Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.302
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage has stagnated over the past decade and fallen short of WHO targets in Ethiopia. Community engagement strategies that reach beyond traditional health systems may reduce dropout and increase coverage. This evaluation assesses changes in immunization, postpartum family planning, and antenatal care coverage after implementation of an enhanced community engagement and defaulter tracing strategy, entitled "Fifth Child" project, across two districts in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A formative evaluation was conducted to examine the contribution of the strategy on immunization, postpartum family planning and antenatal care utilization in Assosa and Bambasi districts of BGRS. The quantitative findings are presented here. Routine and project-specific data were analyzed to assess changes in uptake of childhood vaccinations, postpartum family planning and antenatal care. Between January 2013 and December 2016, pentavalent-3 coverage increased from 63% to 84% in Assosa, and from 78% to 93% in Bambasi. Similarly, measles vaccine coverage increased from 77% to 81% in Assosa, and from 59% to 86% in Bambasi. Approximately 54% of all eligible infants across both woredas defaulted on scheduled vaccinations at least once during the period. Among defaulting children, 84% were identified and subsequently caught up on the vaccinations missed. Secondary outcomes of postpartum family planning and antenatal care also increased in both woredas. CONCLUSION: The "Fifth Child" project likely contributed to enhanced immunization performance and increased utilization of immunization and select perinatal health services in two woredas of BGRS. Further research is required in order to determine the impact of this community engagement strategy.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Programas de Imunização , Assistência Perinatal , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Participação da Comunidade , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104711

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic puts health workers at increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. However, no studies have assessed health workers' experiences using qualitative methods during the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States to identify novel factors that could relate to their mental health. In May 2020, we distributed an online survey to health workers across 25 medical centers throughout the United States. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Primary Care-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise and associated cutoff values were used to assess rates of probable major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol use disorder, respectively. To provide insight into the factors shaping these and other mental health conditions, we included two open-ended questions asking respondents to recount their most upsetting and hopeful experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and how it made them feel. Using a hybrid inductive-abductive approach and thematic content analysis, we created a Social Ecological Model to represent themes among health workers' experiences within five ecological levels: individual, interpersonal, organization, community, and public policy. Of the 1,132 participants who completed the survey, 14.0% had probable major depression, 15.8% probable generalized anxiety disorder, 23.1% probable post-traumatic stress disorder, and 42.6% probable alcohol use disorder. Individual level themes included participants' personal health and self-care behaviors. Interpersonal level themes included the health of their social circle, family functioning, and social support. Organization level themes included their hospital's management, resources, patient care, routine, and teams. Themes in the community level included the media, scientific knowledge about COVID-19, morale, behavior, and support of health workers. Lastly, government and health system leadership and shelter-in-place policy were themes within the public policy level. Our findings provide insights into novel factors that have impacted health workers' wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic. These factors should be further explored to inform interventions and public policy that mitigate mental health morbidities among health workers during this and future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
3.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 651-655, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013227

RESUMO

Migrant and seasonal farmworkers, who are essential workers in the coronavirus global public health emergency, face unique risks to their health as well as longstanding health inequities. This commentary highlights these risks and argues that Internet access represents an underappreciated but critical part of the public health response. The authors first discuss the unique risks farmworkers face. We note the importance of Internet access in the time of physical distancing, the fact that many health outreach workers are no longer visiting camps, the need for telemedicine infrastructure, and the role of Internet access in providing connections to families in communities of origin. We describe existing efforts that have been implemented in North Carolina to raise awareness among public health and health promotion practitioners and researchers. The current coronavirus pandemic demands the attention of medical libraries, public health practitioners, and policy makers to address the digital divide for farmworkers and their families.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Fazendeiros , Acesso à Internet , Bibliotecas Médicas , População Rural , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , North Carolina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003218, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decade of Boko Haram insurgency brought conflict, mass displacement, and the destruction of basic infrastructure to Northeast Nigeria. Over 2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) suffering from lack of basic hygienic conditions, malnutrition, and disease live in camps or are hosted by communities in the region, where the conflict has contributed to a massive destruction of health facilities. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB) and HIV are especially difficult to address under such conditions, and IDPs are vulnerable to both. Although international investment supports some health interventions among IDPs, locally sourced solutions are lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the impact of an active case finding (ACF) intervention for TB and testing for HIV in IDP communities and provided linkages to treatment in 3 states in Northeast Nigeria: Adamawa, Gombe, and Yobe. The ACF was a component of a multistakeholder collaboration between government, civil society, and IDP community partners, which also included mapping of IDP populations and health services, supporting existing health facilities, developing a sample transport network, and organizing community outreach to support ACF. Between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2018, ACF was conducted in 26 IDP camps and 963 host communities in 12 local government areas (LGAs) with another 12 LGAs serving as a control population. Outreach efforts resulted in 283,556 screening encounters. We screened 13,316 children and 270,239 adults including 150,303 (55.6%) adult women and 119,936 (44.4%) men. We tested 17,134 people for TB and 58,976 for HIV. We detected 1,423 people with TB and 874 people living with HIV. We linked 1,419 people to anti-TB treatment and 874 people with HIV to antiretroviral treatment sites. We evaluated additional TB cases notified and conducted comparative interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to assess the impact of ACF on TB case notifications. Through our efforts, bacteriologically confirmed TB notifications increased by 847 (45.1%) during the intervention period, with IDPs accounting for 46% of these notifications. The ITS analyses detected significant positive postintervention trend differences in TB notification rates between the intervention and control areas in all forms TB (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.136 [1.072, 1.204]; p ≤ 0.001) and bacteriologically positive TB (IRR = 1.141 [1.058, 1.229]; p = 0.001). The TB prevalence (502 cases per 100,000 screening encounters) was 10 times the national notification rates and 2.3 times the estimated national incidence. Rates of HIV infection (1.8%) were higher than HIV prevalence estimates in the 3 states. Our study was limited by the nonrandom selection of LGAs. Furthermore, we did not use sensitive screening tools like chest X-ray and likely missed people with TB. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a burden of TB in IDP populations of Northeast Nigeria many times higher than national rates and HIV rates higher than state level estimates. The impact of the intervention showed that ACF can greatly increase TB case notifications. Engaging IDP communities, local governments, and civil society organizations is essential to ensuring the success of interventions targeting TB and HIV, and such approaches can provide sustained solutions to these and other health crises among vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Refugiados , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872662

RESUMO

Health disparities in diabetes management and control are well-documented. The objective of this study is to describe one diabetes education program delivered in the United States in terms of the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) Planning and Evaluation Framework. Questionnaires, clinical data, and administrative records were analyzed from 8664 adults with diabetes living in South Texas, an area characterized by high health disparities. The Diabetes Education Program delivered was a professionally led 12-month program involving 8 h of in-person workshop education followed by quarterly follow-up sessions. Changes in average blood glucose levels over the past 3 months (e.g., A1c levels) were the primary clinical outcome. Descriptive and multiple generalized linear mixed models were performed. This community-based initiative reached a large and diverse population, and statistically significant reductions in A1c levels (p < 0.01) were observed among participants with Type 2 diabetes at 3 months. These reductions in A1c levels were sustained at 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up assessments (p < 0.01). However, considerable attrition over time at follow-up sessions indicate the need for more robust strategies to keep participants engaged. For this diabetes education program, the RE-AIM model was a useful framework to present study processes and outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Educação em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia
7.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 284-290, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124716

RESUMO

RESUMEN El artículo resume los resultados más importantes logrados a partir de la aplicación de un biomodelo de síndrome metabólico para la solución de varias problemáticas científicas. El modelo experimental se logró con la aplicación crónica de una dieta rica en sacarosa como agua de bebida a ratas Wistar machos durante 20 semanas desde la edad neonatal. Se contabilizaron parámetros bioquímicos, biométricos, presión arterial, y en el momento del sacrificio se detectaron alteraciones histológicas. Es objetivo de los autores comunicar los aportes de su implementación por su utilidad en el desarrollo de investigaciones científicas sobre temas afines en los currículos de pregrado y posgrado.


ABSTRACT In the article, the most important results achieved from the application of a metabolic syndrome biomodel for the solution of several scientific problems, are summarized. The experimental model was achieved by applying a high sucrose diet as drinking water to male Wistar rats since neonatal age for 20 weeks. Biochemical, biometric and blood pressure parameters were measured and at the time of slaughter histological alterations were identified. It is the authors' objective to share the contributions of implementing it because of its usefulness in the development of scientific research on related topics included in undergraduate and graduate curricula.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Educação Médica , Aprendizagem
8.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 241-260, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124713

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: los componentes objeto de investigación y campo de acción pueden parecer evidentes, pero falta claridad al definirlos y precisar su funcionamiento en el diseño de una investigación. Objetivo: definir los componentes objeto de investigación y su campo de acción, atendiendo a sus valores metodológico y epistemológico con el fin de revelar su función dentro del diseño de la investigación. Métodos: se revisaron 22 libros sobre metodología de la investigación y 13 artículos, de las bases de datos SCOPUS, SciELO, Redalyc y Redib, que hicieran referencia al objeto y al campo de la investigación. Se tomaron como referencia las posiciones filosóficas de la bibliografía consideradas clásicas del tema. El análisis teórico de los criterios encontrados permitió conformar las posiciones propuestas. Desarrollo: se reconoce la precedencia de los conceptos afines para comprender y establecer el objeto y el campo de investigación. Se analiza el valor metodológico de la identidad estructural-funcional entre el objeto de estudio de una ciencia y el objeto de investigación, así como su relación con el campo de la investigación. Conclusiones: una lógica válida para introducir los conceptos de objeto y campo de investigación, transita por: objeto, objeto del conocimiento, objeto de estudio de una ciencia y sus relaciones. El objeto de investigación tiene unidad estructural-funcional con el objeto de la ciencia en que se investiga, no así el campo de investigación. Ellos determinan, en el diseño de la investigación, la parte de la realidad que se investiga.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the object and field of action components may seem obvious, but there is a lack of clarity when defining them and at the time of specifying their functioning in a research design. Objective: to define the research object component and the field of action, taking into account the methodological and epistemological values so as to the function of them in the research design can be evident. Methods: 22 books related with research methodology and 13 articles, from the SCOPUS, SciELO, Redalyc and Redib where reference is made to the object and field of research, were reviewed. Philosophical positions of the bibliography that have been considered as classics of the subject, were taken as reference. Theoretical analysis of the criteria we found resulted in our definition and proposal. Development: the precedence of similar concepts is recognized in order to understand and establish the research domain and research object. The methodological value of the structural-functional identity between the object of study of a science and the research object is analyzed, as well as its relationship with the field of research. Conclusions: a valid logic to introduce the concepts of research object and field of research, goes through: object, object of knowledge, study object of a science and its relations. The research object has structural-functional unity with the science object about which we are researching, but not the field of research. In the research design this aspects determine the part of what is intended to be investigated.


Assuntos
Pesquisa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Aprendizagem
9.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 131-148, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124707

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: se necesita desarrollar una Didáctica que responda a las particularidades del proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la Estomatología y conferirle a la superación y la investigación en este campo el papel que le corresponde. Objetivo: fundamentar algunos preceptos teóricos sobre el uso de la didáctica particular de las ciencias médicas en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la Estomatología. Métodos: se realizó una investigación de desarrollo en la Facultad de Estomatología de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara durante los años 2016 a 2018. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético y sistémico estructural; empíricos: análisis documental, observación, grupos de enfoque y criterios de especialistas. Resultados: se constataron carencias en la aplicación de una didáctica particular en el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje en Estomatología, por lo que se realizó un análisis donde se fundamentaron sus componentes personales y no personales con nuevos elementos que sirven como sustento teórico para la realización de cualquier investigación que tenga este proceso como objeto de estudio. Conclusiones: los fundamentos teóricos derivados del análisis recibieron una valoración favorable por los especialistas consultados porque proporcionaron elementos importantes en los procesos de profesionalización docente o pedagogización del claustro de esta carrera, y por tanto, demandan su inclusión en la superación profesional pedagógica de sus docentes.


ABSTRACT Background: a Didactics that meets the particularities of the teaching and learning process of Stomatology as well as to give to training and research its rightful role in this field, needs to be developed. Objective: to provide some theoretical precepts on the use of the specific didactics of medical sciences in the teaching and learning process in Stomatology. Methods: a development research was carried out in the Stomatology Faculty at the University of Medical Sciences of Villa Clara from 2016 to 2018. Theoretical methods were used: historical-logical method, analytical-synthetic method and systemic-structural method; empirical methods: documentary analysis method, observation method, focus groups method and specialist criteria method. Results: we found deficiencies in the application of a specific didactics in the teaching and learning process in Stomatology. Therefore, an analysis through which we provided the personal and non-personal components with new elements that serve as theoretical support to conduct any research study that has this process as study object, was carried out. Conclusions: theoretical foundations resulting from the analysis had a favorable assessment from specialists were asked because they provided important elements in the processes of teaching professionalization or pedagogy of the teaching staff of this career, and therefore, they demand this elements be included in pedagogical professional development for teachers from this faculty.


Assuntos
Faculdades de Odontologia , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Educação Médica , Aprendizagem
10.
Edumecentro ; 12(3): 8-24, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124699

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: Cuba ha desplegado una estrategia nacional para la prevención y control contra la COVID-19; entre sus elementos se destaca la capacitación a profesionales y otros trabajadores del sector de la salud. Objetivo: mostrar el diseño y puesta en práctica de un curso de superación para la capacitación de profesionales y otros trabajadores sobre el abordaje hospitalario contra la COVID-19. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, entre marzo-mayo de 2020 en el Hospital Militar Universitario "Manuel Fajardo Rivero", de Santa Clara, Villa Clara. Se emplearon métodos teóricos: análisis-síntesis e inductivo-deductivo; empíricos: análisis documental, grupo nominal y el criterio de especialistas para la valoración del producto diseñado. Resultados: la capacitación se efectuó mediante el curso diseñado en la modalidad presencial con una semana de duración; consta de seis temas y está concebido según necesidades específicas de aprendizaje dependiendo de la actividad laboral de los trabajadores. Se aplicaron varios principios didácticos y diferentes modalidades evaluativas para comprobar la aprehensión de los contenidos, y se potencializó la simulación como estrategia didáctica. Conclusiones: el curso diseñado cumple los requerimientos didácticos, es pertinente, factible y tiene un adecuado tratamiento científico y metodológico en sus temas según el criterio de los especialistas consultados; su ejecución posibilitó medir el nivel de apropiación de conocimientos y habilidades para la atención a pacientes Su impacto positivo se ha demostrado cuando después de más de 60 días de trabajo ininterrumpido en el hospital no se ha reportado contagio entre sus trabajadores.


ABSTRACT Background: Cuba has developed a national strategy to prevent and control COVID-19; training for professionals and other workers from the healthcare sector are among the key elements included in it. Objective: to present the design and implementation of a training course for professionals and other workers about the hospital management of COVID-19. Methods: from March to May 2020 a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the "Manuel Fajardo Rivero" University Military Hospital, Santa Clara, Villa Clara. Theoretical methods were used: analysis-synthesis and inductive-deductive methods; empirical methods: documentary analysis, nominal group and expert judgement for evaluating the product design. Results: training was carried out according to a face to face learning course, for a week; it was divided into six topics and it was conceived according to specific learning needs depending on the labour peformed by workers. Several didactic principles and different types of evaluation were applied to check the content understanding, and simulation as didactic strategy, was enhanced. Conclusions: the course was designed to meet the didactic requirements, it is pertinent, feasible and it was designed taking into account an adequate scientific and methodological treatment for each topic according to expert judgement. Knowledge understanding and professional skills when working with patients were meaured after being implemented this course. The positive impact of it is evident since no contagion has been reported among workers in the hospital, for a continuous period of more than 60 days.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Educação Médica , Descrição de Cargo
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 594-602, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913283

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is shining a spotlight on the field of immunology like never before. To appreciate the diverse ways in which immunologists have contributed, Nature Reviews Immunology invited the president of the International Union of Immunological Societies and the presidents of 15 other national immunology societies to discuss how they and their members responded following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Distância Social , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
13.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52534

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Community engagement is crucial for public health initiatives, yet it remains an under-studied process within national disease elimination programs. This report shares key lessons learned for community engagement practices during a malaria outbreak response in the Los Tres Brazos neighborhood of urban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from 2015-2016. In this two-year period, 233 cases of malaria were reported—more than seven times the number of cases (31) reported in the previous two years. The initial outbreak response by the national malaria program emphasized “top-down” interventions such as active surveillance, vector control, and educative talks within the community. Despite a transient reduction in reported cases in mid-2015, transmission resurged at the end of 2015. The program responded by introducing active roles for trained community members that included door-to-door fever screening, testing with rapid diagnostic tests and treatment. Malaria cases declined significantly throughout 2016 and community-based active surveillance infrastructure helped to detect and limit a small episode of transmission in 2017. Results from qualitative research among community members revealed two key factors that facilitated their cooperation with community-based surveillance activities: motivation to help one’s community; and trust among stakeholders (community health workers, their neighbors and other key figures in the community, and malaria program staff and leadership). This experience suggests that community-led interventions and the program’s willingness to learn and adapt under changing circumstances can help control malaria transmission and pave the way for elimination.


[RESUMEN]. La participación de la comunidad es crucial para las iniciativas de salud pública, pero sigue siendo un proceso poco estudiado dentro de los programas nacionales de eliminación de enfermedades. En este informe se presentan las principales lecciones aprendidas respecto de las prácticas de participación comunitaria durante la respuesta al brote de malaria en el barrio Los Tres Brazos de la zona urbana de Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, de 2015 a 2016. En este período de dos años se notificaron 233 casos de malaria, más de siete veces el número de casos (31) notificados en los dos años anteriores. La respuesta inicial al brote por parte del programa nacional de malaria hizo hincapié en intervenciones "de arriba abajo" como la vigilancia activa, el control de vectores y las charlas educativas dentro de la comunidad. A pesar de la reducción transitoria de los casos notificados hacia mediados de 2015, la transmisión resurgió a finales de ese año. El programa respondió introduciendo funciones activas para miembros de la comunidad capacitados que incluían la detección de fiebre de casa en casa, pruebas de diagnóstico rápido y tratamiento. Los casos de malaria disminuyeron significativamente durante 2016 y la infraestructura de vigilancia activa basada en la comunidad ayudó a detectar y contener un episodio pequeño de transmisión en 2017. Los resultados de la investigación cualitativa entre los miembros de la comunidad revelaron dos factores clave que facilitaron su cooperación con las actividades de vigilancia basadas en la comunidad: la motivación para ayudar a la propia comunidad y la confianza entre las partes interesadas (los trabajadores sanitarios de la comunidad, los vecinos y otros actores clave de la comunidad, y el personal y la dirección del programa de lucha contra la malaria). Esta experiencia indica que las intervenciones dirigidas por la comunidad y la voluntad del programa de aprender y adaptarse a las circunstancias cambiantes pueden ayudar a controlar la transmisión de la malaria y facilitar el camino para su eliminación.


Assuntos
Malária , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Participação da Comunidade , Erradicação de Doenças , República Dominicana , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Participação da Comunidade , Erradicação de Doenças , República Dominicana
14.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 36(2): 135-145, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194183

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of the difference between leaders' and followers' level of subjective energy on the change in subordinates' energy one year later, and on customer-oriented citizenship behaviors. Building mainly on the crossover model, our time-lagged model also examines the moderating role of leader-member exchange. Results of polynomial regression and response surface analyses performed with a sample of 277 dyads in the retail sector indicate that the effect of the energy gap is asymmetrical, such that followers paired with a more energetic leader gain energy one year later, whereas those matched with less energetic leaders experience energy depletion. As expected, a high-quality relationship buffers the de-energizing effect of leaders with lower energy and augments the gain of energy triggered by more energetic leaders


Este estudio investiga el efecto de la diferencia del nivel de energía subjetiva de los líderes y los seguidores en el cambio de energía de los subordinados un año después y en los comportamientos cívicos orientados a los clientes. Partiendo del modelo de transmisión, nuestro modelo time-lagged analiza también el papel moderador del intercambio líder-miembro. Los resultados de la regresión polinómica y de los análisis de superficie de las respuestas llevados a cabo con una muestra de 277 díadas en el sector de comercio minorista indican que el efecto de la brecha energética es asimétrico, de modo que los seguidores emparejados con un líder más energético aumentan su energía un año después, mientras que los emparejados con líderes menos energéticos experimentan un agotamiento de energía. Como se esperaba, una relación de gran calidad amortigua el efecto desenergizante de los líderes con menor energía y aumenta la ganancia de energía activada por los líderes más energéticos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Liderança , Engajamento no Trabalho , Ambiente de Trabalho , Relações Trabalhistas , Relações Comunidade-Instituição
15.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(5): 307-308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833395

RESUMO

This article describes an innovative community-based pediatric clinical rotation for undergraduate nursing students. Students were charged with conducting interactive educational sessions on health-related topics of interest to participants in a six-week summer day camp for adolescents of Mexican heritage. At the completion of the experience, students identified social determinants of health that impacted the health of the community and the impact of the experience on their nursing practice. Overall, both the adolescents and the nursing students benefited from the experience. Community-academic partnerships can be used to promote student learning while contributing to the overall health of the community.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermagem Pediátrica/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pesquisa em Avaliação de Enfermagem
17.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 229-242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749875

RESUMO

Latinxs in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and present with more advanced disease than their non-Latinx peers, due to numerous barriers to care including HIV stigma. We describe the adaptation, implementation, and reach of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez (You Only Live Once), Baltimore's first social marketing campaign promoting HIV screening among Spanish-speaking Latinxs. The 6-month campaign promoted free HIV testing by addressing HIV stigma. The campaign included a website, a social marketing campaign, community outreach events, and advertisements via radio, billboards, local partners, and buses. During the campaign, there were 9,784 unique website users, and ads were served to over 84,592 people on social media platforms. Among Latinx HIV testers at the Baltimore City Health Department, 31.6% reported having seen or heard of Sólo Se Vive Una Vez and 25.3% of Latinx HIV testers reported that the campaign influenced them to get tested.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/educação , Marketing Social , Estigma Social , Migrantes/educação , Baltimore , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Migrantes/psicologia , Estados Unidos
18.
J Water Health ; 18(4): 522-532, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833678

RESUMO

While the Safe Drinking Water Act mandates testing of public water supplies in the USA, private well owners are responsible for testing and treating their own water. A small percentage of well owners perform annual testing as recommended and many never test at all for common and potentially harmful groundwater contaminants. Finding effective ways to inform residents of the risks associated with their private well drinking water and promote the testing and treatment for common contaminants is a challenge faced by federal, state, and local agencies concerned with public health. Targeting residents whose wells are most at risk for having levels of regulated contaminants above the drinking water standard is a potential way to efficiently reach individuals. Results of this study show that individuals who receive specific letters that a contaminant in a neighbor's well had exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for one of five common well water contaminants (arsenic, radon, Gross Alpha, Escherichia coli, and nitrates) were more likely to test their well than were individuals who received a general letter about common contaminants in the region. Outreach that reports more localized, specific information on contaminants in well water results in an increased chance of testing when compared with more regional and generalized contaminant information.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Água , Poços de Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708111

RESUMO

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been documented as an effective approach to research with underserved communities, particularly with racial and ethnic minority groups. However, much of the literature promoting the use of CBPR with underserved communities is written from the perspective of the researchers and not from the perspective of the community partner. The purpose of this article is to capture lessons learned from the community partners' insight gained through their experiences with CBPR. A multi-investigator consensus method was used to qualitatively code the transcripts of a CBPR story-telling video series. Seven major themes were identified: (1) expectations for engaging in research, (2) cultural humility, (3) respecting the partnership, (4) open communication, (5) genuine commitment, (6) valuing strengths and recognizing capacities, and (7) collaborating to yield meaningful results. The themes drawn from the community partner's voice align with the tenets of CBPR advanced in the academic literature. More opportunities to include the community voice when promoting CBPR should be undertaken to help introduce the concepts to potential community partners who may be research cautious.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Participação da Comunidade , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1041, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of health workers on uptake of maternal healthcare services is well documented; however, their outreach for family planning (FP) services and influence on the intention to use contraceptives is less explored in the Indian context. This study examined the extent of health worker outreach for FP service and its effects on intention to use contraceptives among currently married women aged 15-49 years. METHODS: This study used data from two rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of India, conducted during 2005-06 and 2015-16 respectively. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to understand the level of and change in health worker outreach for FP services over time, and its association with intention to use contraceptives among currently married women. RESULTS: In the past 10 years, health workers' outreach for FP service has significantly increased by about 10 percentage points, although the level is not optimal and only 28% of non-users were reached by health workers in 2015-16. Increase in the outreach to younger and low parity women was higher than their respective counterparts. Intention to use contraceptive among women who were not using any method was 41% when health workers contacted and discussed FP, compared to only 20% when there was no such contact with health workers. Multivariable analysis suggests that contact with health workers has significant positive effects on intention to use contraceptive (AOR = 3.05; p < 0.001; 95% CI 2.85-3.27). CONCLUSION: Increased scope of outreach of frontline health workers to provide FP communication and services will not only help in building knowledge of contraceptive methods but will also increase women's intention to use a method. For India, this may be the most promising way to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals 3.7, which calls for universal access to reproductive health services.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Intenção , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA