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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(38): e12440, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and appropriate dose of Hanslim, a Korean traditional herbal medicine, for obese patients, when compared to a placebo. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blinded, multicenter, multidose, placebo-controlled, phase IIb clinical trial. A total of 165 obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30 kg/m or obese patients with a BMI of 27 to 29.9 kg/m and one or more risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia will be enrolled. Participants will be randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (high-dose, low-dose, or placebo) with a 1:1:1 allocation ratio and will have 4 scheduled visits during the 12-week treatment period. The participants will be administered 2 tablets of Hanslim or placebo, 2 times per day. The difference in the proportion of participants who lost weight by more than 5% from their baseline at 12 weeks compared to the placebo group will be examined as the primary efficacy outcome. Secondary efficacy outcomes include differences in body weight, BMI, body-fat percentage, fat mass, skeletal-muscle mass, edema index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, serum lipid, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, and total score of Korean version of obesity-related quality of life after 12 weeks of treatment. Adverse events, laboratory test results, vital sings, and electrocardiography will be recorded to evaluate safety. DISCUSSION: This is the first prospective clinical trial to explore the efficacy and safety of Hanslim for obese patients. If the results provide the appropriate dosage of Hanslim, this study would contribute to the confirmatory evidence for the use of Hanslim as a treatment for obesity needed to conduct a large-scale, phase III clinical trial. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service, ID: KCT0002193. Registered on January 6, 2017. https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_en.jsp?seq=7468.


Assuntos
Medicina Herbária/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Medicina Herbária/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 3848560, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854750

RESUMO

To identify novel susceptibility genes and gene sets for obesity, we conducted a genomewide expression association analysis of obesity via integrating genomewide association study (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) data. GWAS summary data of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was driven from a published study, totally involving 339,224 individuals. The eQTLs dataset (containing 927,753 eQTLs) was obtained from eQTLs meta-analysis of 5,311 subjects. Integrative analysis of GWAS and eQTLs data was conducted by SMR software. The SMR single gene analysis results were further subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) for identifying obesity associated gene sets. A total of 13,311 annotated gene sets were analyzed in this study. SMR single gene analysis identified 20 BMI associated genes (TUFM, SPI1, APOB48R, etc.). Also 3 WHR associated genes were detected (CPEB4, WARS2, and L3MBTL3). The significant association between Chr16p11 and BMI was observed by GSEA (FDR adjusted p value = 0.040). The TGCTGCT, MIR-15A, MIR-16, MIR-15B, MIR-195, MIR-424, and MIR-497 (FDR adjusted p value = 0.049) gene set appeared to be linked with WHR. Our results provide novel clues for the genetic mechanism studies of obesity. This study also illustrated the good performance of SMR for susceptibility gene mapping.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Obesidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
4.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 65(4): 192-199, abr. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172149

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estudiar las concentraciones plasmáticas de adiponectina en mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome de ovario poliquístico (SOPQ) tratadas con suplementación de ácidos grasos omega-3. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio en 195 mujeres con diagnóstico de SOPQ que fueron tratadas con ácidos grasos omega-3 durante 12semanas (n=97; grupo A) y controles tratados con placebo (n=98, grupo B). Se compararon las características generales, las concentraciones hormonales, el perfil lipídico y la adiponectina. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos con relación a las características generales. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias significativas en las concentraciones hormonales, glucemia y HOMA entre los grupos. Las mujeres de los grupos A y B no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la ingesta total, ingesta de hidratos de carbono, proteínas y grasas totales entre los valores al inicio y al final del estudio. Las mujeres del grupo A presentaron disminución en las concentraciones de colesterol total, de lipoproteínas de baja densidad y de triglicéridos (p<0,0001). Los valores promedio de adiponectina también mostraron aumento estadísticamente significativo luego del tratamiento (p<0,0001). No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los valores promedio de las diferentes variables en las mujeres del grupo B. Conclusión: La suplementación de ácidos grasos omega-3 durante 12semanas produce aumento significativo en las concentraciones plasmáticas de adiponectina en mujeres con SOPQ (AU)


Objective: To study plasma adiponectin levels in women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome given omega-3 fatty acid supplements. Patients and methods: A study was conducted in 195 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with omega-3 fatty acids for 12weeks (n=97; group A) and control women given placebo (n=98, group B). General characteristics, metabolism, lipid profile, and hormone and adiponectin levels were compared. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in general characteristics. No significant differences were also found in hormone, blood glucose, and HOMA levels between the groups. Women in study groups A and B showed no statistically significant differences in total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and total fat intake between the baseline and final values. Decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels were found in group A women (P<.0001). Mean of adiponectin levels also showed a statistically significant increase after treatment (P<.0001). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of the different variables in group B women. Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/terapia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Adiponectina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Hiperinsulinismo Congênito/complicações , Sobrepeso
5.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 35(1): 5-14, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170711

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de la utilización/implementación de 3métodos para reducir peso en pacientes con sobrepeso u obesidad, durante un año de seguimiento. Material y métodos: El diseño corresponde a un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado y controlado, doble ciego, con 3brazos y 12 meses de seguimiento. Los pacientes se aleatorizaron en 3grupos de intervención: intervención motivacional de obesidad con enfermera entrenada previamente en intervención motivacional por psicólogos expertos (G1; n=60); intervención en consulta de menor intensidad, sin grupo motivacional, con apoyo de plataforma digital (G2; n=61) y un tercer grupo que recibía recomendación de perder peso y seguimiento en consulta de Atención Primaria (G3; n=59). Se midieron las variables antropométricas (peso, talla y perímetro de cintura abdominal) y se consideró como principal medida de la efectividad del tratamiento el porcentaje de pacientes que lograron al año reducir su peso ≥5%. Resultados: Todos los grupos disminuyeron significativamente el peso al final del estudio. Fue más intensa la disminución en el G1 (−5,6kg), seguido del G2 (−4,3kg) y del G3 (−1,7kg); media en su conjunto: −3,9kg. Los indicadores de relevancia clínica fueron en el G1/G3: riesgo relativo (RR): 4,99 (IC 95%: 2,71 a 9,18); reducción relativa del riesgo (RRR): 399,1% (de 171,3 a 818,0); reducción absoluta del riesgo (RAR): 65,3% (de 51,5 a 79,1) y NNT: 2 (de 2 a 2). En los grupos G2/G3: RR: 3,01 (de 1,57 a 5,76); RRR: 200,5% (de 57,0 a 475,5); RAR: 32,8% (de 16,9 a 48,7) y NNT: 4 (de 3 a 6). En los grupos G1/G2: RR: 1,66 (de 1,25 a 2,20); RRR: 66,1% (de 25,3 a 120,1); RAR: 32,5% (de 16,6 a 48,4) y NNT: 4 (de 3 a 7). Conclusiones: Los 3grupos consiguieron reducir el peso, si bien el grupo con intervención motivacional alcanzó la mayor disminución y los indicadores de relevancia clínica más favorables (AU)


Objective: To analyse the effect of the use/implementation of 3methods to reduce weight in overweight or obese patients during one year of follow up. Material and methods: The design corresponds to a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial with 3arms, and 12 months of follow-up. Patients were randomised into 3intervention groups: obesity motivational intervention, with a nurse previously trained in motivational intervention by expert psychologists (G1; n=60); lower intensity consultation, non-motivational group, with digital platform support (G2; N=61), and a third group that received recommendations for weight loss and follow-up in Primary Care Clinic (G3; n=59). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, and abdominal-waist circumference) were measured, and the percentage of patients who managed to reduce their weight ≥5% was considered as the main measurement of treatment effectiveness. Results: All groups significantly decreased body weight at the end of the study, with a reduction in G1 (−5.6kg) followed by G2 (−4.3kg), and G3 (−1.7kg), with an overall mean: −3.9kg. The indicators of clinical relevance were in G1/G3: relative risk (RR): 4.99 (95% CI: from 2.71 to 9.18); relative risk reduction (RRR): 399.1% (171.3 to 818.0); Absolute risk reduction (RAR): 65.3% (from 51.5 to 79.1) and NNT: 2 (from 2 to 2). In the G2/G3 groups: RR: 3.01 (from 1.57 to 5.76); RRR: 200.5% (from 57.0 to 475.5); RAR: 32.8% (from 16.9 to 48.7) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 6). In the G1/G2 groups: RR: 1.66 (from 1.25 to 2.20); RRR: 66.1% (from 25.3 to 120.1); RAR: 32.5% (from 16.6 to 48.4) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 7). Conclusions: All 3groups were able to reduce weight. Although the group with motivational intervention achieved the greatest decrease, as well as the most favourable clinical relevance indicators (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/terapia , Seguimentos , Obesidade/complicações , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Antropometria/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
6.
Int J Cancer ; 142(8): 1554-1559, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193045

RESUMO

Although postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) risk has been linked to adiposity, associations between adiposity and premenopausal BC remain unclear. To address this question, we investigated the association of BC risk with measures of adiposity, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in a large cohort of Asian women. We used a nationwide cohort of adult Korean women selected from the National Health Insurance Corporation database merged with national health examination data from 2009 to 2015. A total of 11,227,948 women were tracked to retrospectively identify incident cases of BC. Our analysis used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and assess the association of BC risk with BMI and/or WC in both pre- and postmenopausal women. BMI and WC were robustly associated with increased risk for postmenopausal BC (ptrend <0.001 for both BMI and WC) but not with premenopausal BC. Association between WC and premenopausal BC was only statistically significant when considering BMI (ptrend =0.044). In contrast, postmenopausal BC was negatively associated with WC when considering BMI (ptrend =0.011). In premenopausal women, WC may predict increased BC risk when considering BMI. However, in postmenopausal women, WC is not superior to BMI as an indicator of BC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 12(2): 163-168, 2018 Apr - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287840

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in middle-aged women patients with type-2 diabetes. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study, 20 women patients with type-2 diabetes (mean age, 50.25 ±â€¯4.36 years, Body mass index, 25.51 ±â€¯2.91 kg/m2, and body fat percentage 23.67 ±â€¯3.05%) were randomly categorized into two experimental and control groups. The protocol aerobic training included eight-minute jogging and eight-minute running with 75-85 percent maximum heart rate reserve in the first session. Per both sessions, one minute added to running time and it increased up to 32 min after 12 weeks. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements, 24 h before and 48 h after the last training session were conducted. RESULT: The result showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP and TNF-α in the experimental than control group (P = 0.01). Exercise training-treated patients showed a significant decrease in TG, LDL and increase HDL in comparison with baseline and the control group (P < .05). The results also showed a significant decrease in weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-hip ratio (P values 0.02, 0.03, 001, 0.04 respectively) following the 12 weeks aerobic training. CONCLUSION: It seems that long-term aerobic training, improved some important anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. These observations give a new insight into the mechanisms by which aerobic training can reduce the cardiovascular risk in diabetes.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/tendências
8.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 33(2): 125-128, 2018 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837764

RESUMO

There is an increase in the occurrence of obesity worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare variousconvenient and affordable body fat measuring instruments in man to percentage body fat calculated using skinfold thicknessto ascertain if they can be used as a substitute for more expensive` gold standard instruments used for measuring body fat.Seventy male students (20-30years) of the University of Benin where recruited in this study. Subjects were non-athleteswithout systemic disease, liposuction and not on routine medication. All measurements were taken between 7am and 10amdaily. Subjects came fasting refrained from exercise 12 hours before the study and body weight (kg) was measured with adigital weighing scale. A standiometer, was used to measure height (m). BMI (kg/m2) was calculated from weight and height.The Waist Circumference (WC) (cm) and Hip Circumference (HC) (m) of each subject were measured using a measuringtape. The Waist-Hip-Ratio (WHR) was calculated by dividing the subject's WC by the HC. Skinfold thickness (mm) of thechest, abdomen and thigh were taken with a calibrated Lange skinfold caliper. Body density (BD) values were calculatedusing the skinfold equation of Jackson and Pollock for men. Body fat percentage (%BF) was calculated from BD using theformula of Siri, with respect to the age of each individual. Results were presented as means ± S.E.M. Microcal origin 8.0was used to analyze collected data and correlation studies were used to investigate the relationship between groups. P valuesless than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. BMI, WC, HC, skinfold thickness (abdomen, thigh and Chest), weightand estimated lean body mass were positively correlated with %BF in our study population while WHR and height wereweakly and negatively correlated with %BF respectively. These alternative means of assessing body fat may be useful whenmore sophisticated methods are unavailable.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Pregas Cutâneas , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(10): 517-523, dic. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-171874

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. Results: NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS (AU)


Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre el perímetro del cuello (PC), el sobrepeso y el síndrome metabólico (SM) en pacientes turcos con diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se reclutó un total de 264 pacientes diabéticos (edad media: 52,9±8,1 años) de 2 centros de Estambul a quienes se realizaron medidas antropométricas, incluidas las de los perímetros de la cintura y la cadera, el PC y el índice de masa corporal. Se determinaron la presión arterial, la glucosa en ayunas y el perfil lipídico (colesterol total y de las lipoproteínas de alta y baja densidad y triglicéridos). Resultados: El PC se correlacionaba con el perímetro de la cintura, con la presión arterial y con los triglicéridos en los varones, pero solo con el perímetro de la cintura en las mujeres. Se comprobó además una correlación negativa del PC con el colesterol de las lipoproteínas de alta densidad tanto en varones como en mujeres. El análisis de las características operativas del receptor mostró que el área bajo la curva del PC y el sobrepeso era de 0,95 tanto en varones como en mujeres (p<0,001). Además, un PC de 38cm en varones y de 37cm en mujeres era el mejor punto de corte para determinar los participantes con sobrepeso. El área bajo la curva del PC y el SM era 0,87 en los varones y de 0,83 en las mujeres (p<0,001). Un PC de 39cm en varones y de 37cm en mujeres era el mejor punto de corte para determinar los participantes con SM. Conclusiones: Nuestros hallazgos indican una correlación positiva del PC con el SM en los pacientes turcos con diabetes tipo 2, que podría ser una herramienta útil y exacta para identificar el SM (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Antropometria/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Colesterol/análise
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(5): 1033-1043, sept.-oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167561

RESUMO

Introduction: Inflammation is related to insulin resistance in adults, especially on those individuals with high levels of body composition. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between a set of inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance by levels of body composition in a sample of European adolescents. Material and methods: Nine hundred and sixty-two adolescents (442 boys and 520 girls) from nine European countries met the inclusion criteria of having measurements for the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and a set of inflammation-related biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL-6), complement factors C3 and C4 and selected cell adhesion molecules. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC) were categorized using tertiles. To assess the associations stratifying by body composition indexes, ANOVA and linear regression models were performed. Results: Mean biomarkers' concentrations differed across BMI, FMI and WC tertiles (p < 0.05) by sex. In both sexes, insulin, HOMA, CRP, C3 and C4 were significantly different between categories (p < 0.001), always showing the highest mean concentration in the upper category of BMI, FMI and WC. The most consistent finding was an association between insulin resistance and C3 concentrations (p < 0.05), in the adolescents in the highest tertile of BMI, FMI and WC, except in the case of FMI in girls. Conclusion: Inflammatory and glucose metabolism markers differed by tertiles of body composition, being usually higher in the highest tertile. C3 complement factor was associated with insulin resistance in adolescents, especially those with high total and abdominal adiposity (AU)


Introducción: la inflamación está relacionada con la resistencia a la insulina en adultos, especialmente en individuos con altos valores de composición corporal. Objetivos: valorar la relación entre diferentes marcadores inflamatorios y la resistencia a la insulina según valores de composición corporal en adolescentes europeos. Material y métodos: novecientos sesenta y dos adolescentes (442 chicos y 520 chicas) de nueve países europeos cumplían el criterio de inclusión de tener medidos la evaluación del modelo de homeostasis (HOMA) y diferentes marcadores inflamatorios: proteína C-reactiva (PCR), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleukina (IL-6), factores de complemento C3 y C4 y moléculas de adhesión. El índice de masa corporal (IMC), el índice de masa grasa (IMG) y la circunferencia de cintura (CC) se categorizaron en tertiles. Para valorar las asociaciones por índices de composición corporal se realizó ANOVA y regresión. Resultados: las concentraciones de los marcadores diferían entre los tertiles de IMC, IMG y CC (p < 0,05), por sexo. En ambos sexos, insulina, HOMA, PCR, C3 y C4 fueron significativamente diferentes entre categorías (p < 0,001), presentando la mayor concentración en la categoría superior de IMC, IMG y CC. El resultado más consistente para los adolescentes del tertil superior de IMC, IMG y CC fue la asociación entre resistencia a la insulina y concentraciones de C3 (p < 0,05), excepto para IMG en chicas. Conclusión: los marcadores del metabolismo inflamatorio y de la glucosa diferían según tertiles de composición corporal, siendo mayores en el tertil superior. El C3 se asoció con resistencia a la insulina en adolescentes, especialmente en aquellos con adiposidad total y abdominal (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Inflamação/complicações , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Modelos Lineares
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(5): 1059-1066, sept.-oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167564

RESUMO

Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar el efecto de la alimentación con leche materna durante las primeras semanas de vida en los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso sobre: la ganancia ponderal en el momento del alta, la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, la edad posmenstrual al alta y el estado nutricional, el crecimiento y el neurodesarrollo a los dos y cinco años. Material y métodos: estudio longitudinal de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer (< 1.500 gramos), ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales del Hospital Universitario La Paz del 1 de enero de 2009 al 31 de diciembre de 2009, cuyo seguimiento se está realizando en la consulta de Neonatología y sus padres aceptaron realizar un estudio antropométrico más exhaustivo a los cinco años, teniendo en cuenta la ingesta al alta de leche materna exclusiva, leche de fórmula o mixta. Se evaluaron la estancia hospitalaria y la antropometría al alta. A los dos años de edad se recogieron datos antropométricos (peso, talla y perímetro cefálico) y se realizó valoración del neurodesarrollo según la escala de Bayley II de desarrollo infantil. Los datos a los cinco años fueron recogidos prospectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de peso, talla y perímetro cefálico, perímetros de cintura, cadera, brazo relajado y contraído, muslo y pierna media, pliegues bicipitales, tricipital, subescapular, suprailiaco y pierna. Para los pacientes mayores de cinco años, se utilizó la batería de evaluación de Kaufman para niños. El efecto de la ingesta de leche materna en las variables de interés se investigó usando un análisis multivariante corrigiendo por edad gestacional y peso de recién nacido. Resultados: ciento cincuenta y dos niños fueron dados de alta: leche materna exclusiva (59), leche de fórmula (55) o mixta (38). A 61 de ellos se les realizó un seguimiento más exhaustivo. La ingesta de leche materna durante el primer ingreso disminuye la estancia hospitalaria inicial, y se asocia con mayor perímetro cefálico a los dos y a los cinco años y mejor puntuación en el área cognitiva global y verbal a los cinco años. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados sugieren que la alimentación con leche de la propia madre durante el ingreso inicial debe ser fomentada porque puede mejorar el neurodesarrollo a los cinco años de edad (AU)


Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of human milk feeding during the first weeks of life in very low birth weight infants on weight gain at discharge, length of hospitalization, postmenstrual age at discharge and nutritional assessment, growth and neurodevelopment at two and five years. Material and methods: Longitudinal study of very-low-birth-weight infants (< 1,500 grams) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of La Paz University Hospital, from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2009, followed in the follow-up clinic. Their parents agreed to perform a more exhaustive anthropometric study at five years, classified according to the type of feeding at the time of discharge (exclusive human milk, formula milk or mixed). Initial hospital duration and anthropometry at discharge were evaluated. At two years of age, anthropometric data (weight, height and head circumference) were collected and neurodevelopment was assessed according to the Bayley scale of child development. Data at five years were collected prospectively. Measurements of weight, height and head circumference, waist circumference, hip, relaxed and contracted arm, thigh and middle leg, bicipital, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and leg skin folds were performed. For patients older than five years, the Kaufman test battery for children was used. The effect of human milk on the variables of interest was investigated using a multivariate analysis correcting for gestational age and weight at birth. Results: One hundred and fifty-two infants born in 2009 were discharged from our unit: exclusive breast milk (59), formula (55) or mixed milk (38). More detailed follow-up was carried out for 61 of them. Human milk during the first admission decreases the initial hospital stay, and is associated with a higher head circumference at two and five years, and a better score in the global and verbal cognitive area at five years. Conclusions: Our results suggest that maternal milk feeding during initial admission should be encouraged because it can improve neurodevelopment at five years of age (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Leite Humano , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Aleitamento Materno , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Longitudinais , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia
12.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(5): 1112-1118, sept.-oct. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-167571

RESUMO

Introduction and objectives: Body shape (BSP) and body image (BI) are part of the external physical structure, then modifications in body shape necessarily affect body image; however, both combined have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the statistical relationship between BSP and BI in university students. Method: Two hundred and ninety-six participants (17-35 years) were included in this study. Different anthropometric measurements were used to define their somatotype (BSP), body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). In addition, a questionnaire on body image perception was applied (McElhone et al.), regarding «how do I look?», «how do I think others see me?», «how do others see me?», and «how do I want to look like?». Results: On average, men perceived themselves in normal weight; in contrast, women perceived themselves as overweight. Men were meso-endomorphic, while women were endo-mesomorphic as an average. Conclusion: Body shape measured as somatotype as well as WC and WHR were excellent determinants of body image. Participants who presented a higher endomorphy, WC and WHR and a lower ectomorphy had a higher appreciation of being overweight or obese and wish to become thinner (AU)


Introducción y objetivos: la forma corporal (FC) y la imagen corporal (IC) son parte de la estructura física externa, por lo tanto, las modificaciones en la forma del cuerpo afectan necesariamente a la imagen corporal; sin embargo, combinados ambos no han sido estudiados. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la relación estadística entre FC e IC en estudiantes universitarios. Método: doscientos noventa y seis participantes (17-35 años) fueron incluidos en este estudio. Se utilizaron diferentes medidas antropométricas para definir el somatotipo, índice de masa corporal (IMC), índice cintura/cadera (ICC) y circunferencia de cintura (CC). Además, se aplicó un cuestionario sobre la percepción de la imagen corporal (McElhone et al.), relacionado con: «¿cómo me veo?», «¿cómo pienso que los demás me ven?», «¿cómo me ven los demás?» y «¿cómo quiero parecer?». Resultados: en promedio, los hombres se perciben en peso normal; en cambio, las mujeres se perciben con sobrepeso. En promedio, los hombres fueron meso-endomórficos, mientras que las mujeres endo-mesomórficas. Conclusión: la forma corporal medida como somatotipo, ICC y CC fueron excelentes determinantes de la imagen corporal. Los participantes que presentaron mayor endomorfia, mayor ICC, mayor CC y menor ectomorfia tuvieron una mayor apreciación de sobrepeso u obesidad, y el deseo de verse más delgados (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Imagem Corporal , Gordura Abdominal , Composição Corporal , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise Estatística
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(5): 1198-1204, sept.-oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167582

RESUMO

Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como la pérdida de masa muscular y su deterioro funcional asociado a la edad, por lo que tiene un alto impacto sobre la calidad de vida. Sin embargo, la prevalencia de la sarcopenia en diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) no está suficientemente estudiada. Objetivos: analizar la prevalencia de sarcopenia en mayores de 65 años con DM2 y la posible influencia de la actividad física, la alimentación, el control glucémico, el sexo, la edad y la calidad de vida. Métodos: participaron 279 pacientes (155 mujeres) de 76,6 ± 6,27 años de edad. Se determinó el perímetro de cintura, cadera, pantorrilla y brazo, el índice de masa corporal, la fuerza de prensión manual, el nivel de actividad física, el estado nutricional, la calidad de vida y el control glucémico. La sarcopenia se definió como un índice de masa muscular esquelética menor de 9,2 kg/m2 en varones y menor de 7,4 kg/m2 en mujeres. Resultados: la prevalencia de sarcopenia en los participantes fue de un 8,33%. Hubo asociación negativa entre el nivel de sarcopenia y la calidad de vida (r = -0,130, p = 0,030), actividad física (r = -0,164, p = 0,006), estado nutricional (r = -0,274, p < 0,001), y sexo masculino (r = -0,137, p = 0,022); y positiva para edad (r = 0,183, p = 0,002). Conclusiones: la prevalencia de la sarcopenia en DM2 es moderada. Se relaciona con importantes factores para la salud, como una menor calidad de vida, menor realización de ejercicio físico y mayor presencia de desnutrición, lo cual parece agravarse en adultos varones de edad avanzada (AU)


Introduction: The term sarcopenia is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, with a consequent impact on quality of life. However, there is a lack of studies examining the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Objectives: To analyze the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients over 65 years with type 2 DM and the influence of physical activity, diet, glycemic control, sex, age, and quality of life. Methods: A total of 279 patients (155 females), aged 76.6 ± 6.27 years, participated in this study in order to analyze body circumferences (waist, hip, calf, and arm), body mass index, handgrip strength, physical activity level, nutritional status, quality of life, and glycemic control. The cut-off value for sarcopenia was defined as the body mass index lower than 9.2 or 7.4 kg/m2 for males and females, respectively. Results: In participants, the prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.33%. Moreover, the level of sarcopenia was negatively associated with quality of life (r = -0.130, p = 0.030), physical activity (r = -0.164, p = 0.006), nutritional status (r = -0.274, p < 0.001), and male sex (r = -0.137, p = 0.022); and positively associated with age (r = 0.183, p = 0.002). Conclusions: The prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 DM is moderate, and it is related to relevant health factors, such as lower quality of life, lower physical exercise level, and increased malnutrition, especially in older adult males (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Exercício/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Desnutrição/complicações , Estudos Transversais/métodos
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(4): 869-874, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165349

RESUMO

Introduction: The relationship between diet and health has aroused scientific interest, especially the consumption of antioxidant nutrients naturally present in foods, because of its action against the deleterious effects of free radicals in the body. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the intake of antioxidant nutrients and its relationship with lipid profile and oxidative stress in student users of a university restaurant in comparison with non-users. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 145 university students divided into two groups: users of the university restaurant (group 1, n = 73) and non-users (group 2, n = 72). We measured body mass index and waist circumference, and estimated the intake of antioxidant micronutrients. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde were determined. Results and conclusion: Intake of copper, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C were within the recommendations in both groups, and vitamins A and E were below the reference values. There was a correlation between the intake of vitamin C and triglycerides. Group 1 members had better dietary patterns in relation to antioxidant micronutrients, reflecting less atherogenic lipid profile and lower exposure to oxidative stress compared to group 2 (AU)


Introducción: la relación entre la dieta y la salud ha despertado interés científico, especialmente en lo referente al consumo de nutrientes antioxidantes presentes de forma natural en los alimentos, debido a su acción contra los efectos nocivos de los radicales libres en el cuerpo. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la ingesta de nutrientes antioxidantes y su relación con el perfil lipídico y el estrés oxidativo en estudiantes usuarios de un restaurante universitario, en comparación con los no usuarios. Métodos: este es un estudio transversal que incluye 145 estudiantes universitarios, divididos en dos grupos: los usuarios del restaurante universitario (grupo 1, n = 73) y no usuarios (grupo 2, n = 72). Fueron medidos el índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de la cintura, y se estimó la ingesta de micronutrientes antioxidantes. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de colesterol total, colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad, colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de baja densidad, los niveles de triglicéridos y las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído. Resultados y conclusiones: la ingesta de cobre, zinc, selenio y la vitamina C se encontraba dentro de las recomendaciones de los dos grupos, y la de vitaminas A y E estaba por debajo de los valores de referencia. Hubo una correlación entre el consumo de vitamina C y los triglicéridos. Miembros del grupo 1 mostraron mejores patrones dietéticos en relación con micronutrientes antioxidantes, lo que refleja menos perfil lipídico aterogénico y una menor exposición al estrés oxidativo en comparación con el grupo 2 (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Nutrientes/métodos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Radicais Livres/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(4)jul.-ago 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-846796

RESUMO

O artigo teve como objetivo analisar criticamente estudos que avaliaram a habilidade dos indicadores antropométricos e clínicos enquanto capazes de predizer a SM em idosos. Foi realizado uma pesquisa bibliográfica nas bases de dados Medline/PubMed, LILACS e SciELO, além das referências de artigos selecionados e contato com autores. Foram analisados 21 artigos envolvendo indicadores antropométricos e clínicos em idosos, através de diferentes critérios da SM. Catorze estudos reportam aos indicadores antropométricos, sendo a circunferência da cintura (CC) e a razão cintura-estatura (RCEst) descritos como os melhores preditores de SM, com área sob a curva ROC (AUC) superior a 0,70 (p < 0,05). A circunferência do pescoço também foi descrita como indicador alternativo, porém com menor poder discriminatório. Para os indicadores clínicos, o lipid product accumulation (LAP) foi o parâmetro com melhor desempenho em identificar a SM em idosos, com AUC superior 0,85 e eficiência superior a 70%. Os indicadores CC, RCEst e LAP foram os mais sensiveis na predicação da SM. Desta forma, o emprego desses parâmetros podem facilitar a identificação precoce da SM através de métodos diagnósticos de fácil aplicação, boa precisão e baixo custo. Além disso, é importante a determinação de pontos de corte específicos para idosos, uma ver que a obesidade por si só, parece não ser forte preditor de SM em idosos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso , Antropometria/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Indicadores e Reagentes , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Curva ROC , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
16.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(6): 295-302, jun.-jul. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171725

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre tres marcadores de obesidad: índice de masa corporal (IMC), perímetro abdominal (PA) e índice cintura/talla (ICT) con albuminuria, en adultos de un centro de atención primaria especializado en enfermedades crónicas de Lima, Perú. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo retrospectivo de adultos atendidos en un centro de atención primaria especializado en enfermedades crónicas en el 2011. Se incluyeron participantes con hipertensión arterial, con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), con ambas condiciones (hipertensión arterial y DM2) y participantes sin hipertensión arterial ni DM2. El desenlace de interés fue el tener albuminuria, definido como albuminuria en orina >30mg/día. Las variables de exposición fueron los siguientes marcadores de obesidad: IMC, ICT y PA. Otras covariables consideradas fueron sexo y edad. Se realizaron regresiones de Poisson crudas y ajustadas para estimar razones de prevalencia y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC95%). Se calcularon las áreas bajo la curva para cada indicador y se hallaron los puntos de corte con óptimos con el índice de Younden, estratificando por sexo. Resultados: Se analizaron datos de 1.214 pacientes, el 41,0% fueron varones y el 14,2% tuvo albuminuria. El PA y el ICT estuvieron significativamente asociados con tener albuminuria, mas no el IMC. Los tres parámetros evaluados tuvieron áreas bajo la curva similares. Los puntos de corte óptimos encontrados para IMC y PA en mujeres fueron mayores a los convencionales (32,7kg/m2 y 93cm respectivamente), en tanto que para varones los puntos de corte óptimos fueron menores a los convencionales (27,9kg/m2 y 100cm respectivamente). Sin embargo, para el ICT el punto de corte óptimo fue mayor al convencional en ambos sexos. Conclusiones: Se encontró una asociación directa entre PA e ICT con albuminuria, pero no entre IMC y albuminuria. Las áreas bajo la curva fueron similares para los tres marcadores. Los puntos de corte óptimos para IMC y PA fueron mayores a los convencionales en mujeres, y menores a los convencionales en varones. El punto de corte óptimo para ICT fue mayor al convencional en ambos sexos (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the association between three obesity markers, body mass index (BMI), abdominal circumference (AC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), and albuminuria in adults seen in a primary health care center specialized in chronic diseases in Lima, Perú. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study in adults who attended a primary health care center specialized in chronic diseases in 2011. Patients were divided into four categories: healthy subjects and patients with high blood pressure, with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and with both diseases (HBP+T2DM). The main outcome was presence of albuminuria, defined as urine albumin levels higher than 30mg/day. Exposure variables included the following obesity markers: body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and abdominal circumference (AC). Other covariates considered included sex and age. Crude and adjusted Poisson regressions were performed to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Areas under the curve were calculated for each indicator, stratified by sex. Results: Data from 1,214 patients, 41% of them male, were analyzed, and albuminuria was found in 14.2%. Albuminuria was found to be associated to AC and WHtR, but not to BMI. All three parameters assessed had similar areas under the curve. The optimum cut-off points found for BMI and AC in females were higher than conventional (32.7kg/m2 and 93cm respectively), while the values in males were lower than conventional (27.9kg/m2 and 100cm respectively). For WHtR, however, the optimum cut-off point was higher in both sexes. The higher index in females was for BMI, followed by AC and WHtR. In males, the higher index was for WHtR, followed by AC and BMI. Conclusions: AC and WHtR were found to be directly associated to albuminuria, while BMI was not associated to albuminuria. Areas under the curve were similar for all three markers. The optimum cut-off points for BMI and AC were higher than the conventional ones in females and lower in males (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/complicações , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Razão Cintura-Estatura
17.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 52(3): 128-134, mayo-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-162840

RESUMO

Objetivo. Se ha reconocido que la adiposidad abdominal está asociada a factores de riesgo cardiovascular, intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión y dislipidemia. El objetivo ha sido evaluar la relación de la grasa de tronco y del índice de grasa visceral, con el síndrome metabólico (SM) en sujetos ancianos. Métodos. Participaron, 208 sujetos (130 mujeres y 78 varones) con una edad media de 82,5 años. Se tomaron medidas de obesidad abdominal por antropometría y bioimpedancia. Se realizaron curvas ROC para evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica con respecto al SM. Resultados. Existen diferencias entre sexos en el índice de masa corporal, índice cintura cadera, perímetro abdominal, grasa de tronco y grasa visceral (p<0,05). También se encuentran diferencias de los parámetros antropométricos y de bioimpedancia entre sujetos con y sin SM (p<0,05) y solo existen diferencias en la glucosa, los triglicéridos y colesterol HDL (p<0,05). Se encuentran correlaciones significativas entre la mayor parte de medidas antropométricas y de bioimpedancia abdominal (p<0,05). Las áreas bajo la curva (ABC) del índice cintura altura, perímetro abdominal, diámetro sagital abdominal y grasa de tronco son mayores a 0,8 (todas, p< 0,01) y en mujeres no superan valores de 0,65. Los puntos de corte obtenidos son 26,81 y 23,53kg/m2 para índice de masa corporal, 102 y 91cm para el perímetro abdominal, 22,1 y 20,7cm de diámetro sagital abdominal, 34 y 43,7% de grasa de tronco y 17 y 11,5 de índice de grasa visceral en hombres y mujeres respectivamente. Conclusiones. Existen diferentes niveles de capacidad predictiva del SM, según el género. La grasa de tronco y el índice de grasa visceral presentan una mayor capacidad predictiva del SM en hombres que en mujeres (AU)


Objectives. It is recognised that abdominal adiposity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as intolerance to glucose, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of trunk fat and visceral fat index, obtained by anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance, with metabolic syndrome (SM) in an elderly population. Methods. The study included 208 subjects (78 men and 130 women) with a mean age of 82.5 years. Abdominal obesity was assessed by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. ROC curves were calculated in order to assess the ability of these variables to diagnose metabolic syndrome. Results. There are differences between men and women in body mass index, waist to height ratio, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance measurements as trunk fat and visceral fat (p<.05). Also, found differences in anthropometric indices and variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance between subjects with and without SM (p<.05) and only exist differences in blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (p<.05). There are significant correlations between anthropometric variables and abdominal bioelectrical impedance (p<.05). Areas under the curve (AUC) of waist to height index, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and trunk fat were greater than 0.8 (all p<.01), and in women did not exceed values of 0.65. The cut-off points obtained for BMI were 26.81 and 23.53kg/m2, 102 and 91cm for waist circumference, 22.1 and 20.7cm for sagittal abdominal diameter, 34% and 43.7% for trunk fat, and 17 and 11.5 for visceral fat ratio in men and women, respectively. Conclusions. There are different levels of predictive ability for metabolic syndrome according to gender. Trunk fat and visceral fat index and anthropometric measures have higher predictive ability for metabolic syndrome in men than in women (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Antropometria/métodos , Impedância Elétrica/uso terapêutico , Curva ROC
18.
Biosci Rep ; 37(3)2017 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336766

RESUMO

To systematically and quantitatively review the relation of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR), to total gastroesophageal cancer, gastric cancer (GC), and esophageal cancer. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and gastroesophageal cancer (GC and/or esophageal cancer) up to August 2016. A random-effect model was used to calculate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seven prospective cohort studies - one publication included two separate cohorts - from six publications were included in the final analysis. A total of 2130 gastroesophageal cancer cases diagnosed amongst 913182 participants. Higher WC and WHR were significantly associated with increased risk of total gastroesophageal cancer (WC: RR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.04; WHR: RR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.88), GC (WC: RR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.78; WHR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.70), and esophageal cancer (WC: RR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.30, 3.24; WHR: RR 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.75).Findings from our subgroup analyses showed non-significant positive associations between gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) and both measures of abdominal adiposity, while gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) was positively associated with WC but not with WHR. On analysis restricted to studies that adjusted for body mass index (BMI), WC was positively associated with GC and esophageal cancer, whereas WHR was positively associated with risk of GC only. Although limited, the findings from our meta-analysis suggest the potential role of abdominal obesity in the etiology of gastric and esophageal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
19.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 10(1): 25-30, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-160073

RESUMO

Objetivo. Verificar a associação dos indicadores de obesidade central, aptidão cardiorrespiratória e de nível de atividade física sobre a pressão arterial de escolares. Método. Estudo epidemiológico realizado em 610 escolares, com idade de 8‐12 anos. Foram avaliados: massa corporal, estatura, circunferência de cintura, índice de conicidade, razão cintura/estatura, nível de atividade física, aptidão cardiorrespiratória, pressão arterial e índice de massa corporal. Resultados. O grupo de escolares apresentou pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica 104±12 e 61±8mmHg, respectivamente; consumo máximo de oxigênio 38±13ml/kg/min e razão cintura/estatura 44±5cm. Escolares obesos apresentam 5 vezes mais chances de ser hipertensos OR=5.2 (2.4‐11.6). Conclusão. Os escolares obesos, em especial a obesidade central, apresentam maiores razões de chances de serem hipertensos e com maior risco para os meninos. A razão cintura/estatura se mostrou válida para predizer a hipertensão arterial em escolares (AU)


Objetivo. Comprobar la asociación de los indicadores de obesidad central, aptitud cardiorrespiratoria y de nivel de actividad física sobre la presión arterial de escolares. Método. Estudio epidemiológico realizado en 610 escolares con edad de 8‐12 años. Se evaluó: la masa corporal, la estatura, la circunferencia de la cintura, el índice de conicidad, el cociente cintura/estatura, el nivel de actividad física, la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, la presión arterial y el índice de masa corporal. Resultados. El grupo de escolares presentaron una presión arterial sistólica y diastólica de 104±12 y 61±8mmHg, respectivamente, el consumo máximo de oxígeno de 38±13ml/kg/min y el cociente cintura/altura 44±5cm. Los escolares obesos tienen cinco veces más probabilidades de ser hipertensos OR=5.2 (2.4‐11.6). Conclusión. Los escolares obesos y, en especial con obesidad central, presentan mayores probabilidades de ser hipertensos y con mayor riesgo para los chicos. El cociente cintura/altura resultó válido para predecir la hipertensión en los escolares (AU)


Objective. To verify the association of indicators of central obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity on blood pressure in schoolchildren. Method. An epidemiological study of 610 schoolchildren aged 8‐12 years. Were assessed: body weight, height, waist circumference, conicity index, waist/height ratio, level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure and body mass index. Results. The school group had systolic and diastolic blood pressure 104±12 and 61±8mmHg respectively, maximal oxygen consumption 38±13ml/kg/min and waist/height ratio 44±5cm. Schoolchildren obese have five times more likely to be hypertension OR=5.2 (2.4 ‐ 11.6). Conclusion. Obese children and especially central obesity, have higher odds ratios of being hypertension and at higher risk for boys. The waist/height ratio proved valid to predict hypertension in school (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Circunferência Abdominal , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Antropometria/métodos , Curva ROC
20.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(2): 82-91, feb. 2017. graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171245

RESUMO

Introducción: A pesar de la importancia clínica, epidemiológica y económica del síndrome metabólico, a la fecha se desconoce el perfil de los ensayos clínicos disponibles para esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Caracterizar los ensayos clínicos relacionados con el tratamiento del síndrome metabólico durante el periodo 1980-2015. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura con un protocolo de búsqueda ex ante que cumplió las fases de la guía Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses en cuatro bases de datos multidisciplinarias con siete estrategias de búsqueda. Se evaluó reproducibilidad y calidad metodológica de los estudios. Resultados: Se incluyeron 106 ensayos, la mayoría de Estados Unidos, Italia y España. El 63,2% evaluó intervenciones con eficacia para varios componentes del síndrome como dieta (40,6%) o actividad física (22,6%), las demás evaluaron medicamentos para uno de los factores como hipertensión (7,5%), hipertrigliceridemia (11,3%) o hiperglucemia (9,4%). En los controles el 54,7% usó placebo, y entre las variables de resultado el 52,8% incluyó triglicéridos, 48,1% cHDL, 29,2% glucemia, 33,0% IMC, 27,4% presión arterial, 26,4% perímetro de cintura, 11,3% hemoglobina glucosilada y 7,5% perímetro de cadera. Conclusión: Se evidenció que los estudios sobre eficacia terapéutica para el síndrome metabólico son escasos y se concentran en el último quinquenio y en países de altos ingresos. Los ensayos sobre intervenciones que impactan tres o más factores y evalúan varias variables de resultado son reducidos, destacándose las intervenciones del estilo de vida (dieta y actividad física) como las de mayor importancia para impactar la multifactorialidad del síndrome (AU)


Introduction: Despite the clinical, epidemiological, and economic significance of metabolic syndrome, the profile of clinical trials on this disease is unknown. Objective: To characterize the clinical trials related to treatment of metabolic syndrome during the 1980-2015 period. Methods: Systematic review of the literature using an ex ante search protocol which followed the phases of the guide Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in four multidisciplinary databases with seven search strategies. Reproducibility and methodological quality of the studies were assessed. Results: One hundred and six trials were included, most from the United States, Italy, and Spain, of which 63.2% evaluated interventions effective for several components of the syndrome such as diet (40.6%) or physical activity (22.6%). Other studies assessed drugs for a single factor such as hypertension (7.5%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.3%), or hyperglycemia (9.4%). Placebo was used as control in 54.7% of trials, and outcome measures included triglycerides (52.8%), HDL (48.1%), glucose (29.2%), BMI (33.0%), blood pressure (27.4%), waist circumference (26.4%), glycated hemoglobin (11.3%), and hip circumference (7.5%). Conclusion: It was shown that studies ob efficacy of treatment for metabolic syndrome are scarce and have mainly been conducted in the last five years and in high-income countries. Trials on interventions that affect three or more factors and assess several outcome measures are few, and lifestyle interventions (diet and physical activity) are highlighted as most important to impact on this multifactorial syndrome (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Dieta , Exercício , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança
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