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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10709-10721, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476938

RESUMO

Thirty-one new 4H-chromene derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were identified with IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. The crystal structure of compound 2a was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their antifungal activities were evaluated against Pyricularia oryzae, Erysiphe graminis, Coniella diplodiella, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These results demonstrated that most compounds exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities at 20 µg/mL. Compounds 4b and 4c displayed excellent antifungal activity against S. sclerotiorum and possessed better efficacy than fluopyram. At the same time, the inhibitory activity of the bioactive compounds was evaluated against succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). The results showed that these compounds possessed outstanding activity. Compounds 4b and 4c displayed better inhibitory activity than fluopyram. The molecular modeling results revealed that compound 4c had stronger affinity to SDH than fluopyram. It is the first time that the inhibitory activity of 4H-chromene analogs against SDH has been reported.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos , Succinato Desidrogenase , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500664

RESUMO

This study aims to identify and isolate the secondary metabolites of Zingiber officinale using GC-MS, preparative TLC, and LC-MS/MS methods, to evaluate the inhibitory potency on SARS-CoV-2 3 chymotrypsin-like protease enzyme, as well as to study the molecular interaction and stability by using docking and molecular dynamics simulations. GC-MS analysis suggested for the isolation of terpenoids compounds as major compounds on methanol extract of pseudostems and rhizomes. Isolation and LC-MS/MS analysis identified 5-hydro-7, 8, 2'-trimethoxyflavanone (9), (E)-hexadecyl-ferulate (1), isocyperol (2), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E)-octadecadienamide (3), and nootkatone (4) from the rhizome extract, as well as from the leaves extract with the absence of 9. Three known steroid compounds, i.e., spinasterone (7), spinasterol (8), and 24-methylcholesta-7-en-3ß-on (6), were further identified from the pseudostem extract. Molecular docking showed that steroids compounds 7, 8, and 6 have lower predictive binding energies (MMGBSA) than other metabolites with binding energy of -87.91, -78.11, and -68.80 kcal/mole, respectively. Further characterization on the single isolated compound by NMR showed that 6 was identified and possessed 75% inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme that was slightly different with the positive control GC376 (77%). MD simulations showed the complex stability with compound 6 during 100 ns simulation time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/ultraestrutura , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/química , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ácidos Sulfônicos/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443307

RESUMO

A novel series of tri-aryl imidazole derivatives 5a-n carrying benzene sulfonamide moiety has been designed for their selective inhibitory against hCA IX and XII activity. Six compounds were found to be potent and selective CA IX inhibitors with the order of 5g > 5b > 5d > 5e > 5g > 5n (Ki = 0.3-1.3 µM, and selectivity ratio for hCA IX over hCA XII = 5-12) relative to acetazolamide (Ki = 0.03 µM, and selectivity ratio for hCA IX over hCA XII = 0.20). The previous sixth inhibitors have been further investigated for their anti-proliferative activity against four different cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Compounds 5g and 5b demonstrated higher antiproliferative activity than other tested compounds (with GI50 = 2.3 and 2.8 M, respectively) in comparison to doxorubicin (GI50 = 1.1 M). Docking studies of these two compounds adopted orientation and binding interactions with a higher liability to enter the active side pocket CA-IX selectively similar to that of ligand 9FK. Molecular modelling simulation showed good agreement with the acquired biological evaluation.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Desenho de Fármacos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443487

RESUMO

The chalcone and quinoline scaffolds are frequently utilized to design novel anticancer agents. As the continuation of our work on effective anticancer agents, we assumed that linking chalcone fragment to the quinoline scaffold through the principle of molecular hybridization strategy could produce novel compounds with potential anticancer activity. Therefore, quinoline-chalcone derivatives were designed and synthesized, and we explored their antiproliferative activity against MGC-803, HCT-116, and MCF-7 cells. Among these compounds, compound 12e exhibited a most excellent inhibitory potency against MGC-803, HCT-116, and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 1.38, 5.34, and 5.21 µM, respectively. The structure-activity relationship of quinoline-chalcone derivatives was preliminarily explored in this report. Further mechanism studies suggested that compound 12e inhibited MGC-803 cells in a dose-dependent manner and the cell colony formation activity of MGC-803 cells, arrested MGC-803 cells at the G2/M phase and significantly upregulated the levels of apoptosis-related proteins (Caspase3/9 and cleaved-PARP) in MGC-803 cells. In addition, compound 12e could significantly induce ROS generation, and was dependent on ROS production to exert inhibitory effects on gastric cancer cells. Taken together, all the results suggested that directly linking chalcone fragment to the quinoline scaffold could produce novel anticancer molecules, and compound 12e might be a valuable lead compound for the development of anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/síntese química , Chalconas/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalconas/química , Humanos , Quinolinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Gen Virol ; 102(8)2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424155

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an economically important coronavirus, causing damaging losses to the poultry industry worldwide as the causative agent of infectious bronchitis. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein is a large type I membrane protein protruding from the surface of the virion, which facilitates attachment and entry into host cells. The IBV S protein is cleaved into two subunits, S1 and S2, the latter of which has been identified as a determinant of cellular tropism. Recent studies expressing coronavirus S proteins in mammalian and insect cells have identified a high level of glycosylation on the protein's surface. Here we used IBV propagated in embryonated hens' eggs to explore the glycan profile of viruses derived from infection in cells of the natural host, chickens. We identified multiple glycan types on the surface of the protein and found a strain-specific dependence on complex glycans for recognition of the S2 subunit by a monoclonal antibody in vitro, with no effect on viral replication following the chemical inhibition of complex glycosylation. Virus neutralization by monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies was not affected. Following analysis of predicted glycosylation sites for the S protein of four IBV strains, we confirmed glycosylation at 18 sites by mass spectrometry for the pathogenic laboratory strain M41-CK. Further characterization revealed heterogeneity among the glycans present at six of these sites, indicating a difference in the glycan profile of individual S proteins on the IBV virion. These results demonstrate a non-specific role for complex glycans in IBV replication, with an indication of an involvement in antibody recognition but not neutralisation.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Peso Molecular , Testes de Neutralização , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Transporte Proteico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426525

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has killed more than 4 million humans globally, but there is no bona fide Food and Drug Administration-approved drug-like molecule to impede the COVID-19 pandemic. The sluggish pace of traditional therapeutic discovery is poorly suited to producing targeted treatments against rapidly evolving viruses. Here, we used an affinity-based screen of 4 billion DNA-encoded molecules en masse to identify a potent class of virus-specific inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) without extensive and time-consuming medicinal chemistry. CDD-1714, the initial three-building-block screening hit (molecular weight [MW] = 542.5 g/mol), was a potent inhibitor (inhibition constant [K i] = 20 nM). CDD-1713, a smaller two-building-block analog (MW = 353.3 g/mol) of CDD-1714, is a reversible covalent inhibitor of Mpro (K i = 45 nM) that binds in the protease pocket, has specificity over human proteases, and shows in vitro efficacy in a SARS-CoV-2 infectivity model. Subsequently, key regions of CDD-1713 that were necessary for inhibitory activity were identified and a potent (K i = 37 nM), smaller (MW = 323.4 g/mol), and metabolically more stable analog (CDD-1976) was generated. Thus, screening of DNA-encoded chemical libraries can accelerate the discovery of efficacious drug-like inhibitors of emerging viral disease targets.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/genética , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ativação Enzimática , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9754-9763, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415761

RESUMO

Plant viruses and fungi are a serious threat to food security and natural ecosystems. The efficient and environment-friendly control methods are urgently needed to help safeguard such resources. Here, we achieved the efficient synthesis of toad alkaloid dehydrobufotenine in eight steps with an overall yield of 8% from 5-methoxyindole. A series of dehydrobufotenine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiviral and fungicidal activities systematically. It was found for the first time that these compounds have good anti-plant virus activities and anti-plant pathogen activities. The antiviral activities of 21 compounds were similar to or better than those of ribavirin. Compounds 12 and 17 displayed better antiviral activities than ningnanmycin which is perhaps the most effective anti-plant virus agent. The antiviral mechanism research study of 12 revealed that it could make 20S CP disk fusion and aggregation. Further molecular docking results showed that there are hydrogen bonds between compounds 12, 17, and tobacco mosaic virus CP. The docking results are consistent with the antiviral activity. These compounds also displayed broad-spectrum fungicidal activities against 14 kinds of fungi, especially for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this work, the synthesis, structure optimization, structure-activity relationship studies, and mode of action research of dehydrobufotenine alkaloids were carried out. It provides a reference for the development of the anti-plant virus agent and anti-plant pathogen agent from toad alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Fungicidas Industriais , Praguicidas , Vírus de Plantas , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ascomicetos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ecossistema , Fungos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443327

RESUMO

Malaria is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. Because the causative Plasmodium parasites have developed resistances against virtually all established antimalarial drugs, novel antiplasmodial agents are required. In order to target plasmodial kinases, novel N-unsubstituted bisindolylcyclobutenediones were designed as analogs to the kinase inhibitory bisindolylmaleimides. Molecular docking experiments produced favorable poses of the unsubstituted bisindolylcyclobutenedione in the ATP binding pocket of various plasmodial protein kinases. The synthesis of the title compounds was accomplished by sequential Friedel-Crafts acylation procedures. In vitro screening of the new compounds against transgenic NF54-luc P. falciparum parasites revealed a set of derivatives with submicromolar activity, of which some displayed a reasonable selectivity profile against a human cell line. Although the molecular docking studies suggested the plasmodial protein kinase PfGSK-3 as the putative biological target, the title compounds failed to inhibit the isolated enzyme in vitro. As selective submicromolar antiplasmodial agents, the N-unsubstituted bisindolylcyclobutenediones are promising starting structures in the search for antimalarial drugs, albeit for a rational development, the biological target addressed by these compounds has yet to be identified.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/síntese química , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/química , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Indóis/química , Indóis/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/enzimologia , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443334

RESUMO

Background. The past decades have seen numerous efforts to develop new antitubercular agents. Currently, the available regimens are lengthy, only partially effective, and associated with high rates of adverse events. The challenge is therefore to develop new agents with faster and more efficient action. The versatile quinoxaline ring possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, ensuring considerable attention to it in the field of medicinal chemistry. Objectives. In continuation of our program on the pharmacological activity of quinoxaline derivatives, this review focuses on potential antimycobacterial activity of recent quinoxaline derivatives and discusses their structure-activity relationship for designing new analogs with improved activity. Methods. The review compiles recent studies published between January 2011 and April 2021. Results. The final total of 23 studies were examined. Conclusions. Data from studies of quinoxaline and quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives highlight that specific derivatives show encouraging perspectives in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the recent growing interest for these scaffolds. These interesting results warrant further investigation, which may allow identification of novel antitubercular candidates based on this scaffold.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinoxalinas/química , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443347

RESUMO

α-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are used as medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The α-Glucosidase enzyme is present in the small intestine and is responsible for the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugars. The process results in an increase in blood sugar levels. AGIs slow down the digestion of carbohydrates that is helpful in controlling the sugar levels in the blood after meals. Among heterocyclic compounds, benzimidazole moiety is recognized as a potent bioactive scaffold for its wide range of biologically active derivatives. The aim of this study is to explore the α-glucosidase inhibition ability of benzimidazolium salts. In this study, two novel series of benzimidazolium salts, i.e., 1-benzyl-3-{2-(substituted) amino-2-oxoethyl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium bromide 9a-m and 1-benzyl-3-{2-substituted) amino-2-oxoethyl}-2-methyl-1H-benzo[d] imidazol-3-ium bromide 10a-m were screened for their in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory potential. These compounds were synthesized through a multistep procedure and were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and EI-MS techniques. Compound 10d was identified as the potent α-glucosidase inhibitor among the series with an IC50 value of 14 ± 0.013 µM, which is 4-fold higher than the standard drug, acarbose. In addition, compounds 10a, 10e, 10h, 10g, 10k, 10l, and 10m also exhibited pronounced potential for α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 value ranging from 15 ± 0.037 to 32.27 ± 0.050 µM when compared with the reference drug acarbose (IC50 = 58.8 ± 0.12 µM). A molecular docking study was performed to rationalize the binding interactions of potent inhibitors with the active site of the α-glucosidase enzyme.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Benzimidazóis/química , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Sais/química , Benzimidazóis/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443548

RESUMO

This work focuses on the search and development of drugs that may become new alternatives to the commercial drugs currently available for treatment of leishmaniasis. We have designed and synthesized 12 derivatives of bis(spiropyrazolone)cyclopropanes. We then characterized their potential application in therapeutic use. For this, the in vitro biological activities against three eukaryotic models-S. cerevisiae, five cancer cell lines, and the parasite L. mexicana-were evaluated. In addition, cytotoxicity against non-cancerous mammalian cells has been evaluated and other properties of interest have been characterized, such as genotoxicity, antioxidant properties and, in silico predictive adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). The results that we present here represent a first screening, indicating two derivatives of bis(spiropyrazolone)cyclopropanes as good candidates for the treatment of leishmaniasis. They have good specificity against parasites with respect to mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos/síntese química , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Ciclopropanos/química , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443550

RESUMO

To confirm that the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated thiocarbonyl (PUSTC) scaffold, similar to the ß-phenyl-α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl (PUSC) scaffold, acts as a core inhibitory structure for tyrosinase, twelve (Z)-5-(substituted benzylidene)-4-thioxothiazolidin-2-one ((Z)-BTTZ) derivatives were designed and synthesized. Seven of the twelve derivatives showed stronger inhibitory activity than kojic acid against mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 2b (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.97 µM) exerted a 141-fold higher inhibitory potency than kojic acid. Kinetic studies' results confirmed that compounds 2b and 2f are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors, which was supported by high binding affinities with the active site of tyrosinase by docking simulation. Docking results using a human tyrosinase homology model indicated that 2b and 2f might potently inhibit human tyrosinase. In vitro assays of 2b and 2f were conducted using B16F10 melanoma cells. Compounds 2b and 2f significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited intracellular melanin contents, and the anti-melanogenic effects of 2b at 10 µM and 2f at 25 µM were considerably greater than the inhibitory effect of kojic acid at 25 µM. Compounds 2b and 2f similarly inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin contents, indicating that the anti-melanogenic effects of both were due to tyrosinase inhibition. A strong binding affinity with the active site of tyrosinase and potent inhibitions of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular tyrosinase activity, and melanin generation in B16F10 cells indicates the PUSTC scaffold offers an attractive platform for the development of novel tyrosinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Melaninas/biossíntese , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/metabolismo
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9557-9570, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382800

RESUMO

Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) have emerged in fungicide markets as one of the fastest-growing categories that are widely applied in agricultural production for crop protection. Currently, the structural modification focusing on the flexible amide link of SDHI molecules is being gradually identified as one of the innovative strategies for developing novel highly efficient and broad-spectrum fungicides. Based on the above structural features, a series of pyrazole-4-acetohydrazide derivatives potentially targeting fungal SDH were constructed and evaluated for their antifungal effects against Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium graminearum, and Botrytis cinerea. Strikingly, the in vitro EC50 values of constructed pyrazole-4-acetohydrazides 6w against R. solani, 6c against F. graminearum, and 6f against B. cinerea were, respectively, determined as 0.27, 1.94, and 1.93 µg/mL, which were obviously superior to that of boscalid against R. solani (0.94 µg/mL), fluopyram against F. graminearum (9.37 µg/mL), and B. cinerea (1.94 µg/mL). Concurrently, the effects of the substituent steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen-bond fields on structure-activity relationships were elaborated by the reliable comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis models. Subsequently, the practical value of pyrazole-4-acetohydrazide derivative 6w as a potential SDHI was ascertained by the relative surveys on the in vivo anti-R. solani preventative efficacy, inhibitory effects against fungal SDH, and molecular docking studies. The present results provide an indispensable complement for the structural optimization of antifungal leads potentially targeting SDH.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Succinato Desidrogenase , Botrytis , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Fusarium , Hidrazinas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Rhizoctonia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(33): 9684-9692, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387470

RESUMO

The use of N-aryl amide derivatives as spatially acting insecticides remains relatively unexplored. To expand this knowledge, we synthesized eighty-nine N-aryl amide analogues and screened them for mortality against an insecticide-susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, Orlando (OR), using a vapor exposure glass tube assay. Of the screened compounds, twenty-two produced >92% mortality at 24 h and warranted further investigation to determine LC50 values. Fifteen of these analogues had LC50 values within 2 orders of magnitude of transfluthrin, and of significant interest, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanamide (compound 70) was nearly as potent as transfluthrin and exhibited greater toxicity than metofluthrin when screened against OR A. aegypti. Compounds exhibiting potent toxicity against OR A. aegypti or whose structure-activity relationship potentially offered beneficial insights into structure optimization were screened against the insecticide-resistant, Puerto Rico (PR), strain of A. Aegypti, and it was discovered that not only did these N-arylamides typically show little resistance, some such as N-(2,6-dichloropyridin-4-yl)-2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluorobutanamide (compound 36) and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-N-(3,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butanamide (compound 40) were actually more potent against the PR mosquitoes. Due to this promising insecticidal activity, five compounds were administered orally to mice to determine acute oral rodent toxicity. All five compounds were found to have mouse oral toxicity LD50 values well above the minimum safe level as set by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium (50 mg/kg). In addition to the promising biological activity documented here, we report the structure-activity relationship analysis used to guide the derivatization approach taken and to further inform future efforts in the development of N-arylamides as potential resistance-breaking, spatially acting insecticides.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Animais , Bioensaio , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16307, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381116

RESUMO

Structure-based drug design targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been greatly facilitated by available virus-related protein structures. However, there is an urgent need for effective, safe small-molecule drugs to control the spread of the virus and variants. While many efforts are devoted to searching for compounds that selectively target individual proteins, we investigated the potential interactions between eight proteins related to SARS-CoV-2 and more than 600 compounds from a traditional Chinese medicine which has proven effective at treating the viral infection. Our original ensemble docking and cooperative docking approaches, followed by a total of over 16-micorsecond molecular simulations, have identified at least 9 compounds that may generally bind to key SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Further, we found evidence that some of these compounds can simultaneously bind to the same target, potentially leading to cooperative inhibition to SARS-CoV-2 proteins like the Spike protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results not only present a useful computational methodology to systematically assess the anti-viral potential of small molecules, but also point out a new avenue to seek cooperative compounds toward cocktail therapeutics to target more SARS-CoV-2-related proteins.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Gatos , Biologia Computacional , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Mar Drugs ; 19(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356816

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has affected more than 150 million people, while over 3.25 million people have died from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As there are no established therapies for COVID-19 treatment, drugs that inhibit viral replication are a promising target; specifically, the main protease (Mpro) that process CoV-encoded polyproteins serves as an Achilles heel for assembly of replication-transcription machinery as well as down-stream viral replication. In the search for potential antiviral drugs that target Mpro, a series of cembranoid diterpenes from the biologically active soft-coral genus Sarcophyton have been examined as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. Over 360 metabolites from the genus were screened using molecular docking calculations. Promising diterpenes were further characterized by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) binding energy calculations. According to in silico calculations, five cembranoid diterpenes manifested adequate binding affinities as Mpro inhibitors with ΔGbinding < -33.0 kcal/mol. Binding energy and structural analyses of the most potent Sarcophyton inhibitor, bislatumlide A (340), was compared to darunavir, an HIV protease inhibitor that has been recently subjected to clinical-trial as an anti-COVID-19 drug. In silico analysis indicates that 340 has a higher binding affinity against Mpro than darunavir with ΔGbinding values of -43.8 and -34.8 kcal/mol, respectively throughout 100 ns MD simulations. Drug-likeness calculations revealed robust bioavailability and protein-protein interactions were identified for 340; biochemical signaling genes included ACE, MAPK14 and ESR1 as identified based on a STRING database. Pathway enrichment analysis combined with reactome mining revealed that 340 has the capability to re-modulate the p38 MAPK pathway hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 and antagonize injurious effects. These findings justify further in vivo and in vitro testing of 340 as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/química , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1874-1883, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340614

RESUMO

A library of variously decorated N-phenyl secondary sulphonamides featuring the bicyclic tetrahydroquinazole scaffold was synthesised and biologically evaluated for their inhibitory activity against human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) I, II, IV, and IX. Of note, several compounds were identified showing submicromolar potency and excellent selectivity for the tumour-related hCA IX isoform. Structure-activity relationship data attained for various substitutions were rationalised by molecular modelling studies in terms of both inhibitory activity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361735

RESUMO

Biofilms, the predominant growth mode of microorganisms, pose a significant risk to human health. The protective biofilm matrix, typically composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, combined with biofilm-grown bacteria's heterogenous physiology, leads to enhanced fitness and tolerance to traditional methods for treatment. There is a need to identify biofilm inhibitors using diverse approaches and targeting different stages of biofilm formation. This review discusses discovery strategies that successfully identified a wide range of inhibitors and the processes used to characterize their inhibition mechanism and further improvement. Additionally, we examine the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for some of these inhibitors to optimize inhibitor activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , GMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , GMP Cíclico/química , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Lipídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipídeos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ácidos Nucleicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Nucleicos/química , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/antagonistas & inibidores , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361754

RESUMO

A series of N-skatyltryptamines was synthesized and their affinities for serotonin and dopamine receptors were determined. Compounds exhibited activity toward 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT6, and D2 receptors. Substitution patterns resulting in affinity/activity switches were identified and studied using homology modeling. Chosen hits were screened to determine their metabolism, permeability, hepatotoxicity, and CYP inhibition. Several D2 receptor antagonists with additional 5-HT6R antagonist and agonist properties were identified. The former combination resembled known antipsychotic agents, while the latter was particularly interesting due to the fact that it has not been studied before. Selective 5-HT6R antagonists have been shown previously to produce procognitive and promnesic effects in several rodent models. Administration of 5-HT6R agonists was more ambiguous-in naive animals, it did not alter memory or produce slight amnesic effects, while in rodent models of memory impairment, they ameliorated the condition just like antagonists. Using the identified hit compounds 15 and 18, we tried to sort out the difference between ligands exhibiting the D2R antagonist function combined with 5-HT6R agonism, and mixed D2/5-HT6R antagonists in murine models of psychosis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Triptaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/síntese química , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/síntese química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Ligantes , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Nootrópicos/síntese química , Ligação Proteica , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triptaminas/síntese química
20.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112895, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403885

RESUMO

Prenylated flavonoids, a unique class of flavonoids which combine a flavonoid skeleton and a lipophilic prenyl side-chain, possess great potential biological activities including cytotoxicity, anti-inflammation, anti-Alzheimer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, estrogenic, vasorelaxant and enzyme inhibition. Recently, prenylated flavonoids have become an indispensable anchor for the development of new therapeutic agents, and have received increasing from medicinal chemists. The prenylated flavonoids have been outstanding developed through isolation, semi or fully synthesis in a very short period of time, which proves the great value in medicinal chemistry researches. In this review, research progress of prenylated flavonoids including natural prenylated flavonoids, structural modification, synthetic methodologies and pharmacological activities was summarized comprehensively. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of prenylated flavonoids were summarized which provided a basis for the selective design and optimization of multifunctional prenylated flavonoid derivatives for the treatment of multi-factorial diseases in clinic.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Prenilação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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