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3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22793-22799, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868443

RESUMO

Resource sharing has always been a central component of human sociality. Children require heavy investments in human capital; during working years, help is needed due to illness, disability, or bad luck. While hunter-gatherer elders assisted their descendants, more recently, elderly withdraw from work and require assistance as well. Willingness to share has been critically important for our past evolutionary success and our present daily lives. Here, we document a strong linear relationship between the public and private sharing generosity of a society and the average length of life of its members. Our findings from 34 countries on six continents suggest that survival is higher in societies that provide more support and care for one another. We suggest that this support reduces mortality by meeting urgent material needs, but also that sharing generosity may reflect the strength of social connectedness, which itself benefits human health and wellbeing and indirectly raises survival.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Longevidade/fisiologia , Alocação de Recursos/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Modelos Estatísticos , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Comportamento Social
4.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(4): 409-431, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990906

RESUMO

This paper examines the cultural schemas underlying older persons' perception of intergenerational care roles. Thirty qualitative in-depth interviews and twenty focus group discussions (N = 120) were conducted among older women and men aged 60 and above. By using this theory, we were able to identify a series of cultural schemas found in older people's discussions of intergenerational caregiving role. The most prominent shared schemas are; caregiving for elderly is a cultural obligation not a choice, caregiving is a sign of respect, caregiving is a sign of love, caregiving is a source of pride, and caregiving leads to attachment and emotional bonds. Based on these schemas, older people perceived getting care from one's children as a cultural obligation and not an individual (child) choice. However, the findings show that older people's life experience differed greatly from the cultural schemas they had as majority were not cared for by their children. Thus, the discrepancies between schemas/expectations and realities of older people led to tension, sadness, frustration and feeling of being neglected. This study suggests that there is need to put in place interventions that encourage intergenerational caregiving. These intervention programmes should seek not only to consider but also to build upon the strength of cultural values and beliefs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cultura , Relação entre Gerações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emoções , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927827

RESUMO

Although up to 8% of European youngsters carry out high-intensity care for a family member, adolescent young carers (AYCs), especially those caring for their grandparents (GrPs), remain an under-researched group. This study aimed at addressing the current knowledge gap by carrying out an online survey in Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The analysis included a final sample of 817 AYCs aged 15-17 years old. AYCs of grandparents (GrPs) were compared to AYCs of other care recipients (OCRs), in order to identify any difference in positive and negative caregiving outcomes and exposure factors between the two groups. Linear or logistic regression models were built, and multivariate analyses were repeated, including a fixed effect on the country variable. AYCs of GrPs experienced more positive caregiving outcomes than AYCs of OCRs across all six countries. Being female or non-binary, and having a migration background, were associated with more negative outcomes, regardless of the relationship with the care recipient. Further research on intergenerational caregiving outcomes is recommended for shaping measures and policies, which preserve the intergenerational emotional bonds, whilst protecting AYCs from inappropriate responsibilities, undermining their mental health and well-being.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Avós , Relação entre Gerações , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(10): 508-514, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe generation Y nurses' perceptions of their nurse managers' servant leadership characteristics as well as the relationship between these characteristics and intent to stay on the job. BACKGROUND: To attract and retain generation Y nurses, organizational leaders need to develop an understanding of this generation's perspectives around workplace loyalty and commitment. METHOD: This study had a quantitative correlational research design. The Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) measured 116 generation Y nurses' perception of their manager's use of servant leadership. RESULTS: Generation Y nurses' most positively rated servant leadership characteristic of their managers was accountability; the lowest was forgiveness. Significant positive relationships were found between the overall SLS score and intent to stay and between the SLS dimensions of standing back, empowerment, authenticity, humility, and stewardship, and intent to stay on the job. CONCLUSIONS: Generation Y nurses are seeking characteristics in their nurse managers that will attract them to stay on the job; if these characteristics are lacking, they may leave.


Assuntos
Relação entre Gerações , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , New York , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos
7.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 123-134, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780678

RESUMO

The HIV pandemic has immense effects on the Eswatini population. The burden of caregiving rests on women, typically grandmothers who are elderly and dealing with chronic diseases themselves. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of grandmothers in Eswatini caring for female adolescents living with HIV. The study draws on phenomenological fieldwork of six case studies of grandmother-granddaughter pairs who were purposively sampled. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews that commenced with broad questions: "How is it for you to care for a female adolescent living with HIV?" for the grandmothers, and "How is it for you to live with HIV?" for female adolescents. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically following the elements of the caregiver stress theory. Drawing on the caregiver stress model, grandmothers and female adolescents experienced input stimuli of financial difficulties related to daily provisions for food and transport fare. Control processes experienced by grandmothers and female adolescents related to feelings of loss, grief, fear, hopelessness and isolation along with suicidal ideation for female adolescents. Regarding output stimuli, grandmothers and female adolescents developed psychological unrest related to difficulty accepting the HIV diagnosis and concerns about the future. Grandmothers experienced ill health due to the demands of the caregiving role. It is recommended that family, financial and psychological support be made available for grandmothers to lighten the duty of caregiving.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Avós/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Emoções , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784651

RESUMO

As the use of technology becomes further integrated into the daily lives of all persons, including older adults, it is important to investigate how the perceptions and use of technology intersect with intergenerational relationships. Based on the international multi-centered study Technology In Later Life (TILL), this paper emphasizes the perceptions of older adults and the interconnection between technology and intergenerational relationships are integral to social connectedness with others. Participants from rural and urban sites in Canada and the UK (n = 37) completed an online survey and attended a focus group. Descriptive and thematic analyses suggest that older adults are not technologically adverse and leverage intergenerational relationships with family and friends to adjust to new technologies and to remain connected to adult children and grandchildren, especially when there is high geographic separation between them. Participants referenced younger family members as having introduced them to, and having taught them how to use, technologies such as digital devices, computers, and social networking sites. The intergenerational support in the adoption of new technologies has important implications for helping older persons to remain independent and to age in place, in both age-friendly cities and in rural communities. The findings contribute to the growing literature in the fields of gerontology and gerontechnology on intergenerational influences and the impacts of technology use in later life and suggest the flexibility and willingness of older persons to adopt to new technologies as well as the value of intergenerational relationships for overcoming barriers to technology adoption.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Computadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação entre Gerações , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687501

RESUMO

After more than four decades of research and almost 100 attachment studies, the mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of attachment still remain unclear. To better understand the mechanisms moderating the associations of attachment orientations from one generation to the next, this empirical study examined the roles of 1) shared and non-shared environmental factors that characterize critical events in adulthood such as career choice, income and child care; 2) gender differences in attachment between parents (Generation 1, G1) and their adult offspring (Generation 2, G2) and their possible interactions. A sample of 321 families with G2 adults aged 18 and over and two G1 parents up to the age of 81 took part in this study. Both generations completed the Experiences in Close Relationships attachment measure as well as a comprehensive detailed measure of current core characteristics in adulthood (e.g. employment status, income, whether they had children) and demographic variables (gender, age). The findings suggest that the associations between the attachment orientations of G1 and the attachment orientations of G2 were moderated by G2's income, their G1 paternal income and employment status, whether G2 had children (G3) of their own, and their family status after controlling for the age of G2, and the age of both paternal and maternal G1. When the associations for both paternal and maternal G1attachment orientation with both their male and female G2 was analyzed separately, this accounted for 35% of the variance of males' G2 attachment orientation. The discussion focuses on the contribution of these findings to attachment theory and draws clinical conclusions.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Catexia , Identidade de Gênero , Avós/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Criança , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19116-19121, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699150

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 originated in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 and rapidly spread in more than 100 countries. Researchers in different fields have been working on finding explanations for the unequal impact of the virus and deaths from the associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across geographical areas. Demographers and other social scientists have hinted at the importance of demographic factors, such as age structure and intergenerational relationships. Our aim is to reflect on the possible link between intergenerational relationships and spread and lethality of COVID-19 in a critical way. We show that with available aggregate data it is not possible to draw robust evidence to support these links. In fact, despite a higher prevalence of intergenerational coresidence and contacts that is broadly positively associated with COVID-19 case fatality rates at the country level, the opposite is generally true at the subnational level. While this inconsistent evidence demonstrates neither the existence nor the absence of a causal link between intergenerational relationships and the severity of COVID-19, we warn against simplistic interpretations of the available data, which suffer from many shortcomings. We conclude by arguing that intergenerational relationships are not only about physical contacts between family members. Theoretically, different forms of intergenerational relationships may have causal effects of opposite sign on the diffusion of COVID-19. Policies should also take into account that intergenerational ties are a source of instrumental and emotional support, which may favor compliance to the lockdown and "phase-2" restrictions and may buffer their negative consequences on mental health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Relação entre Gerações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
13.
Am Psychol ; 75(7): 887-896, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672988

RESUMO

The disproportionately high rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health complications and mortality among older adults prompted supportive public responses, such as special senior early shopping hours and penpal programs. Simultaneously, some older adults faced neglect and blatant displays of ageism (e.g., #BoomerRemover) and were considered the lowest priority to receive health care. This article examines positive and negative responses toward older adults in the United States during the pandemic and the consequences for older adults and society using data from the pandemic in the United States (and informed by data from other countries) as well as past theorizing and empirical research on views and treatment of older adults. Specifically, positive responses can reinforce the value of older adults, improve older adults' mental and physical health, reduce ageism, and improve intergenerational relations, whereas negative responses can have the opposite effects. However, positive responses (social distancing to protect older adults from COVID-19 infection) can inadvertently increase loneliness, depression, health problems, and negative stereotyping of older adults (e.g., helpless, weak). Pressing policy issues evident from the treatment of older adults during the pandemic include health care (triaging, elder abuse), employment (layoffs, retirement), and education about ageism, as well as the intersection of ageism with other forms of prejudice (e.g., racism) that cuts across these policies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ageismo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relação entre Gerações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
14.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 416-424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489144

RESUMO

Families and intergenerational relationships are important sources of risk for COVID-19 infection, especially for older adults who are at high risk of complications from the disease. If one family member is exposed to the virus they could serve as a source of transmission or, if they fall ill, the resources they provide to others could be severed. These risks may be especially heightened for family members who work outside the home and provide care, or for those family members who care for multiple generations. Policies have the potential to help families bear the burden of these decisions. This essay argues that policies that address health, employment, and other social issues have implications for families, and that policies aimed at families and caregivers can affect the health, employment, and the general well-being of the nation.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Políticas , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/normas , Emprego/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Relação entre Gerações , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570826

RESUMO

Background: This study examined the relationship between intergenerational support patterns and depressive symptoms among older men and women in Korea. Methods: A nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized, community-dwelling older adults in Korea was used. A total of 7531 older adults (3592 men and 3939 women) was included in the analysis. Results: We observed gender differences in the impact of financial support exchanges on depressive symptoms. A lack of mutual financial support significantly increased the risk of depressive symptoms by 3.83 times (95% CI 2.34-6.24) in men and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.06-2.83) in women. Men who received financial support were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (OR (Odds Ratio), 1.81, 95% CI 1.36-2.42), whereas women who provided financial support were more likely to experience depressive symptoms (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.21-6.56). The lack of an exchange of emotional support was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in both men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.17-1.90) and women (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.50-2.34). Conclusions: We discuss the evidence of gender differences in intergenerational support exchange patterns and their impact on depressive symptoms within the context of Korean cultures and suggest that future research should be conducted on gender differences in the impact of intergenerational support on mental health across diverse societies.


Assuntos
Depressão , Relação entre Gerações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 63(5): 478-498, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449643

RESUMO

The rapid change in the family support structure in developing countries could jeopardize the concept of reciprocal support an older adult receives in later life. This study explored the perception of reciprocity between older parents and adult children on intergenerational support in Northern Nigeria. We purposely selected 18 participants and conducted face-to-face interviews. We analyzed the data using descriptive phenomenological method analysis. Three major themes emerged: characteristics of support, perceived support given and received to/from children, and perceived indebtedness/credit. Financial support is one of the most common types of support received by older adults. The perceived support given to adult children was expressed as "huge and sacrificial" by older adults. The adult children felt they are providing less support than they have received from their parents and expressed the feeling of indebtedness to their older parents. Generally, adult children perceived the need to reciprocate past support received from their older parents. The perception of reciprocity remains strong among Nigerians and plays a vital role in promoting intergenerational support between older parents and adult children. We discuss the implications of the findings, including the role of professionals to promote provision of other forms of support to older adults.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 791, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statistics from South Africa show the world's highest HIV prevalence with an estimated seven million people living with the virus. Several studies have pointed to communication about sexuality between parents/caregivers and children as a protective factor. However, communication between generations has been described as problematic, especially due to discomfort in discussing sexual matters. The aim of this study was to explore how caregivers in a poor, rural part of South Africa talked about young people in general, their sexuality, and their lifestyle practices. A particular interest was directed towards central discourses in the caregivers' narratives and how these discourses were of importance for the caregivers to function as conversation partners for young people. METHODS: In this qualitative study convenience sampling was used to select and invite participants. Information was collected from nine one-on-one interviews conducted with caregivers from rural areas within South Africa. The interview guide included nine main questions and optional probing questions. Each interview took place in an uninterrupted setting of choice associated with the caregivers' home environment. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis. RESULTS: Interview narratives were characterized by three central discourses - demoralized youths in a changing society, prevailing risks and modernity and a generation gap. The youths were discursively constructed as a problematic group relating to specific prevailing risks such as early pregnancies, modern technologies, STI/HIV and contraceptives. The interview narratives illustrated that caregivers tried to impose their views of a respectable lifestyle in young people. At the same time caregivers expressed a morality of despair mirroring a generation gap which counteracted their ability to communicate with their children and grandchildren. CONCLUSIONS: The findings add to the body of earlier research illustrating that rural South African caregivers and their children/grandchildren hold different moral standards. The interview material reflected a 'clash' between generations relating to their differing perceptions of a desirable lifestyle. To overcome the generational gap, we recommend further research about how a well-founded national and community collaboration linked to school-based programs can support family participation in order to empower adults in their communication with young people.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação entre Gerações , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Percepção Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 699-704, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367060

RESUMO

The ongoing substance misuse epidemic in the United States is complex and dynamic and should be approached as such in the development and evaluation of policy1. Drug overdose deaths (largely attributable to opioid misuse) in the United States have grown exponentially for almost four decades, but the mechanisms of this growth are poorly understood2. From analysis of 661,565 overdose deaths from 1999 to 2017, we show that the age-specific drug overdose mortality curve for each birth-year cohort rises and falls according to a Gaussian-shaped curve. The ascending portion of each successive birth-year cohort mortality curve is accelerated compared with that of all preceding birth-year cohorts. This acceleration can be attributed to either of two distinct processes: a stable peak age, with an increasing amplitude of mortality rate curves from one birth-year cohort to the next; or a youthward shift in the peak age of the mortality rate curves. The overdose epidemic emerged and increased in amplitude among the 1945-1964 cohort (Baby Boomers), shifted youthward among the 1965-1980 cohort (Generation X), and then resumed the pattern of increasing amplitude in the 1981-1990 Millennials. These shifting age and generational patterns are likely to be driven by socioeconomic factors and drug availability, the understanding of which is important for the development of effective overdose prevention measures.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Relação entre Gerações , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study are to (i) examine associations between grandparents' wealth and grandchild's initial body mass index (BMI) in early childhood and its subsequent growth patterns, and to (ii) assess whether the associations are similar for white and black children. METHODS: Data are from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and its supplemental studies of Child Development Supplement (CDS) and Transition to Adulthood (TA) (N = 2,128). Three-level growth curve models are used to analyze the association between exposure to grandparental wealth in early childhood and grandchildren's BMI growth trajectories, accounting for parental sociodemographic characteristics and maternal BMI levels. RESULTS: Children with less grandparental wealth in early childhood have higher initial BMI than children with more grandparental wealth. Further, increases in grandparental wealth in childhood are associated with a slower BMI growth rate. The wealth-body mass index associations are more evident among white children than black children. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals a multigenerational social gradient to body mass index. Elevating the wealth levels of the grandparent generation could potentially reduce their grandchildren's obesity risk. The protective role of grandparental wealth seems to be more evident among white families than black families.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Avós , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação entre Gerações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
20.
Age Ageing ; 49(5): 692-695, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377666

RESUMO

The goal of this commentary is to highlight the ageism that has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Over 20 international researchers in the field of ageing have contributed to this document. This commentary discusses how older people are misrepresented and undervalued in the current public discourse surrounding the pandemic. It points to issues in documenting the deaths of older adults, the lack of preparation for such a crisis in long-term care homes, how some 'protective' policies can be considered patronising and how the initial perception of the public was that the virus was really an older adult problem. This commentary also calls attention to important intergenerational solidarity that has occurred during this crisis to ensure support and social-inclusion of older adults, even at a distance. Our hope is that with this commentary we can contribute to the discourse on older adults during this pandemic and diminish the ageist attitudes that have circulated.


Assuntos
Ageismo , Envelhecimento , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relação entre Gerações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Instituições Residenciais/normas , Idoso , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Ageismo/psicologia , Ageismo/tendências , Envelhecimento/ética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Percepção Social
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