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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 8-29, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1150659

RESUMO

O presente artigo resulta de uma pesquisa intervenção de cunho qualitativo, realizada com quinze adolescentes de uma instituição localizada litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para coleta de dados foram realizadas oficinas musicais, nas quais os participantes escolheram letras de músicas para abordar questões a respeito de sua condição de vida, discorrendo sobre o território onde vivem, a percepção que têm de si e do tempo e sobre as suas redes sociais de apoio. Em um corte temático para efeitos deste artigo, as redes sociais de apoio foram eleitas como a temática a ser analisada e discutida por meio da análise temático-categorial. Os resultados apontaram para um espaço escolar com uma função indefinida, pautado na contestação das regras e normas que são impostas, onde ocorrem brincadeiras e intrigas. Quanto à rede de amigos, observou-se que essa relação é baseada nos sentimentos de confiança e de lealdade, se configurando como uma rede essencial nesse ciclo da vida, assim como a família que se apresenta como um fator de proteção, mesmo perpassando situações conflituosas, de violência, mortes e separações.(AU)


The proposal of this paper is a result from a qualitative intervention research conducted with fifteen teenagers from an institution located north coast of Santa Catarina. For data collection, music workshops were made and the participants chose music lyrics that address questions about their life condition, talking about the place where they live, their perception of themselves, their perception of the time and of the social support networks. In a cutting theme for the proposes of this article, the social support networks were chosen as the theme to be analyzed and discussed by thematic-categorical analysis. The results pointed to a school area with an undefined function, based on the contestation of the rules and regulations that are imposed, where the games and intrigues happen. Referring to the friends network, observed that this relation is based on feelings of trust and loyalty, setting up as a essential network in the life cycle, as well as the family that presents itself as a protective factor, even through conflict situations , violence, deaths an separations.(AU)


El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación de intervención con enfoque cualitativo, realizada con quince adolescentes de una institución localizada en litoral norte de Santa Catarina. Para la coleta de dados fueron realizados talleres musicales, en los cuales los miembros preferirán letras de canciones que enfoquen cuestiones con respecto a su condición de vida, disertando sobre los lugares donde viven, la percepción que tienen de sí propio, del tiempo y sus redes de apoyo social. En un tema de corte para los efectos de este artículo, se eligieron las redes de apoyo social como el tema para ser analizado y debatido por el análisis de temáticas-categóricas. Los resultados apuntaron para un espacio escolar con una función indefinida, pautado en la contestación de las reglas y normas que son impuestas, donde hay juegos y chismes. Cuanto a la rede de amistades, se ha observado que esta relación se basa en los sentimientos de confianza y de lealtad, se perfila como una red esencial en el ciclo de vida, así como la familia es presentada como un factor de protección, incluso impregna situaciones contradictorias, con violencia, muertes y separaciones.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Rede Social , Música , Fatores de Proteção , Relações Interpessoais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 377-390, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096760

RESUMO

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented event for the entire world. Stay-at-home orders, many children being taught at home, health anxieties, and the subsequent economic downturn have collectively resulted in significant stress. Recent work has established that some individuals report drinking more in response to experiencing pandemic-related stress, but data has largely been limited to individuals and to psychological stress. Methods: This research investigated how own (actor) and partner psychological and financial stress about the pandemic were associated with alcohol consumption, high-intensity drinking frequency, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in a sample of 118 couples during the month of July 2020. We also explored whether own (actor) and partner effects were moderated by gender. Results: Results using indistinguishable Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) demonstrated that own psychological stress was associated with higher scores on all drinking indices, and own financial stress was associated with higher coping motives and alcohol-related problems. Partner psychological and financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of coping motives, and partner financial stress was related to own greater endorsement of alcohol-related problems. In APIMs with mixed-sex couples, men's psychological and financial stress were positively related to both his own and his partner's drinks per week, high-intensity drinking, and coping motives. Men's financial stress was also positively related to his own and his partner's alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Results provide considerable insight into couple dynamics related to pandemic stress and have direct implications for alcohol prevention and treatment efforts as we navigate this serious crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Estresse Financeiro/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medwave ; 21(4): e8186, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086666

RESUMO

Introduction: On March 19, 2020, preventive and mandatory social isolation was decreed in Argentina in response to the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the disease it causes (COVID-19). This measure aimed to reduce the transmission of the virus and the resulting severe respira-tory condition that frequently besets older adults. However, this measure can also affect the support networks of these isolated people. Objectives: To explore the emerging needs related to the mental health of isolated older adults in this period and to identify the main support networks they have and the emerging coping strategies in the face of the situation. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory qualitative study, summoning participants over 60 years of age. Using snowball sampling, a group of researchers contacted them by phone to collect data. The analysis of the findings was triangulated among researchers with different academic backgrounds (medicine, psychology, and sociology). The concepts emerging from the interviews were linked in conceptual networks using an inductive methodology and were mapped into conceptual frameworks available to researchers. Atlas.ti 8 software was used for coding. Results: Thirty-nine participants belonging to the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area were interviewed between April and July 2020. For greater clarity, the main themes were described in five cross-sectional axes: network configurations, resources and coping strategies, affective states and emo-tions, perceptions and reflections on the future, and actions emerging from the participatory approach. Participants reported distress, anxiety, anger, uncertainty, exhaustion, and expressed fear of contagion from themselves and their loved ones. We identify greater vulnerability in people living alone, in small and closed environments, with weak linkages and networks, or limited access to technologies. We also found vari-ous coping strategies and technology was a fundamental factor in maintaining the bonds. Conclusions: The findings of this research have implications for decision-making at the individual level, health systems, professional care, and policy devel-opment. Future research may elucidate the regional, temporal, and socioeconomic variations of the phenomena explored in our research.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Relações Familiares , Medo , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/psicologia , Rede Social , Participação Social , Apoio Social
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 262, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to excess fetal adrenal androgens in-utero, and often born with masculinised genitalia. They are conventionally reared as females, but show more "boyish" gender-role behaviour (GRB) and gender-identity (GI) issues in childhood and adolescence. Male-rearing is also reported mainly due to delayed treatment and/or socio-cultural factors. We compared GRB/GI in girls with CAH with healthy age matched children, and explored for associations with socio-demographic and diagnosis/treatment related factors. METHODS: GRB and GI were assessed using the Gender Identity Questionnaire for children (GIQC) in 27 girls with classical CAH at a specialised clinic, and compared with 50 age-matched healthy controls, with exploratory-analysis based on socio-demographic and diagnosis/treatment-related factors. RESULTS: Girls with CAH had lower total GIQC scores compared to healthy children (3.29 vs. 4.04, p = < 0.001) with lower GRB score (3.39 vs. 4.23, p < 0.001), and tendency for lower GI score (3.19 vs. 3.5, p = 0.08). Exploratory analysis showed no differences based on diagnosis/treatment factors including age, degree of virilisation at diagnosis and surgical procedures. and only subtle changes based on ethnicity and maternal education. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Girls with CAH managed at a specialised centre showed more masculinised GRB and tendency for ambiguous GI, which did not vary upon diagnosis/treatment related factors, suggesting that prenatal androgen exposure was the likely contributor. Clinicians should be vigilant about the increased risk of gender-related problems in girls with CAH, irrespective of sociocultural background and despite early treatment.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita , Adolescente , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Androgênios , Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071829

RESUMO

Supporting the development of a child with autism is a multi-profile therapeutic work on disturbed areas, especially understanding and linguistic expression used in social communication and development of social contacts. Previous studies show that it is possible to perform some therapy using a robot. This article is a synthesis review of the literature on research with the use of robots in the therapy of children with the diagnosis of early childhood autism. The review includes scientific journals from 2005-2021. Using descriptors: ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorders), Social robots, and Robot-based interventions, an analysis of available research in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science was done. The results showed that a robot seems to be a great tool that encourages contact and involvement in joint activities. The review of the literature indicates the potential value of the use of robots in the therapy of people with autism as a facilitator in social contacts. Robot-Assisted Autism Therapy (RAAT) can encourage child to talk or do exercises. In the second aspect (prompting during a conversation), a robot encourages eye contact and suggests possible answers, e.g., during free conversation with a peer. In the third aspect (teaching, entertainment), the robot could play with autistic children in games supporting the development of joint attention. These types of games stimulate the development of motor skills and orientation in the body schema. In future work, a validation test would be desirable to check whether children with ASD are able to do the same with a real person by learning distrust and cheating the robot.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Robótica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26029, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032723

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous studies were controversial about the role of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer (EC). This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effect size of psychosocial risk factors for EC in Chinese cohort.A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese databases, and odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled using a random-effects model.28 studies were identified with a total of 6951 EC cases and 7469 controls. The meta-analysis indicated a higher risk of EC among the individuals with psychological trauma (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.71-3.26), Type A behavior (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.17-1.67), depression (OR: 4.00, 95% CI: 2.44-6.55), melancholy (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.32-3.20), always in sulks (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.21-5.12), and irritable personality (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.58-2.89). A lower EC risk was found in the individuals with good interpersonal relationship (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70) and outgoing personality (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.78).This meta-analysis suggested a potential association between psychosocial factors and EC risk. For the individuals with psychosocial risk factors, physicians should pay more attention to EC screening.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Humor Irritável , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 83, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a crisis unprecedented in its size and scope. Yet studies of resilience suggest most individuals will successfully negotiate this challenge and some may even experience growth and positive change. Some evidence suggests that the capacity to enact positive change in the face of adversity may be shaped by early life experiences. METHODS: In a subset of 374 participants (57% female, mean age = 29 years) in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), a longitudinal, birth cohort, prospective models were tested to determine whether early life adversities in family and neighborhood contexts predict positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Childhood family and neighborhood contexts were assessed using a combination of self-report questionnaires and US Census data. Adulthood positive change events (e.g., becoming more appreciative of things usually taken for granted) were assessed using the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory (EPII). RESULTS: In regression analyses, neighborhood disadvantage in childhood, measured both by objective and subjective assessments, predicted a higher number of positive change events in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .15, p = .006, respectively). Examination of the positive change event subscales showed neighborhood disadvantage in childhood predicted increases in events related to 'perspective taking and charitable giving' (ß = .20, p = .022 and ß = .17, p = .002, respectively) and improved 'social relationships' (ß = .18, p = .004 and ß = .13, p = .020, respectively), but not to positive 'health behaviors' (ps > .05). All associations were independent of sociodemographic factors and childhood family dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage in childhood may shape prosocial responses to stress in adulthood, potentially through early life adaptions to stress that are protective when facing adversity. There are several notable implications of the study findings. Although adversity in early life has clear negative impacts, it is possible that adversity experiences may also provide opportunities to develop adaptive strategies that foster resilience and growth when facing stress. Intervention efforts should consider leveraging such stress-adapted strengths to reduce the many negative impacts of early life adversity.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
J Affect Disord ; 289: 98-104, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962368

RESUMO

Loneliness is a common experience in adolescence and is related to a range of mental health problems. Such feelings may have been increased by social distancing measures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate the effect of loneliness, social contact, and parent relationships on adolescent mental health during lockdown in the UK. Young people aged 11-16 years (n = 894) completed measures of loneliness, social contact, parent-adolescent relationships, and mental health difficulties during the first 11 weeks of lockdown and one-month later (n = 443). We examined cross-sectional associations and longitudinal relationships between loneliness, social contact, and parent relationships and subsequent mental health. Adolescents who reported higher loneliness had significantly higher symptoms of mental health difficulties during lockdown. We found that adolescents who had closer relationships with their parents reported significantly less severe symptoms of mental health difficulties and lower levels of loneliness. We also found that adolescents who spent more time texting others reported higher symptoms of mental health difficulties. Our hypothesis that loneliness would predict poorer mental health one month later was not supported. Time spent texting others at baseline was significantly associated with higher hyperactivity at follow-up, and closeness to parents was significantly associated with lower psychological distress at follow-up. We conclude that while loneliness was associated with greater mental health difficulties at baseline, it did not predict increased mental health difficulties one month later. Moreover, existing mental health problems significantly predicted later increase, thereby highlighting the importance of continuing support for vulnerable people.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão , Saúde Mental
10.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 489-500, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014705

RESUMO

This study takes an affiliative coping theory perspective to examine whether working adults reactivated dormant ties with individuals they had not contacted for at least 3 years to cope with stressors experienced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Stressors originating in the workplace (job insecurity and remote work) and in the family (stressful familial social ties) were examined in a sample of 232 working adults in the southeastern United States. Individuals were more likely to reactivate their dormant ties when their job was insecure, and the magnitude of the reactivations was greater among individuals experiencing stressful social ties with family members than those not experiencing those stressors. We also found that there was a significant interaction between remote work and having a stressful tie within the household in dormant tie reactivation. Although previous theory has focused mostly on the benefits of frequent, active social relationships for coping, our results suggest that reactivating dormant ties might be a coping mechanism as well. Our study also suggests that workplace dormant tie research should broaden its focus beyond exchanged instrumental support to consider emotional support that might be transferred during reactivation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 278: 180-186, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042892

RESUMO

Human attachment describes the establishment of contact between two or more people leading to a closer interpersonal relationship. For measuring attachment, the use of nonverbal assessments tools including art and drawing tasks has been shown to be an alternative to conventional assessment approaches. The present study aims at evaluating the internal criterion validity of a new digital drawing tool for measuring interpersonal attachment. 68 participants took part in this pilot study and were separated in groups of two. After completion of a 10-item subscale of Social Orientation (SO) they were asked to sit opposite to the other and to hold eye contact during a three minute drawing period. Moving the pen to the upper section near the partner stood for thoughts about the other, while moving to the lower section closest to the subject implicated thoughts about oneself. The mean distance of the resulting time series of the two subjects were calculated, using the mean Euclidean distance, and compared with the difference in the SO values via linear regression. Taking all differences together a moderate correlation of r = 0.298 was observed, which however slightly missed the level of significance (p = 0.09). We were able to find small evidence for the criterion validity of IU digital drawing tool. For future studies, other measures of similarity in the time series, i.e. the Manhattan Distance are discussed as an extension to foster the present results.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comunicação não Verbal , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 890, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social relationships are crucial for well-being and health, and considerable research has established social stressors as a risk for well-being and health. However, researchers have used many different constructs, and it is unclear if these are actually different or reflect a single overarching construct. Distinct patterns of associations with health/well-being would indicate separate constructs, similar patterns would indicate a common core construct, and remaining differences could be attributed to situational characteristics such as frequency or intensity. The current meta-analysis therefore investigated to what extent different social stressors show distinct (versus similar) patterns of associations with well-being and health. METHODS: We meta-analysed 557 studies and investigated correlations between social stressors and outcomes in terms of health and well-being (e.g. burnout), attitudes (e.g. job satisfaction), and behaviour (e.g. counterproductive work behaviour). Moderator analyses were performed to determine if there were differences in associations depending on the nature of the stressor, the outcome, or both. To be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals in English or German; participants had to be employed at least 50% of a full-time equivalent (FTE). RESULTS: The overall relation between social stressors and health/well-being was of medium size (r = -.30, p < .001). Type of social stressor and outcome category acted as moderators, with moderating effects being larger for outcomes than for stressors. The strongest effects emerged for job satisfaction, burnout, commitment, and counterproductive work behaviour. Type of stressor yielded a significant moderation, but differences in effect sizes for different stressors were rather small overall. Rather small effects were obtained for physical violence and sexual mistreatment, which is likely due to a restricted range because of rare occurrence and/or underreporting of such intense stressors. CONCLUSIONS: We propose integrating diverse social stressor constructs under the term "relational devaluation" and considering situational factors such as intensity or frequency to account for the remaining variance. Practical implications underscore the importance for supervisors to recognize relational devaluation in its many different forms and to avoid or minimize it as far as possible in order to prevent negative health-related outcomes for employees.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Satisfação no Emprego , Atitude , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 106-113, abril 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151490

RESUMO

Introducción. En estudios anteriores, el uso excesivo o la exposición temprana a pantallas se asoció con atención deficiente, falta de control de la conducta, retraso del lenguaje y déficit en la función ejecutiva. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la relación entre el tiempo de uso de pantallas y la regulación emocional, que afecta las relaciones sociales de los niños de 2 a 5 años.Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal en un hospital universitario del 1.º de enero al 1.º de marzo de 2018. Se incluyó a madres de niños sanos de 2 a 5 años con un uso de pantallas inferior a 1 hora o superior a 4 horas. A quienes aceptaron participar se les administró una encuesta estructurada y la Emotion Regulation Checklist para padres.Resultados. De los 240 niños participantes, 98 (el 40,8 %) tenían un uso de pantallas ≥ 4 horas. Ser cuidado por la madre, tener 12 meses o más durante la primera exposición y no estar acompañado por los padres al usarlas se asociaron con ≥ 4 horas de uso de pantallas (p = 0,002; p = 0,002; p = 0,012, respectivamente). La proporción de participantes con una puntuación alta de labilidad/negatividad (L/N) fue significativamente mayor entre los niños con ≥ 4 horas de uso de pantallas y que no estaban acompañados por sus padres al usarlas (p = 0,004; p = 0,033, respectivamente).Conclusiones. Este estudio determinó que un uso excesivo de pantallas se asocia con labilidad emocional durante esta etapa temprana de la infancia.


Introduction. Previous studies have found that excessive screen time or early screen exposure is associated with poor attention, lack of behavioral control, delayed language and deficit in executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between screen time and emotion regulation skills, which is one of the important life components affecting the social relations of children aged 2 to 5 years.Population and methods.This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a university hospital between January 1, 2018 and March 1, 2018. Mothers of healthy children aged 2-5 years with a daily screen time of less than 1 hour or over 4 hours were included in the study. A structured survey and the Emotion Regulation Checklist for parents were applied to the mothers who agreed to participate.Results. Of 240 children participating in the study, 98 (40.8 %) had ≥4 hours of screen time. Caring by mother, age at first screen exposure 12 months and older, not co-viewing with parents were found to be associated with ≥ 4 hours of screen time (p = 0.002, p = 0.002, p = 0.012, respectively). The ratio of participants with high-lability/negativity (L/N) score was significantly higher in children with screen time of ≥ 4 hours and not co-viewing with parents (p = 0.004, p = 0.033, respectively).Conclusions. This study investigating the relationship between the emotion regulation skill and screen time revealed that excessive screen time is associated with emotional lability in this early childhood period.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Tempo de Tela , Regulação Emocional , Turquia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(734): 760, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852216
15.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 506-513, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812323

RESUMO

Suicide-specific rumination, characterized by perseveration on and difficulties disengaging from suicidal thoughts and ideas, has been linked to increased suicide risk; however, previous studies were limited by the use of a cross-sectional design and relatively lower risk samples. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings by examining the short-term longitudinal association between suicide-specific rumination and suicidal intent, controlling for numerous robust covariates, in a sample of community-based adults at high risk for suicide, who were recruited from suicide-related forums online. Ninety-one adults with significant suicidal ideation (Mage = 27.03, SD = 8.64; 53.8% female, 44.0% male, 1.1% non-binary, 1.1% transgender female) completed brief online self-report measures at six time-points, each three days apart. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that suicide-specific rumination was associated with suicidal intent, above and beyond suicidal ideation, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, agitation, insomnia, nightmares, and sociodemographic characteristics. Further, a lagged model demonstrated that suicide-specific rumination predicted subsequent time-point suicidal intent, controlling for current suicidal intent and all other covariates. Overall, these findings suggest that perseverating on one's suicidal thoughts may serve as a proximal factor that increases suicide risk. Future investigations should explore potential mechanisms of this association, as well as interventions that may reduce suicide-specific rumination.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adulto , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Sonhos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(2): 310-321, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861153

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic triggered university lockdowns, forcing physiology educators to rapidly pivot laboratories into a remote delivery format. This study documents the experiences of an international group of 10 physiology educators surrounding this transition. They wrote reflective narratives, framed by guiding questions, to answer the research question: "What were the changes to physiology laboratories in response to the COVID-19 pandemic?" These narratives probed educators' attitudes toward virtual laboratories before, during, and after the transition to remote delivery. Thematic analysis of the reflections found that before COVID-19 only a few respondents had utilized virtual laboratories and most felt that virtual laboratories could not replace the in-person laboratory experience. In response to university lockdowns, most respondents transitioned from traditional labs to remote formats within a week or less. The most common remote delivery formats were commercially available online physiology laboratories, homemade videos, and sample experimental data. The main challenges associated with the rapid remote transition included workload and expertise constraints, disparities in online access and workspaces, issues with academic integrity, educator and student stress, changes in learning outcomes, and reduced engagement. However, the experience generated opportunities including exploration of unfamiliar technologies, new collaborations, and revisiting the physiology laboratory curriculum and structure. Most of the respondents reported planning on retaining some aspects of the remote laboratories postpandemic, particularly with a blended model of remote and on-campus laboratories. This study concludes with recommendations for physiology educators as to how they can successfully develop and deliver remote laboratories.


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Docentes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Fisiologia/educação , Realidade Virtual , Currículo , Escolaridade , Previsões , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Relações Interpessoais , Invenções , Aprendizagem , Quarentena , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805082

RESUMO

Objective: Self-harm is an important public health issue in the UK. Young people who self-harm frequently feel misunderstood, and unable to access help. Improving understanding is key to informing the development and delivery of effective treatments and services. Methods: In this qualitative study, we interviewed nine adolescent girls (13-17 years old) with recurrent self-harm, recruited from NHS specialist child and adolescent mental health services. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Results: Findings revealed that self-harm is experienced as powerful mental and physical urges, sated only by self-harming, suggesting that self-harm could be considered a compulsive rather than impulsive disorder, representing a new perspective on the behaviour. Five themes emerged: emotion regulation; an addictive urge; self-harm to survive; interpersonal triggers; interpersonal relationships, not mechanical distractors, reduce self-harm. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence that non-suicidal self-injury may be engaged in to reduce suicidal risk. Seeking the company of helpful friends or family members may reduce the urge to self-harm. Repetitive self-harm may be a compulsive behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800283

RESUMO

In the context of externalising behaviour problems, risk factor research (RFR) focuses on risk and protective factors of juvenile delinquency, which can pertain to individual, system, and societal levels. Several instruments aiming at measuring these factors have been developed, but a comprehensive research tool is missing. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a questionnaire, the "Family, Peers, and Externalising Behaviour in adolescence" (FPEB) as a tool for assessing adolescents' tendency of externalising behaviour, the quality of relation with their parents, and peer-relations. FPEB was administered to 835 Italian students (36.8% males, age M = 13.81, SD = 1.54) together with the Moral Disengagement questionnaire to test concurrent validity. Data about socio-demographics and school performance were also collected. An EFA (Promax rotation, subsample A, n = 444) resulted in a four-factor structure that was corroborated by a CFA (subsample B, n = 388). The factors were "externalising behaviour" (var 13.16%), "peer relations difficulties" (var 11.10%), "Family conflict" (var 8.32%), and "lack of family negotiation" (var 7.11%) and showed good internal consistency (all α ≥ 0.65). There were differences between males and females in the correlational patterns of the four factors. The FPEB factors also showed good concurrent validity: two of the four factors ("lack of family negotiation" and "externalising behaviour") and the total score of the scale correlated with the "Moral disengagement scale", whereas peer relation difficulties did not. Further analyses also showed gender differences (except for "peer relations difficulties") and an association between students' school performance and "externalising behaviour", "family conflict", and the total FPEB scores. We concluded that the FPEB is a tool that is potentially useful to assess risk and protective factors and to plan targeted interventions (focusing on the specific area). Limitations and suggestions for further improvements are also discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Itália , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rev Infirm ; 70(270): 22-23, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832724

RESUMO

In the vast majority of cases, people who commit suicide do so alone. Exceptionally, suicides can be carried out by mutual agreement between two or more people. These are called suicide pacts. The motivations and operating methods of these rare acts are multiple.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Suicídio , Humanos , Motivação , Suicídio/psicologia
20.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newly intensified use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in emergency departments presents teamwork challenges affecting the quality and safety of care at the frontlines. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a qualitative study to categorize and describe barriers to teamwork posed by PPE and distancing in the emergency setting. METHODS: We conducted 55 semi-structured interviews between June 2020 and August 2020 with personnel from two emergency departments serving in a variety of roles. We then performed a thematic analysis to identify and construct patterns of teamwork challenges into themes. RESULTS: We discovered two types of challenges to teamwork: material barriers related to wearing masks, gowns and powered air-purifying respirators, and spatial barriers implemented to conserve PPE and limit coronavirus exposure. Both material and spatial barriers resulted in disrupted communication, roles and interpersonal relationships, but they did so in unique ways. Material barriers muffled information flow, impeded team member recognition and role/task division, and reduced belonging and cohesion while increasing interpersonal strain. Spatial barriers resulted in mediated communication and added physical and emotional distance between teammates and patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify specific aspects of how intensified PPE use disrupts teamwork and can inform efforts to ensure care quality and safety in emergency settings as PPE use continues during and, potentially beyond, the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Barreiras de Comunicação , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel (figurativo) , São Francisco/epidemiologia
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