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2.
Codas ; 32(1): e20190010, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe the attitudes towards ageing of senior undergraduate Speech-language Pathology students in a Chilean University. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which the validated Spanish version of the Kogan's Attitudes Toward Old People Scale (KAOP) was applied to 43 students in the aforementioned course. The average scores were compared for the variables gender and interaction with the elderly. RESULTS: A trend towards a positive attitude was observed. No differences were found for the variables described. An analysis was carried out with the items in which trends towards negative attitude were reported, and the implications were discussed. CONCLUSION: Although a positive attitude was reported, aspects of student academic training should be more comprehensively studied with a view to improving the quality of assistance provided to the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Relação entre Gerações , Estudantes , Adulto , Idoso , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nursing ; 49(10): 53-56, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568084

RESUMO

As baby boomers continue to retire and millennials become the leading generation in the nursing workforce, nurse leaders must promote professional development and leadership opportunities for millennials moving forward. This article describes challenges and opportunities across the multigenerational nursing workforce along with suggestions on how to remove barriers and align with millennial nurses to provide meaningful mentorship and promote understanding and a positive work environment.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Liderança , Tutoria , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Enfermagem/organização & administração , Previsões , Humanos , Enfermagem/tendências
4.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 900-911, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478703

RESUMO

The aims of the current study were to examine the long-term effects of childhood maltreatment on current relationships with parents and whether the quality of current relationships with parents mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and psychological health in late adulthood. Using 2 decades of longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, multilevel structural equation modeling was employed to examine the associations between reports of childhood maltreatment, aspects of current relationships with parents (i.e., perceived closeness, contact frequency, and exchange of social support), and psychological well-being/distress of adult children. Key results indicated that reports of maternal childhood abuse and neglect predicted lower levels of perceived closeness with aging mothers, which were subsequently associated with reduced psychological well-being of adult children. We did not find evidence of mediation between reports of paternal childhood abuse/neglect, current relationships with fathers, and psychological outcomes. Our findings suggest a significant linkage between childhood and later-life intergenerational relationships. Adults who were maltreated by their mother as children may continue to experience challenges in this relationship. Further research is needed to examine how these past and current relational dynamics affect caregiving experiences and outcomes. In addition, when intervening with adults with a history of childhood maltreatment, practitioners should evaluate contemporary relationship quality with the abusive mother and help address any unresolved emotional issues with the parent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internal migrants (IMs) are a large, vulnerable population in China and are mostly driven by national economic reform. IMs who were born before and after 1980, when the general social and economic reform began to appear in China, are considered to be two separate generations. The generational differences in mental health across IMs remain undocumented. In this study, the intergenerational disparity in IMs' mental health, using data from a national cross-sectional study, was assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the "National Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey 2014" were used. IMs were divided into the "old" or "new" generation, based on their date of birth (before 1980 vs. from 1980 onwards). Mental health includes psychological distress, which was measured using the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6), and perceived stress, which was measured with the Perceived Stress Scales (PSS-4). Two-level Generalized Linear Mixed Models were performed so as to assess the generation gap and associated factors of each group's mental health. IM demographics, migration characteristics, and social integration indicators were controlled for when assessing the intergenerational disparity in mental health. RESULTS: A total of 15,999 IMs from eight different cities participated in the survey. New generation migrants accounted for 61.5% (9838/15,999) of the total sample. After controlling for participants' characteristics, new generation migrants had higher psychological distress scores (ßad = 0.084, 95% CI: (0.026,0.193) and higher perceived stress scores (ßad = 0.118, 95% CI: 0.029, 0.207) than the older generation. For both generations, factors associated with good mental health included high levels of social integration, personal autonomy, and life satisfaction, as well as self-rated good physical health. For the new generation, the mental health of urban-to-urban IMs (ßad = 0.201, 95%CI: 0.009, 0.410) for the K6, ßad = 0.241, 95% CI: 0.073, 0.409 for the PSS-4), IMs with a longer migration duration (ßad = 0.002, 95% CI: (0.000, 0.003) for the PSS-4) and IMs with a higher annual income (ßad = 0.124, 95% CI: (0.029, 0.218) for the K6) was significantly poorer than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: New-generation migrants' mental health is worse compared to older IMs. An array of services for addressing these generation-specific needs may facilitate the promotion of mental health among IMs in China.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Saúde Mental , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudança Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 40(308): 33-35, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171298

RESUMO

Individual, family and collective stories are closely connected. The study of a clinical situation enables the processes of identity construction and transgenerational mandate to be identified, in particular when the family history is marked by a collective trauma such as that of the Holocaust.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Identificação Social , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Holocausto/psicologia , Humanos
9.
Saudi Med J ; 40(6): 601-609, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To explores cultural differences between generations of faculty and students in undergraduate medical education and to develop an educational framework for stakeholders involvement. METHODS:  This is a prospective cross-sectional mixed method study. A survey was administered on students and faculty members to measure generational differences using Hofstede's dimensions of cultural orientation. The study took place at King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, on February 2015. Quantitative methods, descriptive statistics, and correlations and regression analyses were used in data analysis. In addition, qualitative data from focus groups were used to explain findings obtained from the survey. RESULTS:  A total of 736 respondents were surveyed (129 faculty members and 607 medical students). Faculty members across all generations shared the same cultural values of low power distance and masculinity and high uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and collectivism. Advanced medical students showed higher power distance, collectivism, masculinity and long-term orientation than faculty members; junior medical students have higher masculinity and lower uncertainty avoidance and collectivism. CONCLUSION:  This study explains both the cultural gap between Saudi and Western medical students as well as between Saudi generations, demonstrating the need for customized curricular revisions.


Assuntos
Cultura , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Docentes/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Prospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): e1-e9, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219720

RESUMO

Background. Research has found a strong link between ageism, in the form of negative stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination toward older people, and risks to their physical and mental health. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of strategies to reduce ageism. Objectives. To assess the relative effects of 3 intervention types designed to reduce ageism among youths and adults-education, intergenerational contact, and combined education and intergenerational contact-by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Search Methods. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, AgeLine, EBSCO, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Global Index Medicus, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Epistemonikos, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Campbell Collaboration, PROSPERO, GreyLit, and OpenGrey. We identified additional records by hand-searching reference lists of relevant review articles as well as records included in the meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers completed the search and screening process. Selection Criteria. Eligible studies were those that (1) evaluated an intervention designed to reduce ageism, (2) examined at least 1 ageism outcome in relation to older adults, (3) used a design with a comparison group (randomized or nonrandomized), and (4) were published after 1970, when the ageism concept was developed. Data Collection and Analysis. Two independent reviewers extracted study-level data from records using a common data collection spreadsheet. They also assessed study quality by using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool, and used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) tool to assess quality of outcome evidence. Primary outcomes were attitudes toward older people and accuracy of knowledge about aging and older people. Secondary outcomes included comfort with older adults, anxiety about one's own aging, and interest in working in the field of geriatrics or gerontology. We carried out meta-analyses with statistical mixed models. Main Results. We identified 63 eligible studies (1976-2018) with a total sample of 6124 participants. Ageism interventions demonstrated a strongly significant effect on attitudes (differences of standardized mean differences [dD] = 0.33; P < .001), knowledge (dD = 0.42; P < .001), and comfort (dD = 0.50; P < .001), but no significant effect on anxiety (dD = 0.13; P = .33) or working with older adults (dD = -0.09; P = .40). Combined interventions with education and intergenerational contact showed the largest effects on attitudes. We found stronger effects for females and for adolescent and young adult groups. Authors' Conclusions. Interventions are associated with substantial reduction in ageism and should be part of an international strategy to improve perceptions of older people and the aging process. Additional research using more rigorous designs to examine the effects of interventions is strongly recommended. Public Health Implications. Ageism has well-established negative effects on the physical and mental health of older people. Findings suggest that relatively low-cost, feasible strategies involving education and intergenerational contact can serve as the basis of effective interventions to reduce ageism.


Assuntos
Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Relação entre Gerações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 31(4): 298-320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203747

RESUMO

As an ageing society, China has undergone various political and economic transitions since the 1980s, which has raised a series of social and policy concerns about the practicality of relying on family support in the care of older people. To understand the changing social expectations and the corresponding societal responses, the shifting perception of the rights and responsibilities associated with the family care of older people has to be comprehended first. Based on 39 qualitative interviews in two Chinese cities, Beijing and Guangzhou, this research contributes to an understanding of the pursuit of a "good life" by older people in contemporary urban China. It points to the argument that independence and autonomy in old age, as valued by the interviewees, will not be realised unless there is a shift in policy to recognise and respect the individuality of older people and facilitate their life choices.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Percepção , Mudança Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento , China , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana
12.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(6): 425-430, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039706

RESUMO

The Transmission of Trauma and Guilt Feelings Between Generations Abstract. After a brief historical outline, the text deals with the emergence of insights into transgenerational transferences and current understandings of mental trauma and various forms of traumatization. At the center lies the question of psychic mechanisms of unconscious transmission in unprocessed traumas. The author inquires into body language and affective communication, beginning in early childhood, and the importance of scenic memory and understanding of nonverbal messages. Different reactions in descendants of survivors of the Holocaust or torture victims and descendants of perpetrators are also taken into consideration. Finally, some conclusions for clinical practice are presented.


Assuntos
Culpa , Holocausto , Relação entre Gerações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Sobreviventes , Tortura
13.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 14(1): 1611298, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072244

RESUMO

AIM: This study explored the Chinese older people's perceptions regarding family involvement and specific factors influencing family involvement in residential care homes. BACKGROUND: Family involvement in residential care home is a multi-dimensional construct that connects the resident with their family, friends, neighbours and care professionals to facilitate their physical, psycho-emotional and social well-being. However, it remains unclear as to what Chinese residents perceive as the meaning of involving the family and components of it that are important to later live. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in two residential care homes in Macao. Ten Chinese residents were purposively sampled. The interview data were taped-recorded and transcribed. Fieldnotes and visitors' records were collected. The data were content-analyzed. RESULTS: Chinese residents' perceptions of family involvement were captured by four themes: components of family involvement, factors influencing family involvement, impacts of family involvement on residents' lives, and promoting family involvement strategies. CONCLUSION: Findings provided insights for geriatric care providers to acknowledge the contributions that family members can make to be more involved in the residents' live, and to strengthen relationships. Family involvement can also help to facilitate sense of blessing and feelings of achievements for the residents.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Compreensão , Assistência à Saúde , Família , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Relações Interpessoais , Casas de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Crianças Adultas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Refeições , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Cônjuges , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 32(SP): 86-97, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099749

RESUMO

Background: The advancement of technological change within healthcare means that it is essential for nurses to have the necessary technological skills to deliver safe and efficient nursing care. Few studies have examined whether generational differences affect the adoption of technology within the healthcare system. Aim: The primary purpose of this study was to explore predictors that influence the adoption of technology. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, nurses were asked to rate their level of competency on 20 key skills related to clinical technological devices (CTDs) in a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' demographic data and level of proficiency related to personal computer skills were also collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine whether demographic characteristics and personal computer skills predicted higher scores related to CTDs. Results: Sixty-three nurses completed the questionnaires. Overall mean score for skills related to CTD was high at 3.74 (SD = 0.75) out of 5. Length of employment at the hospital and previous exposure to the technology used at the hospital (ß = 0.06, p = 0.021; ß = 0.054, p = 0.011, respectively) were the only variables significantly associated with higher CTD skills scores. Generational cohort, gender, years of nursing experience and self-rated proficiency related to personal computer skills were not related to higher CTD skills scores. Conclusion: The results of this study emphasize that consistent exposure to technology enhances its adoption. Generational cohort did not play a role in the perception of nurses' technology competency at Humber River Hospital.


Assuntos
Alfabetização Digital , Relação entre Gerações , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Interface Usuário-Computador
16.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 34(2): 131-148, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134463

RESUMO

Native American grandparents by tradition are expected to play a role in rearing grandchildren. However, in many Native grandfamilies, grandparents are rearing grandchildren not by choice or tradition, but as the result of family crises that necessitated grandparent intervention. European American grandparents have likewise been called to rear their grandchildren when their adult children are unable or unwilling to perform parental duties. Less is known about these custodial grandparents' resilience pathways, particularly among rural grandfamilies. Guided by the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation, this study examined the relationships between stressors, resources, and resilience among rural Native and European American custodial grandparents. Correlates of resilience were economic stress and stress management. Significant interactions were found between economic stress and government assistance and economic stress and stress management, indicating complex resilience pathways. Implications of study findings for research and intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Custódia da Criança , Educação Infantil/etnologia , Família/psicologia , Avós/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações/etnologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Família/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar , População Rural , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
17.
Dev Psychol ; 55(7): 1537-1547, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021100

RESUMO

Does mothers' employment predict the subsequent maternal employment of their daughters? Social learning theory suggests that modeling should increase under more positive relationship conditions. We examined the congruence between mothers' maternal employment and daughters' maternal employment longitudinally across 4 periods of parenthood and as a function of the daughters' retrospective reports of her mother's emotional availability during the daughters' childhood. When all periods were considered together, mothers' maternal employment was associated with increased likelihood of daughters' maternal employment. In particular, women who recalled their mothers as more emotionally available over childhood were more likely to match their own mother's maternal employment status during their own child's high school period. These findings provide support for long-term effects of modeling. Moreover, during the high school years, these findings suggest that the modeling is moderated by the quality of the childhood relationship between mother and daughter. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emprego , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Núcleo Familiar , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(3): 245-251, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931909

RESUMO

Alfred H. Sturtevant was the first to raise the question: why does the mutation rate not become reduced to zero? Indeed, most new mutations with a phenotypic effect are deleterious. Therefore, individuals who produce less mutants produce more viable and fertile offspring. Consequently, natural selection should increase the frequency of antimutator genotypes and progressively reduce the mutation rate to zero. However, no species has ever been found with a mutation rate equal to zero. Recent analyses suggest that setting the mutation rate above zero depends mainly on the effective size of the genome and the effective population size. The mutation rate is a trade-off between natural selection that operates to improve replication fidelity and the random genetic drift that sets the ultimate lower limit. This trade off illustrates the limitation of the power of natural selection in a world where natural populations have a finite size.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Genes Letais/fisiologia , Deriva Genética , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/fisiologia , Seleção Genética/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214801, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017914

RESUMO

This study adopts a socio-ecological approach to examine multiple factors and processes assumed to shape the intergenerational transmission of social disadvantage, including influences of social change, social causation and social selection. Moving beyond approaches focusing on cumulative risk indices, this study uses latent class analysis to examine how different socio-economic and psycho-social risk factors combine within families and to what extent and how constellations of risk are transmitted from one generation to the next. We draw on data collected for the longitudinal and national representative 1970 British Cohort Study, comprising information on more than 11,000 cohort members and their parents. We identified four distinct risk configurations among the parent generation (G1): low-risk families (57.6%), high-risk families (16.3%), high-risk single-parents (24%) and ethnic minority families (2.1%). Within their offspring (G2) we identified five distinct risk configurations: low-risk families (62%), low-risk no-children (15.1%), moderate-risk single parents (10.1%), moderate-risk large families (8.9%), high socio-economic and high psycho-social risk (4%). There is evidence of structural mobility, and the findings suggest that intergenerational transmission of disadvantage is not just a systemic tendency towards social reproduction, but also reflects processes of social change and social selection. We conclude that a socio-ecological model provides a useful framework for a more comprehensive understanding of the multiple processes involved in the transmission of inter-cohort inequality.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Características da Família , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Mudança Social , Reino Unido
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