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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21804, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871900

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is one of the most important characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and imaging findings of COVID-19 pneumonia are diverse and change over disease course. However, the detailed clinical course of organizing pneumonia (OP) caused by COVID-19 has not been clarified. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old man and a 61-year-old woman diagnosed with mild COVID-19 were admitted to our hospital. Their respiratory symptoms were deteriorating even after initiating treatment with antiviral drugs. DIAGNOSIS: Chest X-rays and computed tomography scan showed a rapid progression of linear consolidation with reversed halo sign, distributed in subpleural and peri-bronchial regions. They also presented with pulmonary fibrosis findings, including traction bronchiectasis and marked lung volume reduction. They were diagnosed with rapidly progressing OP. INTERVENTIONS: They were treated with systemic corticosteroids. OUTCOMES: The patients' imaging findings and respiratory conditions improved rapidly without any adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Physicians should carefully monitor patients with COVID-19, as they can develop rapidly progressive and fibrotic OP, which respond to corticosteroids.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Pulmonar , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5015-5024, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite being a rare disease, melanoma is considered the most dangerous skin cancer due to its highly invasive and aggressive nature, and still requires for more effective treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of Ephedranthus pisocarpus R.E.Fr. (Annonaceae), a popular Brazilian plant with medicinal properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, the ethanolic extract (EtOH) was obtained from E. pisocarpus leaves and later partitioned using increasing polarity solvents. The anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus was assessed by spectrophotometry and its cytotoxicity determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the EtOH extract and fractions from E. pisocarpus had a moderate photoprotective action (FPS 3.0-5.0) against UVA radiation. Interestingly, the dichloromethane fraction presented higher anti-melanoma activity against B16-F10 (IC50=46.8 µg/ml) and SK-MEL-28 cells (IC50=40.1 µg/ml) and lesser toxicity on normal cells. Additionally, our study reported that spathulenol, one of the major constituents from E. pisocarpus, acts through an apoptosis-dependent mechanism in SK-MEL-28 cells. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, the in vitro anti-melanoma potential of E. pisocarpus against melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hemólise , Humanos , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5025-5033, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a new 7-(4-(N-substituted carbamoylmethyl) piperazin-1-yl) ciprofloxacin-derivative on the proliferation and migration abilities of HeLa cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell viability and morphological alterations were examined. Changes in migration were detected using wound healing and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry and western blotting were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this ciprofloxacin-derivative's action in HeLa cells. RESULTS: The examined ciprofloxacin-derivative reduced viability of HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner and altered cellular morphology, indicating cell death. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited wound closure, even in a non-cytotoxic concentration, and reduced HeLa cell colony formation. In addition, apoptosis was increased probably through significant up-regulation of Bax protein expression and the generation of active cleaved caspase-3 protein. CONCLUSION: Our new derivative inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of HeLa cells. Furthermore, it suppressed the migration and colony formation abilities of HeLa cells. Therefore, it represents an attractive agent for drug development against cervical cancer based on its anti-metastatic effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/análogos & derivados , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciprofloxacino/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Ensaio Tumoral de Célula-Tronco
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5035-5041, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Based on the cytotoxic agent (-)-zampanolide, N,N'-(arylmethylene)bisamides were designed and synthesized as candidate anti-cancer agents. Among them, N,N'-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]biscinnamide (DPMBC) was identified as the most potent cytotoxic analog against cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying DPMBC-induced cell death in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell growth was assessed by the WST-8 assay. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by nuclear morphology, DNA ladder formation, and flow cytometry using Annexin V staining. Activation of factors in the apoptotic signaling pathway was assessed by western blot analyses. Knockdown of death receptor 5 (DR5) was performed using siRNA. RESULTS: DPMBC up-regulated expression levels of DR5 protein and induced apoptosis through the extrinsic apoptotic pathway mediated by DR5 and caspases. CONCLUSION: DPMBC is an extrinsic apoptosis inducer, which has potential as a therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Antineoplásicos/química , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentação do DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Macrolídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5125-5140, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial malignant childhood tumor accounts for about 15% of cancer-related deaths in children. Despite the intensive treatment of patients with high-risk scarification of NB, clinical outcomes indicate tumor recurrence greater than 50% and late severe adverse effects. Oxazolidinones are 5-membered heterocyclic compounds with antibacterial activity against resistant bacterial strains. Structural modifications around the oxazolidinone moiety have resulted in derivatives with anti-cancer properties against proliferation, motility, and invasion of breast cancer cells. This study aimed to examine the anti-cancer potential of novel oxazolidinones against a model of a neuroblastoma cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly synthesized and characterized triazolyl-oxazolidinone derivatives were incubated with neuroblastoma Kelly cells. The anti-proliferation and anti-progression effects of the compounds were evaluated by MTT, and adhesion with migration assays. RESULTS: The 5-nitrofuroyl glycinyl-oxazolidinone containing 4-methyltriazolyl group demonstrated the most potent activity with an IC50=6.52 µM. Furthermore, the D-isomer of 5-nitrothiophenecarbonyl alaninyl containing derivative reduced the adhesion to fibronectin by 56.34%, while the D-isomer of 5-nitrofuroyl alaninyl derivative reduced the migration of Kelly cells by 29.14%. CONCLUSION: The presence of the 4-methyltriazolyl moiety seems to enhance the anti-proliferative property of triazolyl-oxazolidinone derivatives, as demonstrated by PH-145. There is little or no effect of the stereochemistry of the alanine side-chain on the antiproliferative effect, as demonstrated by the 5-nitrofuroyl D- and L-alaninyl containing derivatives with similar IC50 values. The observed differences in the inhibition of adhesion and migration by the oxazolidinones on Kelly cells provide a new therapeutic approach that needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Oxazolidinonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Neuroblastoma , Oxazolidinonas/síntese química , Oxazolidinonas/química
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5141-5149, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ) and/or checkpoint kinase inhibitor AZD7762 in human glioma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glioma cells were treated with TMZ and/or AZD7762 for 24 or 48 h, then the cellular survival was studied and the expression of various proteins was investigated. RESULTS: Both TMZ and AZD7762 induced concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects, and combined TMZ and AZD7762 (TMZ+AZD) caused synergistic cytotoxic effects in glioma cells (p<0.05). AZD7762 suppressed the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) expression. TMZ+AZD increased the expression of phospho-p53 (p-p53), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphatase and tensin homolog; and decreased the expression of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in glioma cells. CONCLUSION: TMZ and AZD7762 combined induced synergistic cytotoxic effects on human glioma cells and such effects may be related to the AZD7762-induced suppression of MGMT expression and the modulation of multiple signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Humanos , Ureia/farmacologia
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5191-5200, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Small molecule-based chemotherapy is an attractive approach for the chemoprevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a natural organosulfur compound with anticancer properties, as revealed by studies on in vitro models of gingival, prostate, lung, hepatic, and breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of MSM in colon cancer cells remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we investigated the effects of MSM, especially on the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in HT-29 cells. RESULTS: MSM suppressed the viability of HT-29 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. MSM suppressed the sphere-forming ability and expression of stemness markers in HT-29 cells. CONCLUSION: MSM has anti-cancer effects on HT-29 cells, and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, while suppressing the stemness potential.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5201-5210, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are popular as a tea infusion in Asia and their main active ingredients are flavonoids. The present study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from persimmon leaves (PLF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the in vitro anti-proliferative activity of PLF against several human cancer cell lines. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PLF were accessed using high-content analysis with florescent staining. The ability of PLF to scavenge free radicals was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. RESULTS: PLF demonstrated significant inhibition of proliferation of liver, breast, and colorectal cancer cells in vitro. PLF induced apoptosis and increased intracellular ROS levels in HCT116 (colorectal cancer) and HepG2 (liver cancer) cells. In addition, PLF showed strong free radical scavenging ability. CONCLUSION: The anti-proliferation activity of PLF against cancer cells was related to the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diospyros/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 1352982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908574

RESUMO

The current emergence of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) puts the world in threat. The structural research on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2 has identified the key interactions between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its host (epithelial cell) receptor, also known as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It controls both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. In view of this, we propose and analyze a mathematical model for investigating the effect of CTL responses over the viral mutation to control the viral infection when a postinfection immunostimulant drug (pidotimod) is administered at regular intervals. Dynamics of the system with and without impulses have been analyzed using the basic reproduction number. This study shows that the proper dosing interval and drug dose both are important to eradicate the viral infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Tiazolidinas/administração & dosagem , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Mutação , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ácido Pirrolidonocarboxílico/administração & dosagem , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008575, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment failure and resistance to the commonly used drugs remains a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since the development of novel therapeutics involves exorbitant costs, the effectiveness of the currently available antitrypanosomatid drug suramin has been investigated as an antileishmanial, specifically for VL,in vitro and in animal model experiments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Leishmania donovani promastigotes were treated with suramin and studies were performed to determine the extent and mode of cell mortality, cell cycle arrest and other in vitro parameters. In addition, L. donovani infected BALB/c mice were administered suramin and a host of immunological parameters determined to estimate the antileishmanial potency of the drug. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and enzymatic assays were used to probe the interaction of the drug with one of its putative targets namely parasitic phosphoglycerate kinase (LmPGK). FINDINGS: The in vitro studies revealed the potential efficacy of suramin against the Leishmania parasite. This observation was further substantiated in the in vivo murine model, which demonstrated that upon suramin administration, the Leishmania infected BALB/c mice were able to reduce the parasitic burden and also generate the host protective immunological responses. ITC and enzyme assays confirmed the binding and consequent inhibition of LmPGK due to the drug. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All experiments affirmed the efficacy of suramin against L. donovani infection, which could possibly lead to its inclusion in the repertoire of drugs against VL.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Suramina/farmacologia , Suramina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 657-660, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends praziquantel (PZQ) (40 mg/kg body weight) for treating schistosomiasis. However, drug failure has been reported, prompting use of 60 mg/kg, for which results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of PZQ 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg in treating schoolchildren infected with Schistosoma haematobium. METHODS: The study was conducted during November 2017 - August 2018 in the Ingwavuma area, uMkhanyakude District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Children aged 10 - 15 years were screened for S. haematobium using a filtration technique. Infected children were randomly assigned to a dose of PZQ of 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. Side-effects were recorded within 24 hours after treatment using questionnaires and direct observation. Four weeks after treatment, participants were retested for S. haematobium infection. Baseline and post-treatment mean egg counts were calculated. Cure rate (CR) and egg reduction rate (ERR) were used to determine PZQ efficacy, while repeated-measures analysis of variance determined the effect of both doses on infection intensity. A χ2 test was used to determine the association of side-effects with treatment, with a p-value ≤0.05. RESULTS: Forty-three and 36 children were treated with PZQ 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively. The 40 mg/kg group had a CR of 79.0% and an ERR of 97.2%, and the 60 mg/kg group a CR of 83.0% and an ERR of 98.3%. The effect of dose on infection intensity was not significantly different between the two groups (p>0.05). Abdominal pains, dizziness and fatigue were common among children who received PZQ 40 mg/kg, while headache, dizziness and nausea were common in the 60 mg/kg group. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of PZQ at 60 mg/kg was similar to that at 40 mg/kg. A dose >40 mg/kg therefore does not add value in treating S. haematobium infection. Transient side-effects (mostly dizziness) were observed more in the 60 mg/kg group than in the 40 mg/kg group. We recommend continued use of 40 mg/kg body weight for treating schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal , Adolescente , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Tontura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças Endêmicas , Fadiga , Feminino , Cefaleia , Humanos , Masculino , Náusea , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Schistosoma haematobium , África do Sul
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111029, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888609

RESUMO

The chitin synthesis inhibitor teflubenzuron (TFB) is a feed antiparasitic agents used to impede molting of the salmon lice, an ecto-parasite that severely affects the salmon industry. Low absorption of oral administered TFB may cause elevated concentrations in the feces discharged from the salmon into the benthic environment. The polychaete Capitella sp. are often dominant in such habitats and consume organic waste deposited on the sediment. In the present study, Capitella sp. were exposed to doses of TFB in salmon feed of 1, 2 and 4 g TFB kg-1 (0 g TFB kg-1 in control group) over an experimental period of 32 days. Cumulative mortality was 12%-15% in both treatment groups with 1 and 2 g TFB kg-1 and reached 27% in the group with 4 g TFB kg-1. Only the highest dose (4 g TFB kg-1) negatively affected feed intake, growth and respiration of the polychaetes while food conversion efficiency was not affected. At the end of the experiment, the concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. were high, in the range of 9.24-10.32 µg g-1 for the three treatment groups. It was suggested that a maximum level of absorption rate was reached, also for the lowest dose. High concentrations of TFB in the Capitella sp. might pose a risk to crustaceans that forage for polychaetes in the vicinity of fish farms. We conclude that the effects of TFB on Capitella sp. may therefore primarily be to the predators rather than the Capitella sp.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Bioacumulação , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Benzamidas/metabolismo , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pesqueiros , Modelos Teóricos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Salmão/parasitologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111046, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888614

RESUMO

Agricultural pesticides serve as effective controls of unwanted weeds and pests. However, these same chemicals can exert toxic effects in non-target organisms. To determine chemical modes of action, the toxicity ratio (TR) and critical body residues (CBRs) of 57 pesticides were calculated for Daphnia magna. Results showed that the CBR values of inert compounds were close to a constant while the CBR values of pesticides varied over a wider range. Although herbicides are categorized as specifically-acting compounds to plants, herbicides did not exhibit excess toxicity to Daphnia magna and were categorized as inert compounds with an average logTR = 0.41, which was less than a threshold of one. Conversely, fungicides and insecticides exhibited strong potential for toxic effects to Daphnia magna with an average logTR >2. Many of these chemicals act via disruption of the nervous, respiratory, or reproductive system, with high ligand-receptor binding activity which leads to higher toxicity for Daphnia magna. Molecular docking using acetylcholinesterase revealed that fungicides and insecticides bind more easily with the biological macromolecule when compared with inert compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis revealed that the toxicity of fungicides was mainly dependent upon the heat of formation and polar surface area, while the toxicity of insecticides was more related to hydrogen-bond properties. This comprehensive analysis reveals that there are specific differences in toxic mechanisms between fungicides and insecticides. These results are useful for determining relative risk associated with pesticide exposure to aquatic crustaceans, such as Daphnia magna.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Daphnia/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111053, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888615

RESUMO

Vinclozolin is a common dicarboximide fungicide used to protect crops from diseases. It is also an endocrine disruptor and is thought to be related to abnormalities of the reproductive tract. However, its mechanism of inducing abnormalities of the male reproductive tract is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of gestational vinclozolin exposure on the development of rat fetal Leydig cells. Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to vinclozolin (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage from gestational day 14-21. Vinclozolin dose-dependently reduced serum testosterone levels at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg and the anogenital distance at 100 mg/kg. RNA-seq, qPCR, and Western blotting showed that vinclozolin down-regulated the expression of Nr5a1, Sox9, Lhcgr, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, Amh, Pdgfa, and Dhh and their encoded proteins. Vinclozolin reduced the number of NR2F2-positive stem Leydig cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg and enhanced autophagy in the testes. In conclusion, vinclozolin disrupts reproductive tract development and testis development in male fetal rats via several pathways.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888616

RESUMO

Quinclorac (3,7-dichloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid, QNC) is a highly selective auxin herbicide that is typically applied to paddy rice fields. Its residue is a serious problem in crop rotations. In this study, Oryza sativa L. seedlings was used as a model plant to explore its biochemical response to abiotic stress caused by QNC and nZVI coexposure, as well as the interactions between QNC and nZVI treatments. Exposure to 5 and 10 mg/L QNC reduced the fresh biomass by 26.6% and 33.9%, respectively, compared to the control. The presence of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the QNC toxicity, but the nZVI toxicity was aggravated by the coexist of QNC. Root length was enhanced upon exposure to low or medium doses of both QNC and nZVI, whereas root length was inhibited under high-dose coexposure. Both nZVI and QNC, either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and the inhibition rate increased with elevated nZVI and QNC concentration. It was indicated that nZVI or QNC can affect the plant photosynthesis, and there was a significant interaction between the two treatments. Effects of QNC on the antioxidant response of Oryza sativa L. differed in the shoots and roots; generally, the introduction of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the oxidative stress (POD in shoots, SOD and MDA in roots) induced by QNC. However, 750 mg/kg nZVI seriously damaged Oryza sativa L. seedlings, which likely resulted from active iron deficiency. QNC could be removed from the culture solution by nZVI; as a result, nZVI suppressed QNC uptake by 20%-30%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
17.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 857-869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981622

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic now affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As obesity rates continue to increase, emergency physicians are called on with increasing frequency to resuscitate obese patients. This article discusses important anatomic, physiologic, and practical challenges imposed by obesity on resuscitative care. Impacts on hemodynamic monitoring, airway and ventilator management, and pharmacologic therapy are discussed. Finally, several important clinical scenarios (trauma, cardiac arrest, and sepsis), in which alterations to standard treatments may benefit obese patients, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Consumo de Oxigênio , Farmacocinética , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22032, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease with widespread concern in the world. It has the characteristics of high incidence rate and high disability rate, which seriously affects economic and social development. large dose herb Rhizoma Coptidis (Huanglian) and Scutellaria (Huangqin) or compound prescription contain large dose Huanglian and Huanglian for treatment of T2DM has already been confirmed. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or suggestion, so it is necessary to carry out systematic evaluation on Coptidis and Scutellaria and provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched from their inception to June 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Nature, Science online, Chinese Biomedical Database WanFang, VIP medicine information, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Primary outcomes: fasting blood-glucose (FBG), 2 Hours Postprandial Blood Glucose (2hPBG), Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). additional outcomes: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), total serum cholesterol (TC). Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of large dose Huanglian and Huangqin intervention for people with T2DM. CONCLUSION: The systematic review of this study will summarize the current published evidence of large dose Huanglian and Huangqin for the treatment of T2DM, which can further guide the promotion and application of it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a systematic review, the outcomes are based on the published evidence, so examination and agreement by the ethics committee are not required in this study. We intend to publish the study results in a journal or conference presentations. OPEN SCIENCE FRAMEWORK (OSF) REGISTRATION NUMBER: July 21, 2020. osf.io/b6r3z. (https://osf.io/b6r3z).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Scutellaria , Glicemia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105592, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891020

RESUMO

International shipping is responsible for the release of numerous contaminants to the air and the marine environment. In order to reduce airborne emissions, a global 0.5 % sulphur limit for marine fuels was implemented in January 2020. Recently, a new generation of so-called hybrid fuels that meet these new requirements have appeared on the market. Studies have shown that these fuels have physical properties that make conventional clean-up methods difficult, but few have studied their effects on marine life. We conducted short and long-term microcosm experiments with natural mesozooplankton communities exposed to the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the hybrid fuel RMD80 (0.1 % sulphur) and a Marine Gas Oil (MGO). We compared the toxicity of both fuel types in 48h short-term exposures, and studied the effects of the hybrid fuel on community structure over two generations in a 28-day experiment. The F0 generation was exposed for eight days and the F1 generation was raised for 22 days without exposure. GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of the WAFs revealed that the hybrid fuel was dominated by a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whereas the MGO was mainly composed of VOCs. We observed significant short-term effects on copepod egg production from exposure to 25 % hybrid fuel WAF, but no effects from the MGO WAF at equivalent WAF dilution. In the long-term experiment with RMD80, the feeding rate was initially increased after exposure to 0.5-1.1 % hybrid fuel WAF, but this did not increase the copepod egg production. Significant change in community structure was observed after eight days in the F0 community at 0.5-3.3 % WAF. Indications of further alterations in species abundances was observed in the F1 community. Our results demonstrate that the MGO is a less toxic low-sulphur alternative to the hybrid fuel for marine zooplankton, and that a hybrid fuel spill could result in altered diversity of future generations of copepod communities.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Combustíveis/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Enxofre/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Copépodes/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Combustíveis/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos/química , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Navios , Enxofre/química , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Zooplâncton/fisiologia
20.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1018-1027, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII replacement products have improved the care of patients with hemophilia A, but the short half-life of these products affects the patients' quality of life. The half-life of recombinant factor VIII ranges from 15 to 19 hours because of the von Willebrand factor chaperone effect. BIVV001 (rFVIIIFc-VWF-XTEN) is a novel fusion protein designed to overcome this half-life ceiling and maintain high sustained factor VIII activity levels. Data are lacking on the safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose BIVV001. METHODS: In this phase 1-2a open-label trial, we consecutively assigned 16 previously treated men (18 to 65 years of age) with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity, <1%) to receive a single intravenous injection of recombinant factor VIII at a dose of 25 IU per kilogram of body weight (lower-dose group) or 65 IU per kilogram (higher-dose group). This injection was followed by a washout period of at least 3 days. The patients then received a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 at the same corresponding dose of either 25 IU or 65 IU per kilogram. Adverse events and pharmacokinetic measurements were assessed. RESULTS: No inhibitors to factor VIII were detected and no hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis events were reported up to 28 days after the injection of single-dose BIVV001. The geometric mean half-life of BIVV001 was three to four times as long as that of recombinant factor VIII (37.6 hours vs. 9.1 hours in the lower-dose group and 42.5 vs. 13.2 hours in the higher-dose group); the area under the curve (AUC) for product exposure was six to seven times as great in the two dose groups (4470 hours vs. 638 hours × IU per deciliter in the lower-dose group and 12,800 hours vs. 1960 hours × IU per deciliter in the higher-dose group). After the injection of BIVV001 in the higher-dose group, the mean factor VIII level was in the normal range (≥51%) for 4 days and 17% at day 7, which suggested the possibility of a weekly interval between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In a small, early-phase study involving men with severe hemophilia A, a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 resulted in high sustained factor VIII activity levels, with a half-life that was up to four times the half-life associated with recombinant factor VIII, an increase that could signal a new class of factor VIII replacement therapy with a weekly treatment interval. No safety concerns were reported during the 28-day period after administration. (Funded by Sanofi and Sobi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03205163.).


Assuntos
Fator VIII/metabolismo , Hemofilia A/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fator VIII/antagonistas & inibidores , Meia-Vida , Hemofilia A/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética , Adulto Jovem
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