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1.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 393-412, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043057

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la experiencia de vínculos afectivos en adolescentes institucionalizados en la región de la Araucanía, Chile. La muestra estuvo compuesta por cuatro adolescentes varones (entre 16 a 18 años), que actualmente residen en centros administrados por la red Servicio Nacional de Menores (Sename). La metodología utilizada fue a partir de entrevistas en profundidad realizadas a los adolescentes y analizadas a través del análisis fenomenológico interpretativo. Los resultados mostraron tres temas principales: a) valoración de los vínculos con personas significativas, b) construcción y mantenimiento de vínculos y c) institucionalización como contexto en el que han desarrollado su trayectoria de vida. Se concluye destacando los vínculos establecidos en la cotidianidad de la vida institucional y su relevancia para el proyecto vital del adolescente.


Abstract (analytical) The aim of this study was to describe the experience of affective bonds in institutionalized adolescents in the Araucanía region of Chile. The sample consisted of 4 male adolescents (aged between 16 and 18 years old), who currently live in centers managed by the National Service for Minors (Sename). The methodology was based on in-depth interviews with adolescents, and analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The results identified three main topics: a) assessment of relationships with significant persons, b) construction and maintenance of affective bonds and c) institutionalization as a context in which these adolescents have developed their life trajectories. The study concludes by highlighting the relationships forged in the daily life of the institution and their relevance to each adolescent's life project.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a experiência dos vínculos afetivos em adolescentes institucionalizados na região de Araucanía, Chile. A amostra foi composta por 4 adolescentes do sexo masculino (entre 16 e 18 anos), que atualmente residem em centros geridos pelo Serviço Nacional de Menores (Sename). A metodologia utilizada baseou-se em entrevistas em profundidade com adolescentes e analisada por meio da Análise Fenomenológica Interpretativa. Os resultados mostraram três tópicos principais: (a) avaliação de vínculos com pessoas significativas, (b) construção e manutenção de laços afetivos e (c) institucionalização como um contexto no qual eles desenvolveram sua trajetória de vida. Conclui ressaltando os vínculos estabelecidos no cotidiano da vida institucional e sua relevância para o projeto de vida do adolescente.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adolescente , Relações Interpessoais
2.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 218-240, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019283

RESUMO

Abstract Greater social engagement is commonly associated with more efficient cognitive processing, as it improves cognitive reserve. The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between social engagement (in the dimensions of social contact, support and conflict) and certain cognitive skills (cognitive flexibility, planning, verbal fluency, processing speed, and verbal comprehension) in young college students. This cross-sectional rank correlation study was carried out in a sample of 49 college students. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed relationship between: social contact and verbal fluency (r = -.299, p = .037); social support and planning (r = .368, p = .009); and social conflict and processing speed (r = .306, p = .032). The results outline a measurable relationship between social engagement and certain cognitive skills, even when said results are not entirely conclusive. Thus, the need for more detailed studies on these processes becomes clear.


Resumo A literatura científica indica que um maior compromisso social está relacionado com um pensamento cognitivo mais eficiente, devido ao fato de que tal compromisso aumenta a reserva cognitiva. Levando isso em consideração, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi identificar a relação existente entre o compromisso social (em suas dimensões de contato, apoio e conflito social) e alguns processos cognitivos (como flexibilidade mental, planejamento, fluidez verbal, velocidade de processamento e compreensão verbal) em jovens universitários. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo correlacional com um desenho transversal em uma amostra de 49 estudantes. A análise de correlação de Spearman revelou correlações entre contato social e fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoio social e planejamento (r = .368, p = .009) e conflito social e velocidade de processamento (r = .306, p = .032). Esses resultados constituem uma associação entre o compromisso social e algumas funções cognitivas. Apesar dos resultados não serem completamente conclusivos, fica clara a necessidade de um estudo mais detalhado desses processos.


Resumen La literatura científica indica que un mayor compromiso social se relaciona con un procesamiento cognitivo más eficiente, debido a que dicho compromiso incrementa la reserva cognitiva. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la relación existente entre el compromiso social (en sus dimensiones de contacto, apoyo y conflicto social) y algunos procesos cognitivos (como flexibilidad mental, planeación, fluidez verbal, velocidad de procesamiento y comprensión verbal) en jóvenes universitarios. Para esto, se realizó un estudio correlacional con un diseño transversal en una muestra de 49 estudiantes. El análisis de correlación de Spearman reveló correlaciones entre contacto social y fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoyo social y planeación (r = .368, p = .009), y conflicto social y velocidad de procesamiento (r = .306, p = .032). Estos resultados perfilan una asociación entre el compromiso social y algunas funciones cognitivas. A pesar de que los resultados no son del todo concluyentes, queda claro que se necesita de un estudio más detallado de estos procesos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia Social , Cognição , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 432-438, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the perspective of executives on the implementation of peer support in psychiatric facilities - an aspect that has been insufficiently addressed in research so far. METHODS: We guided qualitative interviews with eleven executives of psychiatric institutions from Germany and Switzerland, in which peer workers are employed. The interview transcripts were evaluated according to the principles of content analysis. RESULTS: The study participants evaluated the inclusion of peer workers very positively overall. Peer support was described as a special quality feature of a psychiatric institution. In addition, improvements were reported with regard to a more respectful and conscious interaction with colleagues and patients as well as a more positive therapeutic climate. Based on their experience, the executives named a number of change management tasks, e. g. with regard to the preparation of the organization, personnel selection and financing, job descriptions and the integration of the peer workers in the team. DISCUSSION: Our results underline the specific advantages of peer support for the further development of psychiatric practice. Some implications for personnel management are discussed.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Grupo Associado , Alemanha , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Suíça
4.
Radiologe ; 59(11): 951, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667566
5.
Lancet ; 394(10206): 1307-1308, 2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587874
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 537-544, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To revise the Measurement Properties of Neighborhood Scales(MPNS), and to evaluate their reliability and validity. METHODS: Seven thousand seven hundred and twenty-nine community-based residents aged 18-75 years were selected by stratified random sampling, and gender, age, educational level, urban-suburban area and self-rated health were documented. The community attributes were assessed with the Chinese version of MPNS, which consists of 24 items, and 4 dimension including aesthetic quality, walking environment, social cohesion, and social participation. The scale were revised using exploratory factor analysis, and the reliability and validity of the revised scale were tested among community-based adults in different areas and different ages. RESULTS: The scale was revised from 24 items, 4 dimension to 27 items, 6 dimension, which included street environment, aesthetic quality, walking environment, social cohesion, social participation and social connection, and could explain 68. 9% of the total variance. The Cronbach's α of revised scale was 0. 89 and the Cronbach's α of each subscales were range from 0. 51 to 0. 92, the split-half reliability was 0. 91. The revised scale had favorable discriminant validity and construct validity. In addition, various parameters of the confirmatory factor analysis were all acceptable. CONCLUSION: Revised Chinese version of MPNS is reliable and valid among community-based adults⇿5 years.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Infirm ; 68(254): 29-30, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587848

RESUMO

What is the common thread to ensure that the caregiver-patient relationship plays an integral role in healthcare facilities? The origins date to 1973, with the evolution of the nursing programme. The patient moves from the object stage to the subject stage. To date, he is considered a full "person" in all aspects, psychic, physical, cultural and social.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Instalações de Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Enfermagem/organização & administração
8.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1099-1101, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532958
10.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(8): 563-571, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND For a long time there was controversy and reservations with regards to diagnosing borderline personality disorder (BPD) under the age of eighteen. Progress in scientific knowledge has shown that adolescence is a key phase in the understanding of the development of the disorder.
AIM: To contribute to the understanding of the developmental trajectory of BPD by studying associations between BPD and the interpersonal functioning in adolescence.
METHOD: To study associations between personality, cluster B personality pathology and BPD and associations between BPD and interpersonal functioning, specified in social information processing and relationship quality with parents and peers.
RESULTS: Personality dimensions and social information processing, both independently and together, are related to cluster B personality pathology and BPD. Furthermore, the importance of quality of relationships with parents in relation to BPD is confirmed..
CONCLUSION: The role of social environment is complex in the development of BPD. The results underpin the interpersonal nature of BPD in adolescence as a crucial phase within the psychosocial development.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Estresse Psicológico
12.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 21-22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540651

RESUMO

The development of the 0+5 integrated vascular training program allows training to begin after medical school and is a "new" paradigm in specialty surgery training. Whether community and academic surgeons in practice will accept this training program remains an unanswered question. My perspectives as an integrated vascular resident trainee who recently entered clinical practice provide insight on the adequacy of my training and the lessons I have learned as a vascular surgery specialist.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Certificação , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Descrição de Cargo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
13.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 23-26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540652

RESUMO

Burnout among vascular surgery trainees is a significant problem and needs to be addressed at the level of the individual, training program duties, and at each institution. The clinical challenges and patient-oriented care required of a vascular surgeon generate a level of stress that requires its recognition and development of coping methods to promote well-being and personal happiness. There are ways to minimize burnout during surgical training, including acknowledgment of its symptoms, mentorship, self-care, and access to resources for stress reduction. Crucial factors in maintaining a positive outlook and a sense of meaningful work are faculty entrustability, receptive leadership, celebrating small victories, and recognition that resiliency is a skill that can be learned. Successful vascular surgeon training is a mission that requires everyone involved to actively promote well-being behavior and a supportive work environment. With appropriate implementation of these practices, our training programs can cultivate surgeons who are competent, compassionate, and committed to advancing vascular care.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Saúde Mental , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Currículo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Liderança , Mentores , Resiliência Psicológica , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
Nervenarzt ; 90(11): 1109-1116, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The social brain is dysfunctional in numerous stress-related psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: The definition of social brain networks and their susceptibility for social environmental stress. It is also reviewed how social brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia, autism and conduct disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search in PubMed. RESULTS: The social brain consists of several subnetworks that act in concert to foster empathy. Interestingly, except for the mirror neuron system, the neural networks of the social brain have been reported to be vulnerable to social environmental stress and have also been highlighted as being compromised in psychiatric disorders. As an example, schizophrenia is related to dysfunction in social perception, mentalizing, and affiliation, whereas the most pronounced deficits in autism are seen during social perception and mentalizing. Patients with conduct disorder are more prone to dysfunction in perception, affiliation and aversion. CONCLUSION: Social stress affects subnetworks also compromised in psychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is plausible that the social brain might mediate the association between social stress and psychiatric disorders. To advance ecological validity in social neuroscience, recent research has highlighted the role of hyperscanning and virtual reality as means by which a more naturalistic assessment of social interactions might be feasible.


Assuntos
Neurociências , Psiquiatria , Encéfalo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 496-508, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016433

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo aqui apresentado foi analisar os sentidos atribuídos por agentes comunitários de saúde acerca do cuidado em saúde para as populações LGBT. O método baseia-se numa abordagem de pesquisa qualitativa, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com quinze agentes comunitários de saúde da Estratégia Saúde da Família de uma capital no Nordeste brasileiro. Os dados foram analisados a partir do método de interpretação de sentidos. Entre os principais resultados, destacaram-se dois grandes blocos: (i) demandas de saúde das populações LGBT; e (ii) atuação profissional junto às populações LGBT. A saúde das populações LGBT, especialmente na atenção básica, é uma complexa questão que não tem recebido a devida atenção por parte da formação, gestão e da atenção em saúde como um todo. Dessa forma, a atuação problematizadora desse trabalho coletou relatos, identificou problemas e questões e, consequentemente, por intermédio das percepções dos agentes comunitários de saúde, identificou as violências, negações e discriminações que vivenciam parcelas das populações LGBT nas unidades de saúde, espaços que deveriam oferecer cuidado equânime e integral.


The objective of the study presented here was to analyze the meanings attributed by community health agents regarding health care to LGBT population. The method is based on a qualitative research approach, through semi-structured interviews with 15 community health agents of the Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy, a Brazilian health programme) of a city of the Northeast Region of Brazil. The data were analyzed using the meaning interpretation method. Among the main results, two stand out: (i) LGBT population health claims; and (ii) Professional performance in regard to LGBT population. The health of LGBT population, especially in primary care, is a complex issue which hasn't received the proper attention by care formation, management and health attention as a whole. Thus, with the purpose of identifying the origins of that issue this work collected reports, detected problems and related issues and, consequently, by means of perceptions of the community health agents discovered the violences, denials and discriminations that some LGBT experience in health units, spaces who should provide impartial and comprehensive care.


El objetivo del estudio aquí presentado fue analizar los sentidos atribuidos por agentes comunitarios de salud acerca del cuidado en salud a la población LGBT. El método se basa en un enfoque de investigación cualitativa, a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 agentes comunitarios de salud de la Estratégia Saúde da Família (Estrategia Salud de la Familia, programa brasileño de salud) de una ciudad de la Región Nordeste de Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados a partir del método de interpretación de sentidos. Entre los principales resultados, se destacaron dos: (i) Demandas de salud de la población LGBT; y (ii) Actuación profesional ante la población LGBT. La salud de la población LGBT, especialmente en la atención primaria de salud, es una compleja cuestión que no ha estado recibiendo la debida atención por parte de la formación, gestión y atención en salud como un todo. Así que la actuación problematizadora de este trabajo ha reunido relatos, identificado problemas y cuestiones y, consecuentemente, por medio de la percepción de los agentes comunitarios de salud, ha descubiertolas violencias, negaciones y discriminaciones que vivencian algunas personas LGBT en las unidades de salud, espacios que deberián ofrecer cuidado ecuánime e integral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Identidade de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Sistema Único de Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16794, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393408

RESUMO

To investigate the emotional problems (depressive and anxiety symptoms) of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore the role of the mother's socioeconomic status (SES) and the core symptoms of the child on the mother's emotional problems.This cross-sectional survey was performed in 180 mothers of children with ASD in Chang Sha city of China. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to assess the anxiety and depressive symptoms of the mothers of the autistic children. The education level and annual family income, as well as occupation, were be selected as components of the mother's SES. Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used for the evaluation of the core symptoms of the children. A general information questionnaire was also used. The ordinal regression was used to examine the effect of the SES and children's core symptoms on maternal emotional problems.The valid response rate was 92.7% (167 of 180 questionnaires were returned). Of the mothers studied, 72.5% and 80.2% had depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, and 67.1% suffered from both symptoms. Mother's SES was observed to be unrelated to maternal anxiety symptoms (P >.05). Only 1 component of the SES (junior high school education level) was related to depressive symptoms (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.80). SRS score under 115 (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.93) of autistic children was a protective factor against maternal anxiety symptoms. The borderline and mild behavioral problems (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99; OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.94, respectively) of autistic children were protective factors against maternal depressive symptoms.Mothers of autistic children generally exhibited high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The core symptoms of the autistic children were observed to be strongly associated with both maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms. Improvements in the core symptoms of children with ASD may help reduce maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms to some extent.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Linguagem , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
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