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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070454

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major public health burden in Bangladesh. However, studies considering the underlying multifaceted risk factors of this health condition are sparse. The present study concurrently examines anthropometric parameters and intermediary factors influencing hypertension risk in Bangladesh. Using the 2018 World Health Organisation (WHO) STEPwise approach to non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance (STEPS) study conducted in Bangladesh and involving 8019 nationally representative adult respondents, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between anthropometrics, other intermediary factors and hypertension. The regression results were presented using the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The risk of hypertension was higher among females and males who were 40 years and older. However, among females, those who were age 60 years and older were more than twice and thrice more likely to be hypertensive compared to those in the younger age groups (18-39, 40-59). Females who were obese (body mass index [BMI], waist to hip ratio [WHR], waist to height ratio [WHtR]) or had high waist circumference [WC] were twice as likely to be hypertensive. Males and females who were physically active, consuming more fruits and vegetables daily and educated had lower odds of developing hypertension. Key findings suggest that the association between anthropometric indices (body mass index [BMI], waist to hip ratio [WHR], waist to height ratio [WHtR]), waist circumference [WC]), other intermediary determinants (e.g., education, physical activity) and hypertension exist across gender and with increasing age among adults in Bangladesh. Developing appropriate public health interventions (e.g., regular assessment of anthropometric parameters) for early identification of the risk and pattern of hypertension through appropriate screening and diagnosis is required to meet the specific health needs of the adult Bangladesh population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
2.
Int Dent J ; 71(3): 242-249, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the systemic and periodontal conditions between morbidly obese patients with and without hypertension who were candidates for bariatric surgery. METHODS: The study cohort had 111 morbidly obese patients stratified into two groups: patients with (G1 = 54) and without (G2 = 57) arterial hypertension. The following characteristics were compared between the two groups: (i) education level; (ii) anthropometric parameters [weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)]; (iii) risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (based on patients' sex, age and WHR); (iv) behaviours regarding oral hygiene; and (v) periodontal status. The t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Patients in G1 had a lower level of education (P = 0.002). There were no intergroup differences for weight (P = 0.211), height (P = 0.126), BMI (P = 0.551), waist circumference (P = 0.859) and WHR (P = 0.067); however, patients in G2 had a smaller hip circumference (P = 0.029), and 78% of patients in G1 had a high/very high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of periodontitis was 72.2% (n = 39) in G1 and 38.6% (n = 22) in G2. On logistic regression analysis, age [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01-1.13; P = 0.008) and the presence of arterial hypertension (OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.17-6.56; P = 0.019) were identified as the independent variables associated with periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Morbid obesity and arterial hypertension are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, morbidly obese patients with hypertension have a higher prevalence of periodontitis and greater severity of periodontal disease than those without hypertension.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Hipertensão , Obesidade Mórbida , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril
3.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(1): 71-75, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993664

RESUMO

A comparative study of three anthropometric indices as generalized characteristics of the morphological status of elderly women of Belgorod (sample size 50) in the connection with blood pressure (BP) was conducted. The age of the participants ranges from 50 to 79, with the average age of 61. In modern scientific literature, the problem of choosing among anthropometric indices the most reliable predictor of metabolic disorders and related diseases, including high BP, is widely discussed. The paper considers three most widely used anthropometric indices - body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR). BMI and WtHR better reflect morphological specificity of the sample, with a tendency to increased body mass and girths. The highest and most reliable associations with BP are identified for BMI. The results of the study confirm the high predictive value of BMI as an indicator of the risk of arterial hypertension and associated metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Idoso , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril
4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(5): 879-886, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used index to categorize a person as obese or non-obese, which is subject to important limitations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the direct effect of BMI on cardiovascular outcomes among participants without central obesity. METHODS: This analysis included 14,983 males and females aged 45-75 years from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC). BMI was measured as general obesity, and waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and hip circumference as central obesity. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) was used to estimate the total effects (TEs) and the controlled direct effects (CDEs). The proportion of TE that would be eliminated if all participants were non-obese regarding central obesity was computed using the proportion eliminated (PE) index. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were performed in the TMLE R package. RESULTS: The risk of cardiovascular outcomes attributed to BMI was significantly reversed by eliminating WHR obesity (p<0.001). The proportion eliminated of BMI effects was more tangible for non-obese participants regarding WC (PE=127%; 95%CI (126,128)) and WHR (PE=97%; 95%CI (96,98)) for coronary heart disease (CHD), and WHR (PE=92%; 95%CI (91,94)) for stroke, respectively. With respect to sex, the proportion eliminated of BMI effects was more tangible for non-obese participants regarding WHR (PE=428%; 95%CI (408,439)) for CHD in males, and WC (PE=99%; 95%CI (89,111)) for stroke in females, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results indicate different potential effects of eliminating central obesity on the association between BMI and cardiovascular outcomes for males and females. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(5):879-886).


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808684

RESUMO

The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is considered as a good example of a healthy dietary pattern that has protective effects on obesity. The aim of the present study was to assess the adherence of adults from three Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Kuwait) to the MedDiet and its association with obesity risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 961 men and women (75.7%) aged 20-55 years old. Waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were measured waist/hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. A validated 14-item Questionnaire was used to measure adherence to MedDiet. The mean of the adherence to MedDiet score was 5.9 ± 2.03 for the total sample. An inverse association was observed between the adherence to MedDiet and BMI after adjusting for potential confounders (p = 0.0003 in total participants, and p = 0.001 in women only). A protective effect was seen with a higher adherence to the MedDiet on HC, suggesting that a greater adherence to the MedDiet was associated with a decreased HC (p = 0.04 in total participants, and p = 0.01 in women only). In conclusion, low adherence to the MedDiet among participants from three gulf countries was associated with increased obesity indicators, BMI, and HC.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omã , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6696357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140377

RESUMO

Background: Sedentary lifestyle and work from home schedules due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 have caused a significant rise in obesity across adults. With limited visits to the doctors during this period to avoid possible infections, there is currently no way to measure or track obesity. Methods: We reviewed the literature on relationships between obesity and facial features, in white, black, hispanic-latino, and Korean populations and validated them against a cohort of Indian participants (n = 106). The body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were obtained using anthropometric measurements, and body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using body composition analysis. Facial pictures were also collected and processed to characterize facial geometry. Regression analysis was conducted to determine correlations between body fat parameters and facial model parameters. Results: Lower facial geometry was highly correlated with BMI (R 2 = 0.77) followed by PBF (R 2 = 0.72), VFA (R 2 = 0.65), WHR (R 2 = 0.60), BFM (R 2 = 0.59), and weight (R 2 = 0.54). Conclusions: The ability to predict obesity using facial images through mobile application or telemedicine can help with early diagnosis and timely medical intervention for people with obesity during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 101, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between anthropometric indices and the selected hemodynamic parameters among secondary adolescents aged 12-17 years. RESULTS: Our findings showed weak positive correlation between generally body surface area, neck circumference and conicity index with the hemodynamic parameters (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, resting pulse rate, mean arterial pressure, rate pressure product and pulse pressure). However, the ponderosity index, body mass index and waist hip ratio showed negative weak correlations with the hemodynamic parameters. There was a significant difference in pulse pressure among the BMI categories. All parameters showed significant (p < 0.05) differences across the categories of neck circumference and waist hip ratio. Generally, in multivariate regression analysis, anthropometric indices showed significant prediction of the hemodynamic parameters.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Obesidade , Adolescente , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(6): 984-993, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693587

RESUMO

Epigenetic clocks use DNA methylation to estimate biological age. Whether body composition and physical activity are associated with these clocks is not well understood. Using blood samples collected at enrollment (2003-2009) from 2,758 women in the US nationwide Sister Study, we calculated 6 epigenetic age acceleration metrics using 4 epigenetic clocks (Hannum, Horvath, PhenoAge, GrimAge). Recreational physical activity was self-reported, and adiposity measures were assessed by trained medical examiners (body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WtH), waist circumference). In cross-sectional analyses, all adiposity measures were associated with epigenetic age acceleration. The strongest association was for BMI and PhenoAge, a measure of biological age that correlates with chronic disease (BMI of ≥35.0 vs. 18.5-24.9, ß = 3.15 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.41, 3.90; P for trend < 0.001). In a mutual-adjustment model, both were associated with PhenoAge age acceleration (BMI of ≥35.0 vs. 18.5-24.9, ß = 2.69 years, 95% CI: 1.90, 3.48; P for trend < 0.001; quartile 4 vs.1 WtH, ß = 1.00 years, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.65; P for trend < 0.008). After adjustment, physical activity was associated only with GrimAge (quartile 4 vs. 1, ß = -0.42 years, 95% CI: -0.70, -0.14; P for trend = 0.001). Physical activity attenuated the waist circumference associations with PhenoAge and GrimAge. Excess adiposity was associated with epigenetic age acceleration; physical activity might attenuate associations with waist circumference.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(5): 1613-1621, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recently, it has been hypothesized that Tri-Ponderal Mass Index (TMI) may be a valid alternative to Body Mass Index (BMI) when measuring body fat in adolescents. We aimed to verify whether TMI has better accuracy than BMI in discriminating central obesity and hypertension in adolescents with overweight. METHODS AND RESULTS: This monocentric and retrospective cross-sectional study included 3749 pupils, 1889 males and 1860 females, aged 12-13. BMI (kg/m2) was calculated and expressed as percentiles and as z-scores. TMI (kg/m3) was calculated, and we used pre-defined cut-off previously proposed by Peterson et al.. For central obesity we adopted the Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) discriminatory value of 0.5. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥95th percentile of age- sex-, and height-specific references recommended by NHBPEP Working Group. The discriminant ability of TMI, BMI and BMI z-score, with respect to central obesity and hypertension, was investigated using non-parametric receiver operating characteristic analysis. The overall misclassification rate for central obesity was 8.88% for TMI vs 14.10% for BMI percentiles and vs 14.92% for BMI z-scores (P < 0.001). The overall misclassification rate for hypertension was 7.50% for TMI vs 22.03% for BMI percentiles and vs 25.19% for BMI z-scores (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: TMI is a superior body fat index and it could discriminate body fat distribution more accurately than BMI. This supports the use of TMI, in association with WHtR, to characterize adolescents with overweight and high cardio-metabolic risk. Our analysis needs to be extended to other ethnic groups and replicated in a wider age range and in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 459, 2021 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is well known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the performance of and the optimal cutoff values for obesity indices to discriminate the presence of metabolic abnormalities as a primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in a Health Examinees study (HEXA). METHODS: The current study analyzed 134,195 participants with complete anthropometric and laboratory information in a Health Examinees study, consisting of the Korean population aged 40 to 69 years. The presence of metabolic abnormality was defined as having at least one of the following: hypertension, hyperglycemia, or dyslipidemia. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for body mass index, waist to hip ratio, waist to height ratio, waist circumference, and conicity index. RESULTS: The AUC of metabolic abnormalities was the highest for waist-to-height ratio (AUC [95% CIs], 0.677 [0.672-0.683] among men; 0.691 [0.687-0.694] among women), and the lowest for the C index (0.616 [0.611-0.622] among men; 0.645 [0.641-0.649] among women) among both men and women. The optimal cutoff values were 24.3 kg/m2 for the body mass index, 0.887 for the waist-to-hip ratio, 0.499 for the waist-to-height ratio, 84.4 cm for waist circumference and 1.20 m3/2/kg1/2 for the conicity index among men, and 23.4 kg/m2 for the body mass index, 0.832 for the waist-to-hip ratio, 0.496 for the waist-to-height ratio, 77.0 cm for the waist circumference and 1.18 m3/2/kg1/2 for the conicity index among women. CONCLUSION: The waist-to-height ratio is the best index to discriminate metabolic abnormalities among middle-aged Koreans. The optimal cutoff of obesity indices is lower than the international guidelines for obesity. It would be appropriate to use the indices for abdominal obesity rather than general obesity and to consider a lower level of body mass index and waist circumference than the current guidelines to determine obesity-related health problems in Koreans.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25017, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761657

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity may be associated with poor clinical outcome, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) are related to CKD is yet to be elucidated.A total of 7593 adults were divided into 4 groups based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) quartile. The eGFR was calculated with the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration. Multiple linear regression analyzed the association between eGFR and WHR, BMI, and WC. Logistic regression analysis determined whether the CKD patients were associated with WHR, BMI, and WC after adjusting for other variables.The mean age of the cohort was 72.34 ±â€Š7.30 years. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that WC (P = .006) was associated with eGFR, although adjusted by lifestyle factor and biochemical indicators. The individuals in the underweight, overweight, and obese groups had significantly lower eGFR value than those in the healthy weight group in moderate CKD. The eGFR in the overweight group with WHR ≤0.894 was higher than in the healthy weight group with WHR >0.894 group (P = .036). Overweight with WHR ≤0.894 group had a longer WC with a pronounced increase in the hip circumference. Logistic regression analysis showed that the WC (OR = 1.362, P < .001) and BMI (OR = 1.227, P = .031) were independent risk factors for moderate CKD patients. Each standard deviation (SD) of high BMI and WC level was associated with 23.0% and 17.3% higher odds of moderate CKD (OR = 1.230, P = .017 and OR = 1.173, P = .021, respectively).WC is an independent risk factor for eGFR. Combined BMI and WC are important factors that would predict moderate CKD patients.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6696357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778081

RESUMO

Background: Sedentary lifestyle and work from home schedules due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 have caused a significant rise in obesity across adults. With limited visits to the doctors during this period to avoid possible infections, there is currently no way to measure or track obesity. Methods: We reviewed the literature on relationships between obesity and facial features, in white, black, hispanic-latino, and Korean populations and validated them against a cohort of Indian participants (n = 106). The body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were obtained using anthropometric measurements, and body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat (PBF), and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using body composition analysis. Facial pictures were also collected and processed to characterize facial geometry. Regression analysis was conducted to determine correlations between body fat parameters and facial model parameters. Results: Lower facial geometry was highly correlated with BMI (R 2 = 0.77) followed by PBF (R 2 = 0.72), VFA (R 2 = 0.65), WHR (R 2 = 0.60), BFM (R 2 = 0.59), and weight (R 2 = 0.54). Conclusions: The ability to predict obesity using facial images through mobile application or telemedicine can help with early diagnosis and timely medical intervention for people with obesity during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2212: 225-243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733359

RESUMO

Unraveling the complex biological mechanisms underlying human health and disease is a great challenge. With genomic data, many aspects can be investigated in great detail, such as interactions between different genetic variants as well as their effects on one or multiple traits. Modeling epistasis and pleiotropy jointly necessitates appropriate statistical methods. A suitable tool for this is C-JAMP, which is a recently proposed method based on copula functions. In this chapter, we outline C-JAMP and how it can be applied to investigate epistatic effects on multiple traits to advance our understanding of biological processes. We further discuss important aspects of this area of research, such as polygenic risk scores and ancestry-specific modeling, which we propose to include in future extensions of the software.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reino Unido , Relação Cintura-Quadril
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neck circumference (NC) and anthropometric data of people living with HIV (PLWH) are correlated. METHODS: Socioeconomic, NC, body mass index (BMI), tricipital skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) data of 72 PLWH were correlated. RESULTS: Higher adiposity was observed in NC (40.3% [n=29]) and WC (31.9% [n=23]). Correlations between NC/BMI, NC/WC, NC/HC, NC/MAC, NC/MAMC, and NC/WHtR were significant. Increased NC (40.3%[n=29]) and WC (31.9 [n=23]) were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk. CONCLUSIONS: NC correlations are adequate for estimating cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Infecções por HIV , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
15.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol has a pivotal role in human physiology, exerting both structural and functional activity. However, higher blood cholesterol levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), are a major cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, special attention has been given to the effect of dietary factors in influencing LDL-C blood levels. In particular, much research has focused on dairy products, since they are a main component of different dietary patterns worldwide. A large body of evidence did not support the hypothesis that dairy products significantly increase circulating LDL-C, but no definitive data are available. Hence, we aimed to assess the relationships among LDL-C, habitual dairy food intake and anthropometric variables in a cohort representative of the general population in a Mediterranean area. METHODS: We evaluated 802 healthy adults included in the ABCD_2 (Alimentazione, Benessere Cardiovascolare e Diabete) study (ISRCTN15840340), a longitudinal observational single-center study of a cohort representative of the general population of Palermo, Sicily. The habitual intake of dairy products was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, and LDL-C serum levels and several anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: The group with high LDL-C serum concentrations (≥130 vs. <130 mg/dL) exhibited higher age, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and glycated hemoglobin. The habitual diet was not different between the groups in terms of macronutrient, cholesterol, egg and dairy food intake, with the exception of the weekly number of portions of milk (higher in the low LDL-C group vs. the high LDL-C group) and ricotta cheese (higher in the high LDL-C group vs. the LDL-C group). No significant correlation was found between LDL-C blood levels and the habitual intake of dairy products or the dietary intake of cholesterol and fats. The multivariate regression analyses (R2 = 0.94) showed that LDL-C blood levels were significantly associated with the habitual intake of milk (p < 0.005) and ricotta cheese (p < 0.001) and with BMI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study reported that total dairy food consumption was not correlated with LDL-C blood levels. However, multivariate analyses showed an inverse association between serum LDL-C and milk intake as well as a positive association between ricotta cheese intake and LDL-C concentrations. More studies are needed to better characterize the relationship between dairy products and circulating LDL-C.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Laticínios , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Queijo , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Sicília , Inquéritos e Questionários , Relação Cintura-Quadril
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245093, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examine here the association of multidimensional functional fitness with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to anthropometric indices of obesity such as body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) in a sample of Indian population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: We analysed retrospective data of 663 volunteer participants (285 males and 378 females between age 28 and 84), from an exercise clinic in which every participant was required to undergo a health related physical fitness (HRPF) assessment consisting of 15 different tasks examining 8 different aspects of functional fitness. RESULTS: The odds of being diabetic in the highest quartile of BMI were not significantly higher than that in the lowest quartile in either of the sexes. The odds of being a diabetic in the highest WHR quartile were significantly greater than the lowest quartile in females (OR = 4.54 (1.95, 10.61) as well as in males (OR = 3.81 (1.75, 8.3). In both sexes the odds of being a diabetic were significantly greater in the lowest quartile of HRPF score than the highest (males OR = 10.52 (4.21, 26.13); females OR = 10.50 (3.53, 31.35)). After removing confounding, the predictive power of HRPF was significantly greater than that of WHR. HRPF was negatively correlated with WHR, however for individuals that had contradicting HRPF and WHR based predictions, HRPF was the stronger predictor of T2DM. CONCLUSION: The association of multidimensional functional fitness score with type 2 diabetes was significantly stronger than obesity parameters in a cross sectional self-selected sample from an Indian city.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
17.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 94: 104379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to evaluate the associations between anthropometric measures with body composition, in particular skeletal muscle mass, and with physical function in a cohort of geriatric outpatients. METHODS: We included 572 outpatients who attended geriatric clinics at Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, Netherlands from January 2014 to December 2015. Anthropometric measures (height, weight, body circumferences, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)), and physical function measures (handgrip strength (HGS), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG)) were obtained. Body composition was analysed using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in a subgroup of 78 patients. Gender-stratified regression analyses were performed to test associations between anthropometric measures with body composition and physical function, adjusted for age. RESULTS: In females, BMI, WHtR and all measured body circumferences were positively associated with body fat mass (BFM) (all ß≥0.64, all p≤0.001). BMI and mid-upper arm circumference were also associated with fat-free mass (FFM) (ß=0.49, p=0.001; ß=0.53, p=0.01), skeletal muscle mass (SMM) (ß=0.39, p=0.01; ß=0.44, p=0.02) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) (ß=0.44, p=0.003; ß=0.44, p=0.02). In males, BMI, WHR, WHtR and waist circumference were positively associated with BFM (all ß≥0.54, all p≤0.02). Calf circumference was associated with FFM (ß=0.46, p=0.01), SMM (ß=0.47, p=0.01) and SMI (ß=0.50, p=0.01). BMI and central fat anthropometric measures were inversely associated with physical function. CONCLUSIONS: Mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference could serve as practical proxy measures for skeletal muscle mass in geriatric outpatient setting, but their associations with physical function were weak.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Idoso , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Equilíbrio Postural , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(3): 605-613, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629185

RESUMO

Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease with high incidence, which has seriously affected human life and health. The associations among waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and T2DM were discovered in observational studies. However, the causality of these associations still remains unknown. The present study aims to apply two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) using genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs) to evaluate the causality among WC, WHR, and T2DM. The participants were from three independent studies in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) datasets, which included 127,997 Europeans for WC, 73,137 Europeans for WHR and 659,316 Europeans for T2DM. Furthermore, 16 were associated WC SNPs and eight were associated WHR SNPs as instrument variables were selected for TSMR using P < 5 × 10-8 standard. The pooled odd ratios (ORs) for the assessment of higher WC and WHR on the risk of T2DM for these SNPs were calculated using inverse variance weighted (IVW) method, and validated through extensively complementary analyses. The OR for T2DM per SD (cm) higher WC was 2.623 (95% CI 2.286-3.010, P = 5.000E-43), and the OR for T2DM per SD (cm) higher WHR was 1.751 (95% CI 1.122-2.733, P = 0.014). Consistent results for other methods were obtained. Furthermore, the range of OR fluctuation between WC and T2DM was from 2.623 to 2.986, while that between WHR and T2DM was from 0.990 to 2.931. Overall, these present results provide genetic support that suggests that the use of TSMR, and higher WC and WHR increased the T2DM risk among the European population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
19.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 86(1-2): 155-161, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disease. Some studies reported that the development of PCOS may be closely related to insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) ENST00000550337.1 in peripheral blood is mainly involved in glucose metabolism. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to explore the relationship between lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 level and PCOS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five PCOS patients and 72 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We used qRT-PCR to detect the expression level of lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with PCOS. We also investigated potential relationships between lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 and the endocrine parameters in PCOS. RESULTS: We observed that the expression of lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 in PCOS patients was significantly higher than that in the control subjects and positively correlated with PCOS occurrence, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, IR, fasting insulin levels, and blood glucose. The expression of lnc RNA ENST00000550337.1 was positively correlated with PCOS (p = 0.003). There were independent correlations between IR and expression of lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 in patients with PCOS. Patients with elevated lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 expression had significantly increased PCOS risk after adjusting for age and BMI. LncRNA ENST00000550337.1 expression level provided a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 78.1% with a threshold value of 6.4648 for the prediction of PCOS. The area under the ROC was 0.813. LIMITATIONS: There are some limitations to this study. First, the sample size was limited and the causal relationship between lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 and PCOS was not investigated due to the cross-sectional study design. Second, HOMA-IR does not fully accurately reflect the IR of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicated that lnc RNA ENST00000550337.1 was related to PCOS occurrence, and elevated levels may be a risk factor for PCOS women. In addition, lncRNA ENST00000550337.1 might promote PCOS development partially by increasing IR and can be used as a potential molecular marker in patients with PCOS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 399, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately defining obesity using anthropometric measures that best capture obesity-related risk is important for identifying high risk groups for intervention. The purpose of this study is to compare the association of different anthropometric measures of obesity with 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults in the Eastern Caribbean. METHODS: Data from the Eastern Caribbean Health Outcomes Research Network (ECHORN) Cohort Study (ECS) were analyzed. The ECS is comprised of adults aged 40 and older residing in the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Barbados, and Trinidad. 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) ASCVD Risk Algorithm and categorized in the following high-risk groups: > 7.5, > 10, and > 20%. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between four anthropometric measures of obesity (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to height ratio) and 10-year CVD risk. RESULTS: Mean age (SD) of participants (n = 1617) was 56.6 years (±10.2), 64% were women, 74% were overweight/obese, and 24% had an ASCVD risk score above 10%. Elevated body mass index (BMI, > 30 kg/m2) and waist circumference were not associated with CVD risk. Elevated waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, > 0.9 men, > 0.85 women) and elevated waist-to-height ratio (> 0.5) were associated with all three categories of CVD risk. Area under the receiver curve was highest for WHR for each category of CVD risk. Elevated WHR demonstrated odds of 2.39, 2.58, and 3.32 (p < 0.0001) for CVD risk of > 7.5, > 10 and > 20% respectively. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that WHR is a better indicator than BMI of obesity-related CVD risk and should be used to target adults in the Caribbean, and of Caribbean-descent, for interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Barbados , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Porto Rico , Fatores de Risco , Trinidad e Tobago , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
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