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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738537

RESUMO

The dried Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used for its pharmacological properties and bioactive ganoderic acids (GAs). Herein, extraction procedures combining ultra-sonication and heating were optimized using response surface methodology based on four variables (antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, total GAs content, and total polysaccharide content) and principal component analysis. The extraction of freeze-dried GL at temperatures between 64.2 and 70 °C for 1.2 h maximized the antioxidant activity and GA content, whereas the polysaccharide content and anti-diabetic activity were maximized by extraction between 66.8 and 70 °C for more than 2.8 h. Heat-dried GL extracted at 50 °C for 3 h provided the greatest anti-inflammatory activity against HaCaT cells by suppressing the response to inflammation related cytokines at mRNA levels. These results suggest that extraction conditions might be a limiting factor for target-oriented investigations, and optimized extraction methods may improve the potential effect and quality of harvested GL products.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921905, 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its comorbidities, including obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are commonly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GDLP) is one of the central bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. However, the effect and mechanisms of GDLP in hepatic steatosis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of GDLP in hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, male db/db mice were received with a high-fat diet (HFD) to investigate the effect of GDLP in T2DM-induced hepatic steatosis. The biological characteristics of the hepatic steatosis were evaluated through the detection of clinical indicators, including biochemical parameters, histopathology, and related cytokine levels. Additionally, the protein expression levels of Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2) signaling pathway were investigated by using western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS The levels of food/water intake, body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma lipids, urinary biomarkers, hepatic lipid accumulation, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were observably decreased in GDLP-treated db/db mice. Additionally, administration of GDLP increased the expression of various antioxidases, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), whereas it reduced the level of malonaldehyde (MDA). Furthermore, GDLP was significantly promoted protein expression level of Nrf2 and its downstream target gene HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) while decreased TNF-alpha expression. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that GDLP against T2DM-induced hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation by improving the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in db/db mice, suggesting the GDLP may serve as an effective strategy for in fatty liver treatment.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reishi/química , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos
3.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(1): e202000103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: sham, Group 2 ( T/D): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion, Group 3 (T/D+ G. lucidum ): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion and 7 days of 20 mg/kg via gastric gavage G. lucidum polysaccharides per day. Biochemical assays of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) levels , histopathology and expression levels of VEGF and Bcl-2 with immunohistochemical methods were examined in testicular tissue. RESULTS: G. lucidum treatment was found to have prevented the T/D-induced I/R injury by decreasing MDA levels of the testis. SOD, CAT and GSH activities were decreased in group 2, while they were increased in group 3 (p<0.001) and significant improvement in the tube diameter was observed in group 3. Bcl-2-positive germinal cells were lowered in group 3 compared to the group 2. VEGF expression showed an increase in group 2, whereas it decreased in group 3. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant G. lucidum is thought to induce angiogenesis by reducing the apoptotic effect in testicular torsion-detorsion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Reishi/química , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Torção do Cordão Espermático/complicações , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Torção do Cordão Espermático/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Adv Pharmacol ; 87: 257-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089235

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi) is a well-known Chinese traditional medicine to improve health and to treat numerous diseases for over 2000 years in Asian countries. G. lucidum has the abundant chemical components such as triterpenes and polysaccharides, which have various biological activities including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-liver disorders, anti-tumor growth and metastasis, etc. Recently, many lines of studies have elucidated the therapeutic effects of G. lucidum and its extractions on various acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) pathogenesis, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, renal proximal tubular cell oxidative damage and fibrotic process, renal ischemia reperfusion injury, cisplatin-induced renal injury, adriamycin-induced nephropathy, chronic proteinuric renal diseases, etc. Clinical researches also showed potent anti-renal disease bioactivities of G. lucidum. In this chapter, we review experimental and clinical researches and provide comprehensive insights into the renoprotective effects of G. lucidum. In recent years, renal diseases have gradually aroused attention on account of their booming prevalence worldwide and lack of effective therapies. Although the complicated pathogenesis of kidney diseases, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD) have been intensively studied. The morbidity and mortality of AKI and CKD still rise continuously. Thanks to the conventional experience and the multi-target characteristics, natural products have been increasingly recognized as an alternative source for treating renal diseases.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Rim/lesões , Reishi/química , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 9894037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089787

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among senior citizen. Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs) have nutritional health benefits and has been shown to promote health and longevity, but a protective effect of GLTs on AD damage has not yet been reported. The objective of this research was to elucidate the phylactic effect of GLTs on AD model mice and cells and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Morris water maze (MWM) test was conducted to detect changes in the cognitive function of mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was applied to observe pathological changes in the hippocampus. Silver nitrate staining was applied to observe the hippocampal neuronal tangles (NFTs). Apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons in mouse brain tissue was determined by TUNEL staining. The expression levels of apoptosis-related protein Bcl2, Bax, and caspase 3/cleaved caspase 3; antioxidative protein Nrf2, NQO1, and HO1; and ROCK signaling pathway-associated proteins ROCK2 and ROCK1 were measured by western blot. In vivo experiments show that 5-month-old APP/PS1 mice appeared to have impaired acquisition of spatial learning and GLTs could reduce cognitive impairment in AD mice. Compared to normal mice, the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mouse's brains was severely damaged, while GLTs could alleviate this symptom by inhibiting apoptosis, relieving oxidative damage, and inactivating the ROCK signaling pathway. In in vitro cell experiments, Aß 25-35 was applied to induce hippocampal neurons into AD model cells. GLTs promoted cell proliferation, facilitated superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) expression of neurons. Our study highlights that GLTs improve cognitive impairment, alleviate neuronal damage, and inhibit apoptosis in the hippocampus tissues and cells in AD through inhibiting the ROCK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936890

RESUMO

Ergosterol peroxide is a natural compound of the steroid family found in many fungi, and it possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antiviral activities. The anti-obesity activity of several edible and medicinal mushrooms has been reported, but the effect of mushroom-derived ergosterol peroxide on obesity has not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of ergosterol peroxide on the inhibition of triglyceride synthesis at protein and mRNA levels and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Ergosterol peroxide inhibited lipid droplet synthesis of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), the major transcription factors of differentiation, and also the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), which promotes the activity of PPARγ, resulting in inhibition of differentiation. It further inhibited the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid translocase (FAT), and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), which are lipogenic factors. In addition, it inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) involved in cell proliferation and activation of early differentiation transcription factors in the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) stage. As a result, ergosterol peroxide significantly inhibited the synthesis of triglycerides and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and is, therefore, a possibile prophylactic and therapeutic agent for obesity and related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Reishi/química , Células 3T3-L1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipocinas , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Ergosterol/uso terapêutico , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos
7.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(3): 302-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755817

RESUMO

When ingested as a dietary supplement, Ganoderma lucidum spore powders (GLSP) provide various health benefits such as enhanced immunity, liver protection and anti-cancer effects. In this study, triterpenoid extraction from GLSP was achieved using an ultrasound-assisted process which was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was also compared to the most conventional chemical extraction method. For UAE, optimum extraction conditions were found to be ethanol concentration = 95% v/v; solvent to solid ratio = 50:1 mL/g; ultrasound time = 5.4 min; ultrasound power = 564.7 w, and ultrasound probe distance = 8.2 cm. At optimal UAE conditions, no significant differences were found between experimental (0.97 ± 0.04 %) and predicted values (99%); which indicates appreciable correlation at the 97% confidence interval. The findings show the application of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to predict and optimize triterpenoid yield for UAE of triterpenoid from GLSP. Furthermore, glucose consumption was 2.68 times that of control samples when tested with insulin-resistant HepG2 cell, showing potential use in type 2 diabetes. In addition, triterpenoid extracts show good biocompatibility and inhibition of antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Reishi/química , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Triterpenos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125121, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683424

RESUMO

The present study firstly reports spent Ganoderma lucidum substrate derived biochars (SLBCS) for the effective removal of Pb2+/Cd2+ from water. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the SLBCS characteristics and Pb2+/Cd2+ adsorption mechanism was studied systematically. The surface physicochemical properties of SLBCS were significantly affected by the pyrolysis temperature. The increase in pyrolysis temperature from 250 to 650 °C resulted in a drastic increase in the biochar surface area and the well development of mesoporous structure, which could provide more effective adsorption sites for Pb2+ and Cd2+ onto SLBCS. According to the Langmuir model, the obtained maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ onto SL650 reached 262.76 mg g-1, while that of Cd2+ reached 75.82 mg g-1. The adsorption capacities of SL650 for Pb2+ and Cd2+ were even higher than that of other modified biochars. The high adsorption capacity of SL650 for Pb2+, attributed to the precipitation supported by high temperature, benefitted the formation of carbonate minerals. Two possible mechanisms involved in Cd2+ sorption: carbonate precipitation and coordination with π electrons. Desorption of SL650 showed high efficiency for Pb2+, but slightly low efficiency for Cd2+. These results indicate that SL650 can be applied for removing heavy metals, especially Pb2+, from polluted water.


Assuntos
Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal/química , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Reishi/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cádmio/análise , Temperatura Alta , Metais Pesados/isolamento & purificação , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 178: 112970, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722822

RESUMO

In recent years, the synthesis of nanoparticles via biological processes has attracted considerable attention. The use of plants and plant extracts is one of the most preferred methods for biological synthesis due to their rich biologically active metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) extract. Different analytical techniques including X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) were used for the characterization of Ag NPs. UV-vis spectrum exhibited a broad absorption peak between 400-460 nm which indicates the existence of Ag NPs. TEM images showed Ag NPs are spherical with a diameter range of 15-22 nm. In addition, it is shown that Ag NPs form a face-centered cubic structure according to XRD characterization technique. The antioxidant activity towards to 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was also studied. The highest DPPH scavenging percentage was recorded as 76.45% at 250 mg/L. The DNA cleavage activity results indicated that the green Ag NPs caused single strain DNA cleavage activity for 30 and 60 min at 50 and 100 mg/L, respectively. The Ag NPs antimicrobial activity was also investigated and results recorded as minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). Ag NPs showed a strong antibacterial effect against gram-positive (S. aureus, E. hirae, B. cereus) and gram-negative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila subsp. Pneumophila) bacteria. Furthermore, Ag NPs have also been shown to have a high antifungal effect against C. albicans fungus.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Reishi/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112256, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586690

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a traditional Chinese medicine reported to have a variety of pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer activity. G. lucidum spore oil (GLSO) is a lipid substance extracted from sporoderm-broken spore of G. lucidum. However, the effect of GLSO on breast cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of GLSO on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to investigate the mechanistic basis for the anticancer effect of GLSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, in vitro MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with GLSO (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 µL/mL). The protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-8 were examined using western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), caspases-3, -8, -9 and Bax were examined using qRT-PCR. Second, in vivo the anticancer properties of GLSO were assessed by H&E, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry in BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. In addition, the levels of caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling pathway proteins in tumor tissue were evaluated by immunoblotting. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with caspase inhibitors to measure cell viability, the protein levels were examined with western blotting. RESULTS: The results in vitro showed that GLSO up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells, but had no effect on the expression of caspase-8. Moreover, the growth of tumors in vivo was significantly suppressed in the GLSO-treated group. The results of Western blot were consistent with in vitro. In vitro, co-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with caspase inhibitors reduced the inhibitory effect of GLSO on cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: GLSO inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and tumors in vivo by inducing apoptosis, which may be achieved through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Óleos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Óleos/uso terapêutico , Esporos Fúngicos/química
11.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 572-584, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853533

RESUMO

It is unclear if guar gum can alleviate colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the effect of guar gum (unmodified) on the mortality, colon status, serous tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration, and gut microbial and colonic epithelial cell gene expression profiles in CRC mice and performed omics analyses to compare these with those of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), whose main component is ß-glucan (>90%). We found that guar gum had a CRC alleviating effect. However, it showed a 20% higher mortality rate, shorter colon length, worse colon status, larger number and size of tumors, higher concentration of serous TNF-α and upregulation of epithelial cell genes (Il10, Cytl1, Igkv7-33, Ighv1-14, Igfbp6 and Foxd3) compared to that of GLP. The higher relative abundance of Akkermansia, the alteration of microbial metabolic pathways, especially those involving chaperones and folding catalysts, fatty acid biosynthesis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid biosynthesis and pyruvate metabolism, and the upregulation of specific genes (Mcpt2, Mcpt9, Des and Sostdc1) were also determined in animals fed a guar gum diet. The results suggested that the alleviating effect of guar gum (an inexpensive polysaccharide) on CRC was inferior to that of GLP (a more expensive polysaccharide). This could potentially be attributed to the increased presence of Akkermansia, the alteration of 10 microbial metabolic pathways and the upregulation of 4 epithelial cell genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Reishi/química , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 6 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Proteína 6 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795252

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generated in the human body can cause oxidative damage associated with many degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, dementia, coronary heart diseases, aging, and cancer. There is a great interest in developing new antioxidants from Ganoderma fungus due to its low toxicity. As part of our ongoing search for antioxidative constituents from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, the chemical constituents were investigated and seven secondary metabolites, including one new lanostane triterpene (1), two known aromatic meroterpenoids (6-7), and four known triterpenes (2-5), were isolated by a series of chromatographic methods. The structures of the seven compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for antioxidant potencies and neuroprotective activities against H2O2 and aged Aß-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. As a result, compounds 1, 6, and 7 exhibited potent antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. Additionally, all isolated compounds were tested for radical scavenging activities. Compounds 6 and 7 showed the comparable free radical scavenging activities with the standard drug in both ABTS (2, 2'-azobis (3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonaic acid)) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) experiments. The results from this study suggested that G. lucidum and its metabolites (especially the meroterpenoids) may be potential functional food ingredients for the antioxidation and prevention of neurogenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 18: 1534735419890917, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855073

RESUMO

Background: Current treatment of osteosarcoma is limited in part by side effects and low tolerability, problems generally avoided with traditional Chinese medicine. Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine with antitumor effects, offers a potential alternative, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms in osteosarcoma cells. Objective: To investigate the effect of G lucidum on osteosarcoma cells and its mechanism. Methods: Osteosarcoma MG63 and U2-OS cells were treated with G lucidum, followed by assays for cell proliferation (Cell Counting Kit-8), colony formation, and apoptosis (Alexa Fluor 647-Annexin V/propidium iodide, flow cytometry). Migration and invasion of cells were assessed by wound healing and Transwell invasion assays, and the effect of G lucidum on Wnt/ß-catenin signal transduction was studied by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and dual-luciferase assay. Results: G lucidum inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of human osteosarcoma MG63 and U2-OS cells. Dual-luciferase assay showed that G lucidum suppressed the transcriptional activity of T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor in the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, G lucidum blocked Wnt/ß-catenin signaling by inhibiting the Wnt co-receptor LRP5 and Wnt-related target genes, such as ß-catenin, cyclin D1, C-Myc, MMP-2, and MMP-9. At the same time, when Wnt/ß-catenin was inhibited, the expression of E-cadherin was upregulated. Conclusions: Our results suggest that G lucidum broadly suppresses osteosarcoma cell growth by inhibiting Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Reishi/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 1-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777013

RESUMO

Ganoderma (Lingzhi) has been used for a long time in China to prevent and treat various diseases. Accumulated studies have demonstrated that the Ganoderma modulates immune function both in vivo and in vitro. The immunomodulating effects of Ganoderma were extensive, including promoting the innate immune function, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity. In particular, G. lucidum polysaccharides may affect immune cells and immune-related cells including B and T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells, with the promotion of immune organ growth, cytokine release, and other immune regulatory functions. Furthermore, cellular and molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms, possible receptors involved, and triggered signaling pathways have also been summarized. However, whole animal experiments are still needed to further establish the mechanism of the immunomodulating effects by Ganoderma. Importantly, evidence-based clinical trials are also needed.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Animais , China , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunidade Inata
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 39-77, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777014

RESUMO

The antitumor effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) is closely related to immunoregulation. Based on our research and other references, this article discussed the antitumor effect of Ganoderma mediated by immunological mechanism, including promoting the function of mononuclear-macrophages and natural killers; promoting M1-type macrophage polarization vs M2-type; promoting maturation and differentiation of dendritic cells, increasing its antigen presentation, activating lymphocytes and increasing cytotoxicity of cytotoxin T lymphocyte; promoting production of cytokines; and inhibiting tumor escape from immune surveillance. Also, clinical studies with immunological indexes were reviewed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Apresentação do Antígeno , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 79-118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777015

RESUMO

The anticancer potential of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) and its extracts has been widely demonstrated, including antiproliferative and apoptosis inductive, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, and multidrug resistance reversional activities, involving a variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms besides antitumor immunology. Intrinsic- and extrinsic-initiated apoptotic pathway in association with cell cycle arresting, telomerase inhibiting, autophagy, and oxidative stress is involved in the antiproliferative and apoptosis inductive activities of Ganoderma and its extracts. The inhibition of tumor cell adhesion, invasion, and migration by Ganoderma and its extracts involves molecular mechanisms such as AP-1, NF-κB, MMP, cadherin, ß-integrin, c-Met, FAK, EMT, and so on. Targeting the major pro-angiogenic stimulus, VEGF, and its receptor contributes to the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by Ganoderma and its extracts. Inhibition against the ATP-dependent transmembrane drug transporter such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on the surface of resistant tumor cells to prevent reduction of the intracellular accumulation of anticancer drugs by pumping out the drugs plays an important role in the activities of Ganoderma and its extracts to reverse tumor cell multidrug resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 119-142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777016

RESUMO

Radiation and chemotherapy are common and mainstay treatments for cancer patients. But they are also usually associated with some toxicity and side effects in most of the patients. Ganoderma (Lingzhi) is considered as a major kind of complementary/alternative medicine and used to prevent the adverse effects caused by radiation and chemotherapy. This chapter reviewed the protective effects of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) on radiation and chemotherapy, including the preventive effects on myelosuppression, intestinal injury, nephrotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, and other side effects. Both basic researches and clinical studies of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) in preventing side effects induced by radiation and chemotherapy were reviewed.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Humanos
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 143-157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777017

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi) is a kind of medical mushroom with various pharmacological compounds. It has been used for clinical applications for thousands of years as a highly nutritious and significantly effective medicinal herb. Compared with its immunomodulatory effect, there are a few studies on the neuropharmacological actions of Ganoderma, and the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. As far as we know, Ganoderma regulate the central nervous system (CNS) at least in part through its immunomodulatory activity. The neuropharmacological effects of G. lucidum mainly include but not limited to sedative and hypnotic, neuroprotective, antinociceptive and analgesic, antiepileptic, and antidepressant effects. Clinical trials of G. lucidum in the patients with these disorders are still rare. To date, there are no Ganoderma-related drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In this chapter, we will summarize and elucidate recent progress of such effects of Ganoderma and its ingredients from both the preclinical and clinical points of view.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Humanos
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 159-180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777018

RESUMO

Neurological dysfunction and death are common events leading to acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease account for a significant and increasing proportion of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi), one of highly nutritious and significantly effective medicinal herbs, has been used for clinical applications for thousands of years. Several researches have shown that it has a wide range of brain damage protection, such as amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, therapeutic effect on epilepsy, and the protective effect on neural cells in stroke injury. This chapter reviews the neuroprotective effects of G. lucidum and its extracts on brain injury diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, epilepsy, and other neurodegenerative diseases, and the potential clinical applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Humanos
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1182: 181-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777019

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are disorders of the heart and blood vessels and include coronary heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, rheumatic heart diseases, and other conditions. CVDs are one of the most major causes of morbidity and mortality around the world, taking the lives of 17.9 million people every year. Several investigations have shown the influence of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Lingzhi) on some metabolic markers, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), blood pressure, and oxidative damage. G. lucidum potentially reduces the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Some studies found that G. lucidum prevented from heart damage in a variety of disease models, such as streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic, high-fat-diet-induced diabetic, isoprenaline (ISO)-induced myocardial hypertrophy, acute ethanol-induced heart toxicity, and transverse aortic constriction (TAC) models. This chapter summarizes putative preventive and therapeutic effects of G. lucidum on cardiovascular diseases and the potential clinical use of G. lucidum involved in these effects.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reishi/química , Humanos
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