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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190104, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1101972

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the moral values that nursing teachers and students consider important for vocational training with those they believe are promoted throughout undergraduate study. Method: a qualitative research; an ethnographic study conducted at a public nursing school in the state of Rio de Janeiro, in 2018, involving 40 interviews with teachers and students and a participant observation phase. Results: the moral values that teachers and students consider important for vocational training, as well as those that are promoted, converge on prudence, respect, responsibility, and empathy. It is noteworthy that the knowledge was much cited by the respondents and this article interpreted it as prudence. However, in relation to the values promoted during undergraduation, students warn that these are stimulated when referring to the binomial student-user of health, because they do not feel to the same intensity the presence of these moral values in the teacher-student relationship. Conclusion: a powerful strategy for teaching about moral values is to promote the care of their own students, teachers and staff. In this way, mismatches are avoided between what is said and what is done by experiencing values such as prudence, respect, responsibility and empathy within interpersonal relationships and in the daily life of the school.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comparar los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes de enfermería consideran importantes para la formación profesional con los que creen que se promueven a lo largo de la carrera de grado. Método: investigación cualitativa; un estudio etnográfico realizado en el año 2018 en una facultad pública de enfermería del estado de Río de Janeiro, por medio de 40 entrevistas con profesores y estudiantes y una fase de observación de los participantes. Resultados: los valores morales que los profesores y estudiantes evalúan como importantes para la formación profesional, al igual como los que se promueven, convergen en la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía. Cabe destacar que el conocimiento fue muy citado por los entrevistados y, en este artículo, se lo interpretó como prudencia. Pese a ello, en relación con los valores promovidos a lo largo de la carrera de grado, los estudiantes manifiestan que se los fomenta cuando se refieren al binomio estudiante-usuario de servicios de salud, puesto que no sienten con la misma intensidad la presencia de estos valores en la relación profesor-estudiante. Conclusión: estamos frente a una poderosa estrategia para enseñar sobre los valores morales y promover el cuidado de sus propios estudiantes, profesores y personal administrativo. De esta manera, se evitan desencuentros entre lo que se dice y lo que se hace al respetar valores como la prudencia, el respeto, la responsabilidad y la empatía dentro de las relaciones interpersonales y en la vida cotidiana de la facultad.


RESUMO Objetivo: comparar os valores morais que professores e estudantes de enfermagem consideram importantes para a formação profissional com aqueles que eles acreditam que são promovidos ao longo da graduação. Método: pesquisa qualitativa; um estudo etnográfico realizado em uma faculdade pública de enfermagem do estado do Rio de Janeiro, em 2018, envolvendo 40 entrevistas com professores e estudantes e uma fase de observação participante. Resultados: os valores morais que os professores e estudantes avaliam ser importantes para a formação profissional, bem como aqueles que são promovidos, convergem para a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia. Vale destacar que o conhecimento foi muito citado pelos entrevistados e, este artigo, interpretou-o como prudência. Todavia, em relação aos valores promovidos ao longo da graduação, os estudantes alertam que estes são estimulados quando referem-se ao binômio estudante-usuário de saúde, pois não sentem na mesma intensidade a presença desses valores morais na relação professor-estudante. Conclusão: uma potente estratégia para ensinar sobre os valores morais é promover o cuidado dos seus próprios estudantes, professores e funcionários. Dessa maneira, evitam-se desencontros entre o que se diz e o que se faz ao vivenciar os valores como a prudência, o respeito, a responsabilidade e a empatia dentro das relações interpessoais e no cotidiano da faculdade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Teoria Ética , Ética , Moral , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Ensino , Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação em Enfermagem , Ética em Enfermagem , Docentes , Relações Interpessoais
4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 316, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries have implemented control measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is not clear to what extent these measures explain the low numbers of recorded COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa. One of the main aims of control measures is to reduce respiratory pathogen transmission through direct contact with others. In this study, we collect contact data from residents of informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya, to assess if control measures have changed contact patterns, and estimate the impact of changes on the basic reproduction number (R0). METHODS: We conducted a social contact survey with 213 residents of five informal settlements around Nairobi in early May 2020, 4 weeks after the Kenyan government introduced enhanced physical distancing measures and a curfew between 7 pm and 5 am. Respondents were asked to report all direct physical and non-physical contacts made the previous day, alongside a questionnaire asking about the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and control measures. We examined contact patterns by demographic factors, including socioeconomic status. We described the impact of COVID-19 and control measures on income and food security. We compared contact patterns during control measures to patterns from non-pandemic periods to estimate the change in R0. RESULTS: We estimate that control measures reduced physical contacts by 62% and non-physical contacts by either 63% or 67%, depending on the pre-COVID-19 comparison matrix used. Masks were worn by at least one person in 92% of contacts. Respondents in the poorest socioeconomic quintile reported 1.5 times more contacts than those in the richest. Eighty-six percent of respondents reported a total or partial loss of income due to COVID-19, and 74% reported eating less or skipping meals due to having too little money for food. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 control measures have had a large impact on direct contacts and therefore transmission, but have also caused considerable economic and food insecurity. Reductions in R0 are consistent with the comparatively low epidemic growth in Kenya and other sub-Saharan African countries that implemented similar, early control measures. However, negative and inequitable impacts on economic and food security may mean control measures are not sustainable in the longer term.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4583-4587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019014

RESUMO

In the recent decade, mobile exergaming has emerged as a way to motivate physical activity and thereby increase fitness. It has been found that those which encourage social interaction and multiplayer gaming leads to better fitness outcomes than single player games [1]. However, none have yet to tailor exergames for people who use wheelchairs due to lower mobility impairment. We present a mobile exergaming and fitness tracking app in which the exergames are tailored toward people in wheelchairs and features a virtual community which allows social interaction through multiplayer gaming and leaderboard features. We hypothesized that users would find the multiplayer games more useful for improving fitness than the single player games. However, perceived usefulness survey results indicate overall satisfaction with the main design features but not a particular preference for the multiplayer gaming over single player gaming. Users overall found the app useful and easy to use, and the results provide indication that the virtual community created through the multiplayer feature of the mobile exergaming app does promote and enhance exercising.Clinical relevance- Multiplayer gaming was designed into a mobile fitness app to encourage exercise amongst individuals in wheelchairs. The virtual community created is expected to increase activity levels and its many associated health benefits in this community, promote a greater sense of belonging, and increase social participation.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Cadeiras de Rodas , Computação em Nuvem , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 211-216, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087614

RESUMO

In this personal vision paper the Swedish approach to COVID-19 prompts an exploration of how and why assuming individual rationality coupled with minimal social restriction may be as good a solution as any and better than most. A COVID sub-model is developed and populated with probabilities for four outcomes of infecting another person (asymptomatic, sick, hospitalized, dead), conditional on three observable characteristics (sex, age, and BMI), and (dis)utilities for three categories of person (nearest/dearest, friends/colleagues and unknown others) experiencing those outcomes. The implications for a liberal democracy are drawn, based on the assumptions that individual citizens will and should maximise their informed expected utility, exhibiting 'commons sense' as well as common sense.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Amigos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Suécia
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es8, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870083

RESUMO

Cognitive neuroscience research is typically conducted in controlled laboratory environments that hold very little resemblance to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms. Fortunately, recent advances in portable electroencephalography technology now allow researchers to collect brain data from groups of students in real-world classrooms. Even though this line of research is still new, there is growing evidence that students' engagement, memory retention, and social dynamics are reflected in the brain-to-brain synchrony between students and teachers (i.e., the similarity in their brain responses). In this Essay, I will provide an overview of this emerging line of research, discuss how this approach can facilitate new collaborations between neuroscientists and discipline-based education researchers, and propose directions for future research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Tecnologia/educação , Universidades , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudantes/psicologia
8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 26(5): 400-404, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936586

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and its need for social distancing as a response have the potential to increase the experience of loneliness in the population, with an associated increase in symptoms of mental disorders. As the world has largely adapted to remote platforms for employment, socializing, and health service delivery, the degree to which virtual opportunities for social engagement may offset the impact of limited in-person interactions on mental health functioning is unknown. This column offers preliminary data from an ongoing experience sampling study of the prevalence, course, and impact of loneliness on mental health in a community adult sample living under social distancing requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic. Initial findings aggregated across all experience sampling reports showed negative associations between virtual social contact (via text, phone, or videoconferencing) and feelings of loneliness, while in-person interactions appeared to have no impact on loneliness. In addition, respondents reported frequent instances of negative effects on physical and mental health, including disruptions in sleep and recurring suicidal ideation. While further analyses are needed, these findings are consistent with similar emerging reports showing increased rates of mental health concerns during periods of social distancing. Possible avenues for addressing these concerns using remote interventions are explored.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Realidade Virtual , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Dados Preliminares , Prevalência
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3341, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify and analyze the perceptions and practices of health professionals and of the third sector regarding adolescence and violence between intimate adolescent partners. METHOD: an exploratory and descriptive study. Data was collected in two sessions of a Critical-Emancipatory Work Workshop carried out with 55 professionals who work in Primary Health Care services and services related to the third sector. Data was submitted to content analysis with the support of the WebQDA software. The categories of analysis used were gender and generation. RESULTS: the perceptions and practices in the face of violence between intimate adolescent partners are based on common sense and subjugate female adolescents in particular. In the health services, violence is perceived during consultations for other demands, under the biomedical paradigm. Third sector professionals understand the confrontation of violence as a responsibility of the health area. CONCLUSION: negative and stereotyped conceptions of violence between intimate adolescent partners are marked by gender and generation biases. The study highlights the need to promote networking actions in the professional practices that consider the historical and social understanding of adolescence to cope with the problem.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Violência
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915878

RESUMO

Catastrophes are known to have an impact on relationships as well as on mental health. This study evaluated differences in several mental health and well-being measures according to relationship quality during the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic and related lockdown measures. A cross-sectional online survey was launched four weeks after lockdown measures were implemented in Austria. Relationship quality was measured with the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), and mental health measures included quality of life (WHO-QOL BREF psychological domain), well-being (WHO-5), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), stress (PSS-10), and sleep quality (ISI). ANOVAs with Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc tests and Chisquared tests were applied. In all mental health scales, individuals with good relationship quality (n = 543) scored better than individuals with poor relationship quality (n = 190) or without relationship (n = 272). The odds ratios (OR) between the poor and good relationship quality groups were 3.5 for the PHQ-9, 3.4 for the GAD-7, and 2.0 for the ISI. Additionally, individuals without no relationship scored better on all scales than individuals with poor relationship quality (all p-values < .05). Relationship quality was related to mental health during COVID-19. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased according to relationship quality from 13% up to 35%. Relationship per se was not associated with better mental health, but the quality of the relationship was essential. Compared to no relationship, a good relationship quality was a protective factor whereas a poor relationship quality was a risk factor.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 7(4): 294-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920634

RESUMO

Individuals experiencing brain aging, cognitive decline, and dementia are currently confronted with several more complex challenges due to the current Sars-Cov-2 pandemic as compared to younger and cognitively healthy people. During the first six months of the pandemic, we are experiencing critical issues related to the management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The evolving, highly contagious global viral spread has created a pressure test of unprecedented proportions for the existing brain health care infrastructure and related services for management, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Social distancing and lock-down measures are catalyzing and accelerating a technological paradigm shift, away from a traditional model of brain healthcare focused on late symptomatic disease stages and towards optimized preventive strategies to slow brain aging and increase resilience at preclinical asymptomatic stages. Digital technologies transform global healthcare for accessible equality of opportunities in order to generate better outcomes for brain aging aligned with the paradigm of preventive medicine.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Tecnologia
12.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 74(3): 212-213, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967544

RESUMO

In this article, the author from Rochester General Hospital reflects on COVID impact: "Communication has sometimes suffered cold and automated relationship outcomes but there are oases in this dessert." Personal signals in a public world are humanizing artifacts in a new sterile and hypercontrolled virtual reality.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internet , Relações Interpessoais , Assistência Religiosa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933019

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological impact of confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, considering any protective factors, such as the practice of meditation or self-compassion, and their relationship with different lifestyles and circumstances of adults residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was done using an anonymous online survey in which 412 participants filled out the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-2; the Impact of Events Scale; and the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, reporting severe symptomatology of posttraumatic stress and mild anxiety and depression. Quality of cohabitation and age were found to be key variables in the psychological impact of confinement. The impact of confinement was more negative for those who reported very poor cohabitation as opposed to very good (F (3, 405) = 30.75, p ≤ 0.001, d = 2.44, r = 0.054) or for those under 35 years of age compared to those over 46 (F (2, 409) = 5.14, p = 0.006, d = 0.36). Practicing meditation was not revealed as a protective factor, but self-compassion was related to better cohabitation during confinement (F (3, 403) = 11.83, p ≤ 0.001, d = 1.05). These results could be relevant in designing psychological interventions to improve coping and mental health in other situations similar to confinement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meditação , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Espanha
15.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 203-222, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910672

RESUMO

The crisis in the health system caused by COVID-19 has left some important humanitarian deficits on how to care for the sick in their last days of life. The humanization of the dying process has been affected in three fundamental aspects, each of which constitutes a medical and ethical duty necessary. In this study, I analyze why dying accompanied, with the possibility of saying goodbye and receiving spiritual assistance, constitutes a specific triad of care and natural obligations that should not be overlooked - even in times of health crisis - if we do not want to see human dignity violated and violated some fundamental rights derived from it.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Espiritualidade , Assistência Terminal/ética , Desumanização , Emoções , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Obrigações Morais , Cuidados Paliativos , Conforto do Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes/ética , Direitos do Paciente , Pessoalidade , Papel do Médico , Religião , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Visitas a Pacientes
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 167-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Video game has become the preferred form of play among youth. Substantial research has mainly examined problems related to potential negative effects of video games ranging from sedentary screen time, exposure to violence, and excessive or problematic gaming. However, over the past two decades, the use of video games in psychotherapy has become increasingly popular with a lot of applications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: After a review of the use and the effectiveness of commercial video games in the psychotherapy framework, we will share our experience in the use of video games in a child and adolescent psychiatric unit. We will illustrate it with the presentation of specific case reports. RESULT: As video games are highly popular among children and adolescents, they are also interesting tools in the psychotherapeutic work with them. It's a new kind of play therapy, considering the setting, the psychological material that expresses during the game, the interpersonal relationships between gamers, the projective representation within the avatars, the cognitive strategies within the game. CONCLUSIONS: Video games represent an essential tool in taking care of child psychiatric patients because of their popularity. They contribute greatly to build the patient/psychotherapist relationship. They help to approach cognitive, emotional and social patient's functioning, and also psychopathologic understanding and then psychiatric diagnosis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Psicoterapia
18.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 440-443, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877105

RESUMO

The child's conflictual family environment. Children and adolescents currently experience multiple family situations that feed their psychological construction towards adulthood. Conflicts between parents or the separation of the parental couple mark a change in the family system. Different psychological mechanisms can describe this impact, including the feeling of vigilance, the perception of a potential danger, or the belief that the person is at fault and responsible for the disputes. They can be articulated around cognitive skills (how the child assesses and understands the conflict), emotional possibilities (through his or her ability to regulate emotions in the face of conflict) and behavioural skills (how the child or adolescent is involved in the conflict). To create this environment, the use of family mediation centres makes it possible to create new opportunities for communication between parents. Child protection actors must be notified when acts of violence are committed against the child or adolescent, or if they are exposed to violent marital conflicts. Mental health systems offer specific care when characterized disorders have been identified. The commitment of both parents is sought to provide a space for everyone to express themselves.


Assuntos
Família , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Violência
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925591, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Beginning in the 2020 spring semester, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all school-age children in China were homeschooled via live/recorded broadcasts, online group communication, and software-based homework submission. This study assessed the effects of and proper preparation for this educational approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS The homeschooling behaviors and feelings of school-age children were assessed with 2010 online surveys obtained separately from students, parents, and teachers of grades 1-9 in 15 Chinese provinces. Answers were compared among low- (grades 1-3), middle- (grades 4-6), and high- (grades 7-9) grade groups. The chi-square test was used to identify significant differences between groups. RESULTS We found that 76% of the respondents thought the homeschooling style was acceptable. However, teachers were concerned that students' interest, focus, and academic performance would decline. Sixty-nine percent of the parents reported their children had more than 3 hours of daily screen time, and 82% of students had less than 2 hours of daily outdoor activity. Ninety-five percent of the parents were concerned about their children's eyesight. Additionally, 17.6% of the students were suspected to have emotional or behavioral problems according to the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) results. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) results of parents and teachers showed higher levels of anxiety than usual. CONCLUSIONS Students should continue the going-to-school rhythm at home to cope with changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrated grade-specific approaches are needed. Because long screen time and insufficient outdoor activities can severely affect children's eyesight, appropriate eye-protection measures should be implemented.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Educação a Distância , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicologia da Criança , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
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