Although GLE had the highest total phenolic and protein contents and lower carbohydrate content than LPE, im-LPE showed strong inhibition on HepG2 cell proliferation as did GLE. GLE and LPE showed antiviral effects on herpes simplex virus-1 and the relative antiproliferative activity was from im-LPE > my-LPE > ma-LPE. However, im-LPE showed the best protective activity on the viral attachment step with some virucidal effects. Moreover, all LPE showed selective and stronger inhibitory effects on LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages than those of GLE on genetic expression. Considering the 50% inhibitory concentration values, my-LPE possessed the strongest inhibitory activity on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. However, ma-LPE had the strongest inhibitory effects on interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. The extracts increased splenocyte proliferation under mycohaemagglutinin induction with a relative order of my-LPE > GLE > ma-LPE = im-LPE. In conclusion, LPE showed positive effects and stronger activity than G. lucidum. L. polychrous may have potential for use as an ingredient in functional foods.


Assuntos
Lentinula , Reishi , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
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