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4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 739, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beginning in 2017 we have conducted a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the effectiveness of an early obesity intervention in the first two years of life using either telephone or Short Message Service (SMS) support for mothers. The trial recruited 1155 mothers from their third trimester of pregnancy. This protocol is for a new trial to build on the existing trial using the mother-child dyads retained at 24 months for recruitment to the new RCT. The aim of this new trial is to test whether use of a combination of telephone and SMS interventions is effective in promoting healthy eating and physical activity, as well as reducing child body mass index (BMI) at 3 years of age. METHODS: We will conduct a parallel RCT with an estimated sample of 750 mother-child dyads retained from the existing trial at 24 months. Mothers who completed the 24 months survey, including a telephone survey and measurement of child's height and weight will be invited to participate in the new trial. Informed consent will be obtained at the 24 months survey. The participating mother-child dyads will then be randomly allocated to the intervention (combined telephone and text messaging intervention) or the control group. The intervention will comprise three staged telephone consultations and text messages after each of the three intervention booklets is mailed to mothers at specific time-points between two and three years of child age. The main trial outcome measures include a) BMI and BMI z-score measured at 36 months, b) diet, physical activity and screen time c) cost-effectiveness, and d) feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This unique opportunity to link two studies will expedite project start up time, utilise existing research infrastructure and systems to run the study, and optimise the use of an already engaged population of study participants. It can address a significant knowledge gap regarding early obesity prevention for children aged 2 to 3 years. The feasibility and effectiveness of the combined telephone and SMS intervention will indicate whether this is a scaleable, broad-reach and low-cost early obesity intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trial Registry ( ACTRN12618001571268 ) on 20/09/2018.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Programas de Redução de Peso/organização & administração , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Telefone , Mensagem de Texto , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia
5.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(5): 237-245, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189785

RESUMO

Objective This study aimed to clarify the effectiveness of the Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) for mothers of developmentally delayed children.Methods The participants were 36 mothers of children using a development support classroom after a medical examination in A city. The children, aged 2 to 6 years old, were suspected to have autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) scores of 9 points or more. The investigation randomly assigned them to two groups-"the intervention group" and "the control group"-and carried out SSTP. The intervention group answered the questionnaire before and after intervention, three months later. The control group also answered the questionnaire 2 months before the intervention, before and after intervention. Thus, each group answered three times. The questionnaire used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a Parenting Style scale (PS), the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), and the Japanese version of a Maltreatment scale (JM). For effectiveness of the intervention before and after, an analysis of covariance was carried out on the scores from the first and second questionnaires in the intervention and control groups. For effectiveness 3 months after the intervention, a repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on the scale scores from the first to the third questionnaire in the intervention group.Results The average age of the children was 3.7±1.4 years old, and the average PARS score was 20±6.8. They were suspected to have ASD. The average SDQ score was 76.1±18.8, and their intelligence was borderline. A significant difference was seen before and after the intervention in SDQ (the issue of action, the total of the difficulty), PS (overreaction, gab, general score), and JM scores; no significant difference was seen in RQI scores. Three months after the intervention, a lasting effect was seen in SDQ (the issue of action, the total of the difficulty, hyperkinetic) and PS (all items) scores in the intervention group.Conclusions Receiving SSTP caused a positive change in the mothers' parenting and improved the problem behavior of the children. It was suggested that SSTP was connected to the prevention of child abuse because it helped stop parents from hitting their children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Distúrb. comun ; 31(2): 207-216, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008106

RESUMO

Objetivos: analisar o processo de reidealização do filho com autismo na clínica singular da criança e sua família; observar os efeitos dessa clínica no desenvolvimento linguístico, cognitivo e psíquico infantil. Método: análise de caso clínico de criança de dois anos e onze meses com diagnóstico de autismo e de sua mãe. Realizou-se a avaliação psicológica através da APEGI e CARS antes e depois da intervenção, assim como avaliação de linguagem por meio dos Sinais Enunciativos de Aquisição da Linguagem e da observação clínica. Resultados: ficou evidente o processo de ressignificação da deficiência do filho por intermédio das dimensões de competência, estética e futuro, baseadas no desenvolvimento das potencialidades linguística, cognitiva e subjetiva do filho. Conclusão: a reidealização do filho com autismo ocorreu a partir da escuta da mãe e da descoberta das potencialidades linguística, cognitiva e subjetiva dele, o que repercutiu positivamente no desenvolvimento do menino.


Objectives: to analyze the process of reidealization of the child with autistic disorder in the singular clinic of the child and his family; to observe the effects of this clinic on children's linguistic, cognitive and psychic development. Method: Clinical case analysis of a two year and eleven month old child diagnosed with autistic disorder, and his mother. The psychological evaluation was performed through APEGI and CARS before and after the intervention, as well as language evaluation through the Signs of Acquisition of Language and clinical observation. Results: The process of re-signification of the child's disability through the dimensions of competence, aesthetic and future, was based on the development of the child's linguistic, cognitive and subjective potentialities. Conclusion: the reidealization of the child with autistic disorder occurred from listening to the mother and from her discovery of the child's linguistic, cognitive and subjective potentialities, which had a positive repercussion on the child's development.


Objetivos: analizar el proceso de reidealización del hijo con trastorno autístico en la clínica singular del bebé y su familia; observar los efectos de esta clínica en el desarrollo lingüístico, cognitivo y psíquico infantil. Método: Análisis de caso clínico de niño de dos años y once meses con diagnóstico de trastorno autístico, y su madre. Se realizó la evaluación psicológica a través de la APEGI y CARS antes y después de la intervención, así como evaluación de lenguaje por medio de los Signos Enunciativos de Adquisición del Lenguaje y de la observación clínica. Resultados: Se evidenció el proceso de resignificación de la discapacidad del hijo a través de las dimensiones de competencia, estética y futuro, basada en el desarrollo de las potencialidades lingüística, cognitiva y subjetiva del hijo. Conclusión: la reidealización del hijo con trastorno autístico ocurrió a partir de la escucha de la madre y del descubrimiento de ella de las potencialidades lingüísticas, cognitivas y subjetivas del hijo, lo que repercutió positivamente en el desarrollo del niño.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Autístico , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Relações Mãe-Filho
7.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(1): 129-140, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-989078

RESUMO

Resumen La escala Massie-Campbell de Apego Durante Estrés (ADS; 1983), es una guía de observación de la interacción entre madres (o cuidadores) y sus hijos de 6 a 18 meses. Este estudio busca obtener evidencias de validez de constructo (convergente y divergente) y de criterio (sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos) de dicho instrumento. Para ello, se evaluó el apego en 32 niños y niñas de ocho a diez meses de Lima, Perú, utilizando el ADS y el Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS), de Waters (1995), así como la sensibilidad de sus madres. Como resultado, se encontró que las clasificaciones del apego seguro e inseguro dadas a partir del ADS se encuentran relacionadas con los puntajes continuos de seguridad del apego del AQS (r = .41, p = .02) y con las clasificaciones dicotómicas (seguro vs. inseguro) obtenidas a partir del mismo [χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = .03, d = .83]. Adicionalmente, no se hallaron diferencias significativas en la sensibilidad materna de las madres de los niños clasificados como seguros y la de los inseguros. Dado que la sensibilidad de la escala ADS no alcanzó niveles satisfactorios (33.3 %, IC 95 % = [15.48; 56.90]), de manera exploratoria se evaluó un punto de corte de cinco conductas seguras, el cual mejora su sensibilidad (47.6 %, IC 95 % = [26.4; 69.7]) y mantiene sus niveles satisfactorios de especificidad (90.9 %, IC 95 % = [57.1; 99.5]). En conclusión, el instrumento muestra adecuadas evidencias de validez de constructo convergente, pero no divergente; y, al ser considerado un instrumento de tamizaje, su sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos necesitan seguir siendo estudiados con el fin de conseguir un punto de corte con mayor validez.


Resumo A Escala Massie-Campbell de Apego durante o Stress (ADS; 1983) é um guia de observação da interação entre mães (ou cuidadores) e seus filhos de 6 a 18 meses. Este estudo procura obter evidências de validade de constructo (convergente e divergente) e de critério (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos) desse instrumento. Para isso, foi avaliado o apego em 32 crianças de oito a dez meses, de Lima, Peru, utilizando o ADS e o Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS), de Waters (1995), bem como a sensibilidade de suas mães. Como resultados, constatou-se que as classificações do apego seguro e inseguro dadas a partir do ADS se encontram relacionadas com as pontuações contínuas de segurança do apego do AQS (r = .41, p = .02) e com as classificações dicotômicas (seguro versus inseguro) obtidas a partir deste [χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = .03, d = .83]. Além disso, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas na sensibilidade materna das mães das crianças classificadas como seguras e a das inseguras. Tendo em vista que a sensibilidade da escala ADS não atingiu níveis satisfatórios (33.3 %, IC 95 % = [15.48; 56.90]), de maneira exploratória, foi avaliado um ponto de corte de cinco comportamentos seguros, o que melhora sua sensibilidade (47.6 %, IC 95 % = [26.4; 69.7]) e mantém seus níveis satisfatórios de especificidade (90.9 %, IC 95 % = [57.1; 99.5]). Em conclusão, o instrumento mostra adequadas evidências de validade de constructo convergente, mas não divergente; e, ao ser considerado um instrumento de rastreamento, sua sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos precisam continuar sendo estudados a fim de conseguir um ponto de corte com maior validade.


Abstract The Massie-Campbell Attachment During Stress Scale (ADS, Massie & Campbell, 1983) is an observation guide of the interactions between mothers (or caretakers) and children from 6 to 18 months. This study sought the construct validity (convergent and discriminant) of ADS, as well as its criterion validity (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values). To that end, child attachment was measured in a group of 32 children aged 8 to 10 months from Lima, Peru using ADS and Attachment Q-set 3.0 (AQS, Waters, 1995). Maternal sensitivity was assessed as well. It was found that ADS attachment classifications were related with AQS attachment security continuous scores (r = .41, p = .02) and with its dichotomous classifications [secure vs. insecure; χ2 (1, N = 32) = 4.69, p = 0.03, d = 0.83]. Additionally, no significant differences between the ADS's maternal sensitivity of mothers with children classified as secure and mothers with children classified as insecure were found. Since ADS´s sensitivity did not reach satisfactory levels (33.3 %, 95 % CI = [15.48, 56.90]), a cut-off point of 5 secure behaviors was used, which improved its sensitivity (47.6 %, 95 % CI = [26.4; 69.7]) while maintaining satisfactory levels of specificity (90.9 %, 95 % CI = [57.1; 99.5]). The instrument shows adequate convergent validity but lacks evidence of discriminant validity. Further exploration of ADS's sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values is recommended in order to obtain a cut-off point with greater validity, given that the instrument is considered a screening test.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Estresse Psicológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto
8.
Soins ; 64(836): 49-51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208584

RESUMO

The role of the cultural countertransference of researchers with regard to the subject of their study must be taken into consideration. The analysis of one's own emotions and reactions, loaded with cultural representations, thereby enables the research subject's singularity and cultural specificity to be respected. The results are therefore more objective and not so readily influenced by a particular culture.


Assuntos
Contratransferência (Psicologia) , Características Culturais , Relações Mãe-Filho/etnologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
9.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(4): 339-356, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059292

RESUMO

We examined the roles of maternal and child lifetime stress exposures, infant temperament (orienting/regulation, surgency/extraversion), and maternal caregiving during infancy and preschool on preschoolers' working memory and inhibitory control in a sociodemographically diverse pregnancy cohort. Working memory was predicted by infant orienting/regulation, with differential effects by the level of maternal cognitive support in infancy; maternal lifetime stress exposures exerted independent negative effects on working memory. Inhibitory control was positively associated with maternal emotionally supportive behaviors in infancy, which mediated the effects of maternal lifetime stress exposures on inhibitory control. These findings have implications for interventions designed to optimize child executive functioning.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inibição (Psicologia) , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Orientação , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Temperamento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Função Executiva , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(6): 563-575, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize parenting behaviors of mothers of adolescent daughters who engage in repetitive self-inflicted injury (SII) and to test hypothesized associations between parenting behaviors and adolescent psychopathology. METHOD: Participants were mothers and their 14- to 18-year-old daughters (N = 51 dyads), including 24 (47%) adolescents with a history of SII and 27 (53%) with no history of SII. Dyads completed questionnaires assessing perceived maternal validation and invalidation and participated in face-to-face interactions, which were later rated for parenting behaviors. RESULTS: The two groups did not significantly differ on validation and invalidation across all informants and methods of assessment. For the sample as a whole, adolescent perceptions of maternal parenting behaviors interacted to predict adolescent psychopathology. In particular, adolescent perceptions of high maternal invalidation in interaction with perceptions of low validation were associated with higher levels of self-reported borderline pathology and externalizing problems and mother-reported adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to find support for the hypothesized parenting deficits in mothers of female adolescents engaging in SII. Adolescent perceptions of their mothers' high levels of invalidation and low levels of validation were associated with higher levels of adolescent psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 13(4): 1030-1039, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1021083

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a vivência para a maternagem após o parto prematuro. Método: trata-se de estudo qualitativo, descritivo, com 12 participantes, em hospital universitário por meio do questionário sociocultural de Madeleine Leininger, da técnica da narrativa de vida e instrumento para obter informações dos prontuários das entrevistadas e de seus recém-nascidos. Baseou-se a análise na Etnoenfermagem. Apresentaram-se os resultados também em forma de figura. Resultados: informa-se que emergiram duas categorias analíticas: Os riscos gestacionais e o nascimento prematuro e O enfrentamento de maternar filho prematuro. Vivenciaramse, por todas as mulheres, enfrentamentos para a maternagem desde o período gestacional relacionado ao parto prematuro, até o momento da alta hospitalar. Conclusão: tornou-se a vivência da maternagem de mães com filhos prematuros um enfrentamento desde o momento do parto antecipado, que ocorreu relacionado aos riscos gestacionais biológicos e também associado às características individuais e condições sociodemográficas desfavoráveis. Intui-se, com esta pesquisa, contribuir para que o período de adaptação, tanto da mãe que se torna cuidadora primária, quanto do recém-nascido, que passa a pertencer a um ambiente familiar, seja articulado desde o período de internação.(AU)


Objective: to understand the experience of motherhood after preterm delivery. Method: this is a qualitative, descriptive study with 12 participants, out in a university hospital through Madeleine Leininger's sociocultural questionnaire, the life narrative technique and the instrument to obtain information from the interviewed women's records and their newborns. The analysis was based on the Ethnographic survey. The results were also presented in figure form. Results: two analytical categories emerged: Gestational risks and premature birth and The confrontation of maternal premature infant. All women experienced confrontations for motherhood from the gestational period related to preterm birth to the time of hospital discharge. Conclusion: the experience of mothering of mothers with preterm infants became a confrontation from the moment of early delivery, which occurred related to biological gestational risks and also associated with individual characteristics and unfavorable sociodemographic conditions. The aim of this research is to contribute to the fact that the period of adaptation, both of the mother who becomes the primary caregiver and of the newborn, who belongs to a family environment, is articulated from the period of hospitalization.(AU)


Objetivo: comprender la vivencia para la maternidad después del parto prematuro. Método: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, con 12 participantes, en un hospital universitario a través del cuestionario sociocultural de Madeleine Leininger, de la técnica de la narrativa de vida e instrumento para obtener informaciones de los prontuarios de las entrevistadas y de sus recién nacidos. Se basó el análisis en la Etnoenfermería. Se presentaron los resultados también en forma de figura. Resultados: se informa que emergieron dos categorías analíticas: Los riesgos gestacionales y el nacimiento prematuro y el enfrentamiento de los cuidados maternos al hijo prematuro. Se han vivido, por todas las mujeres, enfrentamientos para la maternidad desde el período gestacional relacionado al parto prematuro, hasta el momento del alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: se hizo la vivencia de la maternidad de madres con hijos prematuros un enfrentamiento desde el momento del parto anticipado, que ocurrió relacionado a los riesgos gestacionales biológicos y también asociado a las características individuales y condiciones sociodemográficas desfavorables. En el caso de la madre que se vuelve cuidadora primaria, el recién nacido, que pasa a pertenecer a un ambiente familiar, se articula desde el período de internación.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Complicações na Gravidez , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Adaptação Psicológica , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Nascimento Prematuro , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Midwifery ; 74: 140-146, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore women's experience of skin-to-skin contact and what women want in the first two hours after a caesarean. DESIGN: Audio recorded interviews were conducted with women as a part of a larger video ethnographic research study where video recordings, observations, field notes, focus groups and further in-depth interviews were conducted. SETTING: A metropolitan hospital in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one women who had a caesarean section were involved in interviews around six weeks postpartum. ANALYSIS: The transcribed interviews were thematically analysed. FINDINGS: Women wanted their baby to stay with them and have skin-to-skin contact, even if they felt apprehensive about providing this care. An overarching theme was, 'I want our baby'. Several subthemes also emerged: 'I felt disconnected when I was separated from my baby', 'I want to explore my naked baby', 'I want my partner involved', and 'It felt right'. KEY CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges of providing skin-to-skin contact in the operating theatre and recovery, health professionals and institutions should recognise the importance of advocating for what women want including keeping women, their partners and babies together and encouraging continuous maternal and infant contact and skin-to-skin contact.


Assuntos
Cesárea/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tato , Adulto , Cesárea/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , New South Wales , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 58-68, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933838

RESUMO

The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between oxytocin and maternal affect attunement, as well as the role of affect attunement in the relationship between oxytocin and infant social engagement during early mother-infant interactions. Forty-three mother-infant dyads participated in the present study when infants were 4 months. They were observed during (1) a situation where no communication took place and (2) a natural interaction between mother and infant. During this procedure, three saliva samples from mothers and their infants were collected to determine their levels of oxytocin at different time points. Maternal affect attunement (maintaining attention, warm sensitivity) and infant interactive behaviors (gaze, positive, and negative affect) were coded during the natural interaction. Results indicated that overall maternal oxytocin functioning was negatively related to her warm sensitivity, while infant oxytocin reactivity together with maternal affect attunement were associated with infant positive social engagement with their mothers. Specifically, infant oxytocin reactivity was significantly related to their gazes at mother, but only for infants of highly attuned mothers. These results point to the complex role oxytocin plays in parent-infant interactions while emphasizing the need to analyze both overall oxytocin functioning as well as reactivity as different indices of human affiliative behavior.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Ocitocina/análise , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia
14.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 88-99, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947141

RESUMO

Relatively little work has examined potential interactions between child intrinsic factors and extrinsic environmental factors in the development of negative affect in early life. This work is important because high levels of early negative affectivity have been associated with difficulties in later childhood adjustment. We examined associations between infant frontal electroencephalogram (EEG), maternal parenting behaviors, and children's negative affect across the first two years of life. Infant baseline frontal EEG asymmetry was measured at 5 months; maternal sensitivity and intrusiveness were observed during mother-child interaction at 5 and 24 months; and mothers provided reports of toddler negative affect at 24 months. Results indicated that maternal sensitive behaviors at 5 months were associated with less negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. Similarly, maternal sensitive behaviors at 24 months were associated with less toddler negative affect at 24 months, but only for infants with left frontal EEG asymmetry. In contrast, maternal intrusive behaviors at 5- and 24-months were associated with greater toddler negative affect, but only for infants with right frontal EEG asymmetry at 5-months. Findings suggest that levels of negative affect in toddlers may be at least partially a result of interactions between children's own early neurophysiological functioning and maternal behavior during everyday interactions with children in the first two years of life.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
15.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 19: 78-83, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of intrapartum care provided at Rwandan healthcare facilities to women undergoing normal pregnancy and spontaneous full-term labour. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over eight weeks during 2014-2015 in 18 healthcare facilities in Kigali City and the Northern Province: eight health centres, seven district hospitals, one provincial hospital, one private hospital, and one referral hospital. Data were collected from medical records and a questionnaire including the Bologna score with its five variables: presence of a companion, use of partograph, no augmentation of labour, birth in a non-supine position, and skin-to skin contact. RESULTS: Among the 435 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria during the study period, mean age was 27.4 years and 41.8% were primiparous. The assisting healthcare professionals were midwives (49.4%), nurses (28.8%), and physicians (22%), and birth occurred at health centres (29%), district hospitals (40%), and the referral hospital (31%). Mean Bologna score was 2.03 of the maximum 5 (range: 0-4). Only one woman (0.2%) had a companion present (her husband). A partograph was used for the majority (84.8%), and 88.0% had no augmentation of labour with oxytocin. Few (6.2%) gave birth in a non-supine position, and few (12.4%) had early skin-to-skin contact with their newborn. CONCLUSION: There are several areas for improving childbirth care according to the Bologna score. Healthy newborns should be placed skin-to-skin with their mothers shortly after birth, non-supine birthing positions should be encouraged, and the importance of a companion during labour and birth should be considered.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Entorno do Parto , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Hospitais de Distrito/normas , Hospitais Privados/normas , Humanos , Início do Trabalho de Parto , Relações Mãe-Filho , Posicionamento do Paciente , Gravidez , Ruanda , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1905, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015471

RESUMO

Empathy is a core human social ability shaped by biological dispositions and caregiving experiences; yet the mechanisms sustaining maturation of the neural basis of empathy are unknown. Here, we followed eighty-four children, including 42 exposed to chronic war-related adversity, across the first decade of life, and assessed parenting, child temperament, and anxiety disorders as contributors to the neural development of empathy. At preadolescence, participants underwent magenetoencephalography while observing others' distress. Preadolescents show a widely-distributed response in structures implicating the overlap of affective (automatic) and cognitive (higher-order) empathy, which is predicted by mother-child synchrony across childhood. Only temperamentally reactive young children growing in chronic adversity, particularly those who later develop anxiety disorders, display additional engagement of neural nodes possibly reflecting hyper-mentalizing and ruminations over the distressing stimuli. These findings demonstrate how caregiving patterns fostering interpersonal resonance, reactive temperament, and chronic adversity combine across early development to shape the human empathic brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Percepção Social
17.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 44(3): 137-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to understand obstetric nurses' perceived barriers to immediate skin-to-skin contact (SSC) in the operating room (OR) after cesarean birth. METHODS: Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted via videoconferencing. Conventional content analysis methods were used to analyze the data for common themes. Investigation team consensus was reached to validate the analysis findings. RESULTS: Ten nurses who care for women during labor and birth were interviewed. The primary overarching theme was performing safe and effective SSC after cesarean birth. Nurses strongly believe in the benefits of SSC after cesarean and try to implement it as often as possible, but various factors prevented SSC in the OR from occurring on a regular basis. Providing immediate SSC is not considered a priority during the cesarean by all members of the team. All participants reported that there were no formal policies and procedures in their facilities for SSC in the OR. Challenges with safety, nurse staffing, and logistics were described as well as professional barriers, and varying practices between geographical location and facilities. Nurses discussed concepts that were facilitators for changing their current practices to support SSC after cesarean. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Implications: Developing effective policies and procedures that support SSC in the OR after cesarean and changing practice accordingly is recommended. Adequate nurse staffing in the OR is essential.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Método Canguru/tendências , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Cesárea/enfermagem , Cesárea/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Método Canguru/métodos , Método Canguru/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(4): 401-411, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973256

RESUMO

First-time and experienced mothers' prenatal expectations, postnatal experiences, and postnatal desires regarding the division of infant caregiving responsibilities with her partner were examined to explore whether postnatal desires may be a better indicator of mothers' postnatal adaptation (self-efficacy, satisfaction, stress, depressive symptoms, and state anxiety) than prenatal expectations and postnatal experiences. Mothers (N = 132) completed a prenatal questionnaire during their third trimester and a postnatal questionnaire at 8 weeks postpartum. Women's parental status (first-time vs. experienced) and their postnatal work status were associated with their expectations, experiences, and desires for the division of caregiving. Women whose partners were involved in the caregiving tasks reported more positive postnatal adaptation, whereas women, and particularly first-time mothers, who desired more partner involvement had poorer postnatal adaptation. The results suggest that mothers' postnatal desires concerning the division of caregiving is important to consider in examining mothers' postnatal adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(4): 412-421, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021130

RESUMO

Individual differences in maternal sensitivity to infant distress were examined by testing whether mothers' physiological responses interacted to predict sensitivity differently in a fear task relative to an anger task, and based on the level of distress displayed by the infant. Mothers' (N = 208) physiological arousal (skin conductance level [SCL] arousal) and physiological regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] withdrawal/augmentation) were measured during a baseline task and while interacting with their 1-year-old infants during tasks that elicited infant fear and infant anger. Infant negative affect and maternal sensitivity were assessed during these interactions, and mothers later reported on their perceptions of infant distress during the tasks. Results indicated that the mother SCL arousal × RSA change interaction predicted sensitivity only with infants who displayed higher distress, and in a different pattern across tasks. In the fear task, for mothers of infants displaying higher distress, SCL arousal related to greater sensitivity only for mothers who displayed RSA withdrawal. In the anger task, for mothers of infants displaying higher distress, SCL arousal related to greater sensitivity only for mothers who displayed RSA augmentation. Further, although infants displayed similar levels of distress in each task, maternal SCL arousal, sensitivity, and perceptions of distress differed across tasks. These results suggest that contextual cues and infant distress cues both contribute to associations between mothers' physiological responses and maternal sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
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