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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 115, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ganoderic acids (GAs), derived from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, possess anticancer and other important pharmacological activities. To improve production of GAs, a homologous farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) gene was overexpressed in G. lucidum. Moreover, the influence of FPS gene overexpression on GA production was investigated by developing the corresponding mathematical models. RESULTS: The maximum levels of total GAs and individual GAs (GA-T, GA-S, and GA-Me) in the transgenic strain were 2.76 mg/100 mg dry weight (DW), 41 ± 2, 21 ± 5, and 28 ± 1 µg/100 mg DW, respectively, which were increased by 2.28-, 2.27-, 2.62-, and 2.80-folds compared with those in the control. Transcription levels of squalene synthase (SQS) and lanosterol synthase (LS) genes during GA biosynthesis were upregulated by 2.28- and 1.73-folds, respectively, in the transgenic G. lucidum. In addition, the developed unstructured models had a satisfactory fit for the process of GA production in submerged cultures of G. lucidum. Analysis of the kinetic process showed that FPS gene overexpression had a stronger positive impact on GA production compared with its influence on cell growth. Also, FPS gene overexpression led to a higher non-growth-associated-constant ß (1.151) over the growth-associated-constant α (0.026) in the developed models. CONCLUSIONS: FPS gene overexpression is an effective strategy to improve the production of GAs in G. lucidum. The developed mathematical models are useful for developing a better GA production process in future large-scale bioreactors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Geraniltranstransferase/genética , Reishi/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase/genética , Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Geraniltranstransferase/metabolismo , Transferases Intramoleculares/genética , Transferases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Cinética , Reishi/química , Reishi/enzimologia , Reishi/genética , Triterpenos/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8149-8159, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246442

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been widely used in Asia to treat hypertension, but the active substances responsible for its antihypertensive effects remain unclear. Using the well-established angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) as a target, we identified three ACE inhibitory peptides (ACEIPs), Gln-Leu-Val-Pro (QLVP), Gln-Asp-Val-Leu (QDVL), and Gln-Leu-Asp-Leu (QLDL), which account for the antihypertensive activity of G. lucidum. Notably, QLVP worked in a mixed-type manner against ACE with an IC50 value of 127.9 µmol/L. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that the potent charge energy of QLVP, which interacted with Gln242 and Lys472 of ACE via a hydrogen bond and a salt bridge, potentially contributed to ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, QLVP markedly activated angiotensin I-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and partly reduced mRNA and protein expression of the vasoconstrictor factor endothelin-1. This is the first report of the antihypertensive activity of small ACEIPs originating from G. lucidum mycelia, paving the way for the possible application of these peptides as potent drug candidates for treating hypertension.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reishi/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Cinética , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Micélio/química , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
4.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 37-42, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078150

RESUMO

Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people's work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Pentobarbital , Células RAW 264.7 , Latência do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química
5.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(4): 353-366, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002631

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom that is rich in antioxidants. The content of antioxidant components of grains can be effectively improved by G. lucidum as the fermenting strain. Optimization of the solid-state fermentation medium and optimization of the fermentation conditions were studied. The optimal fermentation substrate combination of G. lucidum TS (GL-TS) was 46.79% buckwheat, 53.21% rice; the optimal fermentation substrate combination of G. lucidum Am (GL-Am) was 4.17% soybean, 95.83% rice. The optimal fermentation conditions of GL-TS and GL-Am were as follows: inoculum amounts of 4.5% and 7.5%, temperatures of 30°C and 32°C, medium moisture content of 70% for both media, material granularities of 0.212-0.355 mm and 0.500-0.710 mm, and optimal fermentation time of 12.0 d and 10.5 d, respectively. Results of the analysis of antioxidant components in the fermentation substrates indicated that the antioxidant components were rich in antioxidant varieties and high in content. The contents of the antioxidant components (triterpenoids, total polyphenols, reducing sugars, anthocyanins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) in the full-fermentation substrates were greater than those in the nonfennentation substrates (except for flavonoids in the full-fermentation substrates, which were less than in the nonfennentation substrates). Glutathione was the major antioxidant component in the fermentation substrates, and the glutathione content was the highest. Therefore, the fermentation substrates of G. lucidum can be used to make antioxidant foods. This research contributes to the foundation for developing antioxidant foods based on G. lucidum.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reishi/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(18): 5147-5158, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995041

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum, as food, tea, dietary supplement, and medicine, is widely used in China and Eastern Asian countries. In order to discover its anti-inflammatory constituents and provide some references for the usage of G. lucidum and G. sinense, two official species in China, the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum were studied, leading to the isolation of six new triterpenoids (1-6) and 27 known analogues (7-33). Compound 4 exhibited the most potent inhibition on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The production of IL-6 and IL-1ß, as well as the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB were dose-dependently reduced by 4. The phosphorylations of IκBα and IKKß in LPS-induced macrophage cells were blocked by 4. Therefore, 4 could be used as a potential anti-inflammatory candidate and the total triterpenoids might be developed as value-added functional food for the prevention of inflammation. In combination of previous studies, it should be cautious for the interchangeable usage of G. lucidum and G. sinense.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , China , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(5): 905-911, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989848

RESUMO

Ganoderic acid(GA) is one of main bioactive components produced by Ganoderma lucidum,which a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and a kind of tracyclic triterpene lanosterol derivatives with highly oxidized structure. It has a variety of important pharmacological activities,such as anticancer,immunoregulation,anti-oxidation,anti-diabetes and anti-HIV. At present,the studies of GA mainly focus on biosynthesis,fermentation control,isolation and purification,structure identification and pharmacological effects.However,there are a fewer pharmacokinetic studies of GA,although it is closely related to the clinical application. Recent studies have shown that GA can be absorbed rapidly by gastrointestinal tract and distributed in various tissues and organs after oral intake. GA is metabolized by liver at phase Ⅰ and phase Ⅱ,and then mainly excreted by bile. In this paper,the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GA and its absorption,distribution,metabolism and excretion(ADME) will be systematically summarized,in order to provide scientific basis for the application and development studies of Ganoderma triterpenoid drugs and their rational clinical use.


Assuntos
Reishi/química , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lanosterol/farmacocinética
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(3): 253-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002609

RESUMO

The Ganoderma lucidum wood-degrading basidiomycete, with its large complex of pharmacological effects, is the most outstanding and influential medicinal mushroom in Far East traditional medicine. In the past 2 decades, the fundamentals of submerged cultivation of G. lucidum mycelia in bioreactors has been established. Development of comprehensive submerged cultivations in stirred tank and air lift bioreactors are the most promising technologies. This article provides an engineering overview of the achievements in submerged technology of G. lucidum biomass production in bioreactors.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Reishi/química , Madeira/metabolismo
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 174: 130-141, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035236

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum is a multi-purpose plant medicine that is homologous to functional food. The most attractive properties of G. lucidum are its immunomodulatory and antitumour activities, which are mainly attributed to the following two major active components: G. lucidum polysaccharides and G. lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs). GLTs are effective as supplemental therapies and improve health when combined with other medications to treat hepatitis, fatigue syndrome, and prostate cancer. However, research investigating the mechanism and application of G. lucidum or GLTs in the treatment of diseases remains preliminary in terms of both the utilization efficacy and product type. This review offers comprehensive insight into the pharmacological activities of GLTs and their potential applications in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. Specifically, 83 GLTs were selected, and their molecular structures and chemical formulas were described. We also describe 7 ganoderic acids that are currently at different stages of clinical trials (ganoderic acids A, C2, D, F, DM, X and Y). The related pharmacodynamic mechanisms and targeted signalling proteins were further analysed. Notably, the specific relationship between autophagy and apoptosis induced by ganoderic acid DM is summarized here for the first time.


Assuntos
Reishi/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triterpenos/química
10.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 35(4): 222-229, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958641

RESUMO

Research on anticervical cancer is urgently required to enhance clinical outcomes. As a main anticancer drug for cervical carcinoma, cisplatin (CIS) has been used for a lot of years in clinical therapy. However, serious adverse effects including nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity limit its long-term treatment. Our main goal of this study is to investigate the improvement of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GPS) on CIS-induced antitumor effect of in U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The results showed that GPS + CIS could not only inhibit the growth of the tumor but also improve the spleen and thymus indexes. Moreover, little toxicological effects were observed on hepatic function and renal function in GPS + CIS treated mice bearing U14 tumor cells. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly, the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically in cervical cancer sections after oral administration of GPS + CIS for 14 days. This GPS/CIS combined therapy represents intriguing therapeutic strategy for U14 cervical carcinoma providing not only superior efficacy but also a higher safety level.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Reishi/química , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Contagem de Leucócitos , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
11.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 52: 118-125, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732871

RESUMO

Several studies have been conducted on liver damage caused by cadmium, but few on the protective effects of Ganoderma triterpenoids against liver damage due to cadmium. This experiment was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Ganoderma triterpenoids on the liver damage induced by cadmium in chickens. Eighty healthy seven-day-old Hyline male egg-laying chickens were randomly divided into four groups with 20 chickens in each group. All the experiments were carried out in triplicate. The control group (K group) was fed a basal diet, the Cadmium group (Cd group) was fed a basal diet with 140 mg/kg of CdCl2, the Ganoderma triterpenoids treatment group (Cd + GT group) was fed with a full-fodder diet containing 140 mg/kg of CdCl2 and 0.5 mL of Ganoderma triterpenoids solution (20 mg/mL), and the Ganoderma triterpenoids group (GT group) was fed a basal diet and 0.5 mL of Ganoderma triterpenoids solution (20 mg/mL). At the 20th, 40th, and 60th days, fifteen chickens were randomly selected for euthanasia in each group. Livers were quickly removed and stored on ice. Some indicators, such as the cadmium content in the liver, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and inflammatory factors(Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-1ß and IL-6)), heat shock protein (HSP27, 40, 60, 70, and 90) mRNA levels, and protein levels of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70, and 90) were detected, and chicken liver pathology was taken for each group every 60 days. The results showed that cadmium exposure caused accumulation of cadmium in liver tissue, inhibited antioxidant enzyme activity, and increased MDA content, inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α IL-1ß and IL-6), and heat shock protein (HSP27, 40, 60, 70, and 90) mRNA levels, and heat shock protein (HSP60, 70, and 90) levels, with severe tissue damage and inflammatory infiltrates. Ganoderma triterpenoids not only reduced the accumulation of cadmium in the chicken liver, but also significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes which is inhibited by cadmium, reduced the content of MDA, mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α IL-1ß and IL-6), and heat shock proteins (HSP27, 40, 60, 70, and 90), and protein levels of heat shock proteins (HSP60, 70, and 90). Simultaneously, pathological tissue sections showed that the pathological damage of the liver tissue was significantly reduced. The results showed that Ganoderma triterpenoids can significantly reduce the accumulation of cadmium in the liver of chicken, thereby reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Cádmio/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Inflamação/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/análise
12.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 1-8, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis are commonly associated with excessive activity of the osteoclast. Ganomycin I (GMI), a meroterpenoid isolated from Vietnamese mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, possesses a variety of beneficial effects on human health. However, its impact and underlying mechanism on osteoclastogenesis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of GMI on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in mouse BMMs and RAW264.7 cells. METHODS: BMMs or RAW264.7 cells were treated with GMI followed by an evaluation of cell viability, RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, actin-ring formation, and resorption pits activity. Effects of GMI on RANKL-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs as well as the expression levels of NFATc1 and c-Fos were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Expression levels of osteoclast marker genes were evaluated by Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-qPCR. RESULTS: GMI significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by decreasing the number of osteoclasts, osteoclast actin-ring formation, and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. At molecular level, GMI inhibited the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPKs, as well as the expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are known to be crucial transcription factors for osteoclast formation. In addition, GMI decreased expression levels of osteoclastogenesis specific marker genes including c-Src, CtsK, TRAP, MMP-9, OSCAR, and DC-STAMP in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that GMI can attenuate osteoclast formation by suppressing RANKL-mediated MAPKs and NFATc1 signaling pathways and the anti-osteoclastogenic activity of GMI may extend our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying biological activities and pharmacological use of G. lucidum as a traditional anti-osteoporotic medicine.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidroquinonas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/antagonistas & inibidores , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroquinonas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Reishi/química
13.
Pharmacology ; 103(3-4): 143-150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides (GLPS) were found to possess various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities. However, the effect and possible mechanism of GLPS treatment on liver injury have not yet been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the potential anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects and possible mechanism of GLPS in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury mice. SUMMARY: GLPS significantly reduced the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and improved liver function in liver injury mice. It significantly inhibited CCl4-induced changes of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activities in liver tissue; it also remarkably decreased levels of liver weight and index, total bilirubin, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-18, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum, as well as malondialdehyde and IL-1ß in liver tissue. Protein expression levels of liver NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 were also downregulated, while the glutathione level in liver tissue was remarkably enhanced in GLPS groups compared to that of the model group. Key Message: These results suggested that GLPS may be a potential for the prevention and treatment of acute liver injury with liver inflammation. The possible mechanism may be related to the inhibition of free radical lipid peroxidation, NOS, and CYP2E1 activities and activation of liver inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citoproteção , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Reishi/química
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 126: 867-876, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590148

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) as one of water-soluble polysaccharides has attracted much attention because of its bioactivities, especially antioxidant activity. Deproteinization is an essential step in the purification process of polysaccharides. In this study, three classic deproteinization methods, including neutral protease method, TCA precipitation and CaCl2 salting out, were evaluated for crude GLP processing. The methods had ability to remove proteins (71.50-87.36%), and meanwhile polysaccharide loss (8.35-11.39%) was observed. Structure analysis indicated that these deproteinization methods had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on molecular weight of polysaccharides, but led to varying degrees of glycoside bond losses (1.14-64.05%). Moreover, the antioxidant activities of deproteinized polysaccharides were measured in vitro by hydroxyl radical, reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and ferric-reducing antioxidant power tests. Purified GLP by enzymolysis maintained the strongest antioxidants activities with the retention rate of over 47.40%, and its deproteinization efficiency and polysaccharide loss ratio were 74.03% and 11.39% respectively. In view of relatively high purity and antioxidant activity, enzymolysis was a suitable deproteinization method for GLP production.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metilação , Oxirredução , Picratos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 205: 192-202, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446095

RESUMO

Polysaccharides purified from natural herbs possess immunoregulatory functions, while the efficacy of natural polysaccharides on cancer treatment remains unreliable, likely due to their low prescribed doses and fast clearances in clinical settings. In this study, gold nanocomposites containing Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP-Au) efficiently induced dendritic cell (DC) activation, evident by the increase of CD80/CD86/CD40/MHCII, decrease of phagocytic ability and acid phosphatase activity, and increased cytokine transcription. GLP-Au significantly promoted the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in splenocytes. DC/T cell co-culture study proved that GLP-Au activation on DC directly resulted in T cell proliferation. GLP-Au exhibited strong inhibitory effects on 4T1 tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis when combined with doxorubicin. GLP-Au recovered body weight loss by doxorubicin and increased the percentage of CD4+/CD44+ memory T cells. This work suggests that polysaccharides from natural herbs can be incorporated into nanocomposites with immunoregulatory characteristics for enhanced efficacy on tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Nanocompostos/química , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/síntese química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ouro/química , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Distribuição Tecidual
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 206: 538-546, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179797

RESUMO

The investigation about polysaccharides-protein system is attributed to numerous very important applications for pharmaceutical, food, chemical and other industries. In the present work, multi-spectral methods and molecular docking were used to analyze the molecular interactions of polysaccharides from Ganoderma Lucidum (GLP) with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The nonenzymatic glucosylation, fibrillation, thermal stability, and structure information of GLP-BSA system were also studied. The results showed that the formation of GLP-BSA complex by mainly hydrogen-bonding forces resulted in the conformational changes of protein. GLP acted as a stabilizer to increase the thermal stability of BSA solution having a novel and more stable conformational state during the thermal denaturation process. 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence spectral results suggested that there exist some intermediate state which has low binding ability with ANS in the presence of GLP. The presence of GLP caused a decrease in the formation of beta sheet structures with a lower rate. The fluorescence spectra of BSA glycosylated by GLP confirmed the formation of covalent bonds between BSA and GLP through the Maillard reaction which was also confirmed by using thermogravimetric (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. In addition, BSA still maintains the esterase-like good activity in the presence of GLP. These results provide a basis for screening the molecular interactions of polysaccharides with protein from the perspective of important food active ingredients.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Reishi/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Amiloide , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Análise Espectral
17.
Chin J Integr Med ; 25(3): 203-209, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS) on human fibroblasts and skin wound healing in Kunming male mice and to explore the putative molecular mechanism. METHODS: Primary human skin fibroblasts were cultured. The viability of fibroblasts treated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 µg/mL of GL-PS, respectively were detected by 3-4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-Htetrazolium bromide (MTT). The migration ability of fibroblasts treated with 0, 10, 20, and 40 µg/mL of GL-PS were measured by transwell assay. The secretion of the C-terminal peptide of procollagen type I (CICP) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the cell supernatant was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of ß-catenin was detected by Western blot. Furthermore, the Kunming mouse model with full-layer skin resection trauma was established, and was treated with 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL of GL-PS, respectively as external use. The size of the wound was measured daily, complete healing time in each group was recorded and the percentage of wound contraction was calculated. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, 10, 20, and 40 µg/mL of GL-PS significantly increased the viability of fibroblasts, promoted the migration ability of fibroblasts, and up-regulated the expressions of CICP and TGF-ß1 in fibroblasts (Plt;0.05 or Plt;0.01). The expression of ß-catenin in fibroblasts treated with 20 and 40 µg/mL of GL-PS was significantly higher than that of the control group (Plt;0.01). Furthermore, after external use of 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL of GL-PS, the rates of wound healing in mice were significantly higher and the wound healing time was significantly less than the control group (Plt;0.05 or Plt;0.01). CONCLUSION: A certain concentration of GL-PS may promote wound healing via activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway and up-regulation of TGF-ß1, which might serve as a promising source of skin wound healing.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/biossíntese , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pele/lesões , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/fisiologia , beta Catenina/fisiologia
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 962-969, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572060

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) is a functional food constituent employed in disease prevention and treatment. However, the applications of GLP are limited due to oxidative and destruction of the acidic environment. The aim of this study was to prepare Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide microcapsules using maltodextrin (MD)-protein as wall materials and investigate its controlled release properties and stability. Compared with soy protein isolate (SPI) and sodium caseinate (NaCas), microcapsules obtained by complexation of whey protein (WP) and maltodextrin have good morphology and thermodynamic stability, and when the ratio of core to wall was 1:2, the encapsulation efficiency (EE) reached 89.8%. The microcapsules showed better stability compared to other samples, retaining about 50% of GLP after 10 weeks of storage. In-vitro release studies prove the microspheres have great controlled release ability. Microcapsules showed good application prospect for active components of edible fungi in food industries.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Reishi/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Cápsulas , Caseínas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Cinética , Microesferas , Proteínas de Soja/química , Termodinâmica
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1453-1462, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-975722

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can potentially lead to hemorrhages in all areas of the skull, which can damage cells and nerve connections. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) as a antioxidant on cerebellar cell tissues after traumatic brain injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to TBI with a weight-drop device using 300 g1m weight-height impact. The groups are consisted of control, trauma, and trauma+Ganoderma lucidum groups. At seven days post-brain injury, experimental rats were decapitated after intraperitoneal administration of ketamine HCL (0.15 ml/100 g body weight). Cereballar samples were taken for histological examination or determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Significant improvement was observed in cells and vascular structures of Ganoderma lucidum treated groups when compared to untreated groups. It is believed that Ganoderma lucidum may have an effect on the progression of traumatic brain injury. Ganoderma lucidum application may affect angiogenetic development in blood vessel endothelial cells, decrease inflammatory cell accumulation by affecting cytokine mechanism and may create apoptotic nerve cells and neuroprotective mechanism in glial cells.


La lesión cerebral traumática (LCT) puede provocar hemorragias en todas las áreas del cráneo, lo que puede dañar las células y las conexiones nerviosas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos protectores de los polisacáridos de Ganoderma lucidum (GLPS) como antioxidante en los tejidos de las células del cerebelo después de la lesión cerebral traumática en ratas. Ratas Sprague Dawley fueron sometidas a TBI con un dispositivo de caída de peso usando un impacto de peso de 300 g-1 m. Se formaron los siguientes grupos: control, trauma y trauma + Ganoderma lucidum. Siete días después de la lesión cerebral, las ratas experimentales fueron decapitadas después de la administración intraperitoneal de ketamina HCL (0,15 ml / 100 g de peso corporal). Se tomaron muestras cerebrales para el examen histológico y para la determinación de niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) y glutatión (GSH) y actividad de mieloperoxidasa (MPO). Se observó una mejora significativa en las células y las estructuras vasculares de los grupos tratados con Ganoderma lucidum en comparación con los grupos no tratados. Durante el estudio se observó que Ganoderma lucidum puede tener un efecto sobre la progresión de la lesión cerebral traumática. La aplicación de Ganoderma lucidum puede afectar el desarrollo angiogénico en las células endoteliales de los vasos sanguíneos, disminuir la acumulación de células inflamatorias al afectar el mecanismo de las citocinas y puede crear células nerviosas apoptóticas y un mecanismo neuroprotector en las células gliales.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reishi/química , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica , Antígenos CD , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Western Blotting , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Malondialdeído/análise
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(7): 677-683, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055559

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine, is characterized by strong genetic and phenotypic variability that reflects its active components. To preserve such a source of pharmacologically active metabolites, specimens must be collected from different geographic regions and their genetic integrity ensured during storage. To this aim, we tested the effect of ultra-low freezing (ULF) at -120°C on the vitality, mycelial growth rate, and fruiting ability of 3 Italian strains of G. lucidum. Results showed that all strains reacted positively to ULF, demonstrating an ability to recover after 3 months of storage without morphological or physiological changes occurring, regardless of treatment. The successful storage of G. lucidum at -120°C opens up the possibility to create a germplasm bank to collect strains of this medicinal fungus from throughout Europe, thereby contributing to the maintenance of its diversity.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Reishi/química , Congelamento , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/química , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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