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1.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 107, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional support to enhance the early parent-infant relationship in the first months after birth is recommended, but little is known about the effect of universal interventions. The objective was to investigate the effect of health visitors' use of the Newborn Behavioral Observations system in new families. METHODS: A cluster-randomised study was conducted in four Danish municipalities. Health visitors' geographical districts constituted the units for randomisation (n = 17). In the intervention group, 1332 families received NBO from 3 weeks after birth; in the comparison group, 1234 received usual care. Self-administered questionnaires were collected at baseline one to two weeks after birth, and at follow-up three and nine months postpartum. The outcomes were change over time measured by The Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale (KPCS), The Major Depression Inventory (MDI), The Ages and Stages Questionnaire: social-emotional (ASQ:SE) and The Mother and Baby Interaction Scale (MABIC). Data were analysed with mixed-effects linear regression using the intention-to-treat approach. RESULTS: At baseline, no significant differences between the two groups were seen regarding maternal and infant factors. At follow-up three and nine months after birth, the change in maternal confidence and mood, infant's socio-emotional behaviour, and early parent-infant relationship moved in a slightly more positive direction in the intervention group than in the comparison group, though not statistically significant. The only significant effect was that the intervention mothers reported higher level of knowledge about infant's communication skills, response to cues, and how to sooth and establish a relation with the infant, compared to the comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: We found no effect of the NBO system delivered in a universal context to all families in a community setting. The only significant difference between groups was a higher maternal degree of knowledge regarding early parenting in the intervention group. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03070652 . Registrated February 22, 2017.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
2.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 58, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of maternal-infant bonding is related to important child outcomes. The literature has assumed that the ability to form relationships is a relatively stable trait, and research studies have suggested that a mother's attachment style in close adult relationships is related to mother-infant bonding. The transition to parenthood is also often stressful, and the adult attachment style may relate to parenting stress in the first year after birth. Such stress could possibly have a negative relationship with the mother-infant bond. In the present study, we examined the associations between maternal adult attachment styles and the quality of mother-infant bonding and whether this relationship is mediated by parenting stress. METHODS: The present study sample comprised 168 women (mean age 31.0 years, SD 4.23 years). Between weeks 31 and 41 of gestation, the anxious and avoidant adult attachment dimensions were measured with the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR). Between 5 and 15 weeks after birth mother-infant bonding and parenting stress were measured with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS) and the Parenting Stress Index-Parent Domain (PSI-PD), respectively. RESULTS: Both attachment-related avoidance and attachment-related anxiety correlated significantly and negatively with mother-infant bonding. However, a regression analysis showed that only attachment-related avoidance was a significant predictor of mother-infant bonding when controlling for demographic variables and maternal mental health history. The relationship between the adult attachment style and bonding was mediated by parenting stress. Higher scores on attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to increased stress, which was related to decreased quality of bonding. The overall parent domain and the subscale of competence in the parent-related stress dimension mediated between attachment avoidance and bonding, and the overall parent domain and the subscales of competence and role restriction mediated between attachment anxiety and bonding. There was no direct relationship between the adult attachment style and mother-infant bonding when parenting stress was included as a mediator. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that maternal adult attachment style relates to mother-infant bonding. This relationship was mediated by parenting stress. The results may have implications for the early identification of mothers at risk of having bonding difficulties.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Análise de Regressão , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(6): 1146-1161, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285288

RESUMO

Young maternal age at birth has been consistently recognized as a factor contributing to externalizing behavior. However, estimates of the magnitude of this association across existing studies are inconsistent. Such inconsistencies cloud the interpretation of the literature and highlight the need for a systematic synthesis of existing empirical evidence. Further, the roles of possible moderators in the association remain to be revealed. Moderation analyses will enhance the field's capacity to evaluate needs and locate a subgroup of children born to teen mothers with particularly heightened vulnerabilities. To address these gaps, the present study had two primary aims. First, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the magnitude of the association between being born to young mothers and children's externalizing behavior across existing studies. Second, moderation meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate whether the influence of being born to teen mothers on children's externalizing behavior is stronger during specific developmental periods, for a specific gender, for a specific race, or across contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates at a societal level. The current study followed the PRISMA guidelines. The search utilized multiple electronic databases including Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE through July 2019. Standardized mean difference, Cohen's d, was used as a summary estimate of effect size. A random-effects model was conducted. Moderating effects were evaluated. Twenty-one effect sizes from 18 independent samples (n = 133,585) were included in the meta-analysis. The main meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis suggested a small yet robust association between teenage motherhood and children's externalizing behavior problems. The relevant moderation analyses detected no statistically significant moderating effect for a specific gender, for racial and ethnic minority groups, during a specific developmental period, or across varying contexts. The current meta-analysis findings suggest that the impact of young maternal age on children's externalizing behavior is small, yet independent. Further, such impacts of young maternal age were similar for girls and boys, in different racial and ethnic groups, across developmental periods, and across different contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates. Prevention efforts seeking to curb the emergence of youth's externalizing behavior should focus on parenting teens, regardless of their child's gender, race, age, or contexts. Further, the current findings suggest that prevention strategies for this specific group may benefit from a hybrid approach that combines universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema
5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101421, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to evaluate the association between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction of very preterm-, moderate preterm-, and full-term-born children at 18 and 36 months and to determine whether developmental and behavioral characteristics mediate the association between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction. METHOD: Participants included 110 preterm-born children and 39 full-term-born children assessed at ages 18 and 36 months. Mother-child free play interactions, the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire were administered. RESULTS: Significant associations between preterm birth and the quality of mother-child interaction were found at 18 and 36 months. The mother-child interaction quality was less optimal for the preterm-born children compared with the full-term-born children, mainly so for the very preterm-born children. Unlike behavioral characteristics, cognitive development was found to mediate the association between the gestational age-based group and the quality of mother-child interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention programs for preterm-born children and their families, should consider maternal and children's behaviors during mother-child interactions, in addition to cognitive, language, motor and emotional regulation abilities, and particularly so with very preterm-born children, who exhibit slower cognitive development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101428, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined longitudinal relations between maternal bonding and infant temperament in the first nine months after birth. DESIGN: Our sample consisted of 281 women, enrolled at five maternity hospitals, who completed questionnaires during the first week (T1), at six weeks (T2) and nine months postpartum (T3). Maternal bonding was assessed using the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale at T1 and T2 and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at T3. Infant temperament was measured using the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, completed by the mothers at T2 and T3. RESULTS: The results of a path model showed a long-term effect flowing from the child to the mother, with infant temperament at T2 predicting maternal bonding at T3 over and above stability in bonding. At T3, bonding was linked more strongly to child temperament at T2 than to child temperament assessed concurrently at T3. Maternal bonding did predict infant temperament, but this was true only of bonding reported at T1 and infant temperament at T2, that is, not of bonding assessed at T2 and infant temperament at T3. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that maternal bonding in the first week postpartum may temporarily affect child temperament, but infant's temperament several weeks after birth - rather than several months postpartum - plays a pervasive role in shaping the long-lasting nature of the mother-child relationship. Our findings thus seem to support the suggestion that the early postpartum weeks represent an important period in the development of maternal bonding.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101410, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as fNIRS, allow us to shed light on the neural correlates of infant's social-emotional development within the context of parent-infant interaction. On a behavioral level, numerous studies have investigated parent-infant interaction employing the still-face paradigm and found that the primary caregiver(s), often the mother, is an important coregulator of the infant's physiological and behavioral stress response. However, limited information is available on how the infant's brain reacts to the maternal cues during real-life interaction. METHODS: Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to design a fNIRS paradigm to study live mother-infant interaction and to explore the neural correlates of infant affect regulation during real-life dyadic interaction. To this end, a modified still-face paradigm was designed, which consists of live face-to-face mother-infant, and stranger-infant, interaction episodes, including stressful, "still-face" and non-stressful, "happy-face" interaction blocks, combined with infant fNIRS imaging. RESULTS: Hemodynamic brain responses were collected in n = 10 (6 females, mean age 230.2 ±â€¯17.5 days), typically developing infants using the Hitachi ETG-4000 continuous-wave system (22 channels spanning the frontal cortex; 10 Hz system sampling frequency). Infants with usable data (n = 7) showed negative activations, indicated by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin, over the middle frontal gyrus in response to happy-face (reunion) interaction with their mothers compared to a female stranger; suggesting deactivation of brain regions associated with affect regulation. We also explored correlations between infant brain responses to maternal interaction and infant characteristics (temperament) as well as experiential/environmental factors (mothers' self-reported depression symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Although the current results are very preliminary, they overall suggest that live design in infant populations is doable and offers unique opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying early caregiver(s)-child interaction in a more naturalistic context. Restrictions, and implications, of the methodology are critically discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Temperamento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121286

RESUMO

The postpartum period is critical for new mothers, in terms of performing maternal functions, which can be affected by physical or psychological complications. The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between maternal functioning and mental health in the postpartum period. This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 530 eligible women who referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran in 2018. The participants were selected through randomized cluster sampling, and data were collected by using a socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire, Mental Health Inventory (MHI), and the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF). These assessments were collected between 1 and 4 months postpartum. The relationship between maternal functioning and mental health was determined by conducting bivariate analysis via Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis and the general linear model (GLM) in a multivariate analysis. The mean (SD) mental health score in women was 79.1 (15.0) in the obtainable score range of 18 to 108, and the mean (SD) BIMF score in women was 97.4 (12.9) in the obtainable score range of 0 to 120. Based on Pearson or Spearman correlations, mental health and its sub-domains had positive, significant correlations with infant care, mother-child interaction, mental well-being, social support, management, adjustment, self-care, and maternal functioning (p < 0.001). Based on the GLM, increased maternal functioning was associated with higher total mental health score, having a moderate income, and receiving support for infant care (p < 0.05). High levels of postpartum mental health can have a positive impact on maternal functioning. Additionally, having support with infant care tasks can also improve functioning.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 51(1): 89-109, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193109

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio es elaborar un perfil de percepciones, emociones y opiniones en torno a experiencias de apego de un grupo de madres de niños con retraso madurativo, a través del análisis de contenido de un foro virtual. A partir de los datos se extraen tres dimensiones de análisis: sistema de conductas del niño, sistema de cuidados y crianza mediada por profesionales. Los resultados permiten detectar como temas recurrentes de preocupación en las madres los siguientes: incertidumbre por el diagnóstico; dificultades para interpretar la conducta de sus hijos y responder consecuentemente; búsqueda de intimidad afectiva, y predominio del aprendizaje guiado durante las primeras etapas del diagnóstico. Se concluye que la categoría retraso madurativo, al ser provisional, dificulta el proceso de aceptación, lo cual impacta negativamente en el sistema de cuidados materno. Al respecto, la terminología, actitudes y prácticas de los profesionales de apoyo parecen jugar un papel importante. El deseo de lograr intimidad afectiva, las emociones positivas y un adecuado acompañamiento profesional serían factores protectores para establecer vínculos de apego más favorables entre las figuras parentales y sus hijos


The aim of this study is to develop a profile of attachment experienc¬es through the analysis of content shared in a virtual forum by a group of mothers who have children with developmental delay. Three categories were extracted from the data: behavioural system, care system, and professional parenting assistance. The results allowed the identification of the mothers' emotional states associated with the uncer¬tainty about diagnosis, difficulty interpreting their children behaviour, and responding consequently, seeking emotional intimacy, and prevalence of guided learning during the early stages of diagnosis. It is concluded that the diagnosis "developmental delay", being provisional, makes the acceptance process difficult, which impacts the maternal care system negatively. Terminology, attitudes, and practices of support professionals seem to play an important role. The desire for emotional intimacy, positive emotions, and appropriate professional support would be protective factors to establish a more favourable attachment between parents and children


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Mães/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , 25783
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225839, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163421

RESUMO

In the current study a three-generational design was used to investigate intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM) using multiple sources of information on child maltreatment: mothers, fathers and children. A total of 395 individuals from 63 families reported on maltreatment. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to combine data from mother, father and child about maltreatment that the child had experienced. This established components reflecting the convergent as well as the unique reports of father, mother and child on the occurrence of maltreatment. Next, we tested ITCM using the multi-informant approach and compared the results to those of two more common approaches: ITCM based on one reporter and ITCM based on different reporters from each generation. Results of our multi-informant approach showed that a component reflecting convergence between mother, father, and child reports explained most of the variance in experienced maltreatment. For abuse, intergenerational transmission was consistently found across approaches. In contrast, intergenerational transmission of neglect was only found using the perspective of a single reporter, indicating that transmission of neglect might be driven by reporter effects. In conclusion, the present results suggest that including multiple informants may be necessary to obtain more valid estimates of ITCM.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Relação entre Gerações , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229670, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134961

RESUMO

The role of fathers in (co-)parenting their children among refugee and disadvantaged families in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains poorly understood. This study sought to examine the associations among mothers' perceptions of their husband's involvement (hereafter referred to as paternal involvement), and her perceptions of her own well-being and a number of other variables, as well as observed mother-child interactions in families living in refugee and disadvantaged communities in Beirut, Lebanon. We analyzed baseline data from 104 mother-child dyads (mean age of children = 4.34 years; range = 2.05 to 7.93 years of age) who participated in a randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating the impact of the Mother-Child Education Program in Beirut. In addition to the mother's perception of paternal involvement and the videotaped mother-child interactions, data were collected concerning the mother's well-being and her level of social support, as well as her level of stress as a parent and the way her children were disciplined in the family. Mother-child pairs were videotaped while completing a puzzle together and dyadic interactions were coded. Path analysis showed that paternal involvement was significantly associated with a higher level of maternal well-being and lower distress levels. In addition, higher levels of maternal distress were associated with higher levels of harsh discipline and parenting stress. Correlation analysis showed that higher perceptions of paternal involvement were associated with more positive affect displayed by the child, more positive regard for the child, and better mother-child synchrony during the dyadic interactions. Limitations include the cross-sectional design and the modest sample size, which hinder causal inferences and generalizability of the findings. These preliminary findings suggest that higher levels of paternal involvement may have an impact on markers of maternal mental health and positive mother-child interactions in families living in disadvantaged communities or humanitarian settings. Paternal involvement should be considered when designing and implementing parenting programs in LMICs.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 210-219, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100886

RESUMO

A robust research literature links parental spanking with negative behavioral outcomes for children, however, it remains unclear whether conditions in the community may moderate the associations between spanking and behavior problems in early childhood. In the current study, we examined whether community violence exposure moderated the associations of maternal spanking with externalizing and internalizing behavior problems of young children. The sample used in this study was urban families and their children ages 3-5 (n = 2,472). We used fixed effects regression models, which yield stronger statistical control for baseline behavior problems, selection bias, and omitted variables bias. Mother's spanking was associated with elevated levels of both externalizing (ß = .037, p < .001) and internalizing (ß = .016, p < .001) behavior problems. Community violence exposure also predicted higher levels of externalizing (ß = .071, p < .01) and internalizing (ß = .043, p < .05) behavior problems. Community violence exposure did not moderate the associations between maternal spanking and behavior problems. Professionals working with families should promote the use of nonphysical disciplinary practices, regardless of the level of violence and crime in the community in which the family resides.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Exposição à Violência , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Punição/psicologia , Características de Residência , Violência
13.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101415, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004759

RESUMO

Consistency in parenting infants has positive developmental outcomes. Yet, the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in consistency of maternal behaviors is not well understood. We investigated individual-order continuity of maternal smile and laughter and positive vocalization from 6 to 12 months of age in 82 mother-infant dyads. Overall, individual differences in maternal smile and laughter, and positive vocalization were consistent across time. A multidimensional measure of SES moderated the association of maternal smile and laughter from 6 to 12 months, such that infants from lower SES families were vulnerable to unpredictable parenting - experiencing a lack of consistency in maternal smiles and laughter.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Riso/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Lactente , Riso/psicologia , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , Sorriso/fisiologia , Sorriso/psicologia
14.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101420, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028103

RESUMO

During the first years of life, maternal touch can serve different functions including facilitation of child's gaze orientation to faces which is a key precursor for social attention. Although children with neurodevelopmental disability (ND) may have reduced social skills, the role of maternal touch in contributing to gaze orientation to maternal face has not been explored in previous research. In the present study, we investigate the functions of maternal touch in dyads of mothers and children with ND, compared to dyads of children with typical development (TD). Micro-analytic 2-s coding of maternal touch (i.e., affectionate, playful, facilitating, holding, no touch) and children's gaze orientation (i.e., mother-oriented, object-oriented, non-oriented) occurred during 5-minute interactions between mothers and their 12-to-24-month-old ND and TD children. Dyads were paired for children chronological age and sex. Mothers of children with ND used more touch - especially facilitating and holding types -, compared to mothers of TD peers. Children with ND exhibited more non-orientated gaze compared to TD counterparts. Playful touch associated with increased mother-oriented gaze in children with ND, whereas affectionate and holding touch associated with greater mother-oriented gaze in TD children. Findings suggest that specific types of touch support children's attention to social partners.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia
15.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(2): 264-277, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057121

RESUMO

Substance use may influence mothers' responsiveness to their infants and negatively impact the parent-infant relationship. Maternal substance use may co-opt neural circuitry involved in caregiving, thus reducing the salience of infant cues and diminishing the sense of reward experienced by caring for infants. Gaps in understanding exist with regard to the mechanisms by which substance use operates to influence mothers' processing of infant cues and how this translates to caregiving. Therefore, we examined how substance use might relate to maternal neural responses to infant cues using event-related potentials (ERPs). Substance-using (n = 29) and nonsubstance-using (n = 29) mothers viewed photographs of infant faces and heard recordings of infant vocalizations while electroencephalography was recorded simultaneously. Three specific ERP components were used to examine initial processing of infant faces (N170) and cries (N100), and attentional allocation to infant faces and cries (P300). Substance-using mothers did not discriminate facial affect at early encoding stages (N170), were generally slower to orient to infant cries (N100), showed heightened responses to neutral faces (P300), and failed to adaptively differentiate between high-distress versus low-distress cries (P300). These differences may be important to caregiving behaviors associated with the formation of mother-child attachment. Implications are discussed, as are limitations and future directions.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Atenção , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Choro , Eletroencefalografia , Empatia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
16.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(2): 246-263, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057130

RESUMO

Risk features in mothers' caregiving representations remain understudied in dangerous environments where infants most urgently need protective parenting. This pilot study examines the feasibility of a novel coding system for the Parent Development Interview (PDI) interview (ARR, Assessment of Representational Risk) in assessing 50 war-exposed Palestinian mothers' caregiving representations. First, we explored the content and structure of risks in the representations. Second, we examined associations between the high-risk representations, mothers' pre- and postnatal exposure to traumatic war events (TWE), depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and self-rated emotional availability (EA) with their 1-year-old infants. Following three dimensions of high-risk caregiving representations were identified: self/dyadic dysregulation, unavailable, and fearful. Mothers' prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with dysregulating and fearful representations, and their postnatal PTSD with fearful representations. TWE were not associated with the high-risk representations. Moreover, mothers of boys reported more fearful representations, and mothers with financial difficulties reported more unavailable representations. TWE and high-risk representations were not associated with EA. However, qualitative analysis of the representations indicated risks in the mother-infant relationship. Further, older mothers and mothers with postnatal PTSD reported lower EA. Cultural variance in caregiving representations and the use of self-report measures among traumatized mothers are discussed.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Árabes/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Período Periparto/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(2): 278-293, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057132

RESUMO

Infants are uniquely vulnerable to maternal depression's noxious effects, but few longitudinal studies have tried to identify discrete postnatal trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) beginning in infancy. This study extends evidence of heterogeneous change in postnatal MDS by examining their cross-contextual antecedents in infancy and their consequences for children's early behavior problems and language skills in late toddlerhood. A community sample of mother-child dyads (N = 235, 72% Caucasian) was assessed when children were 7, 15, and 33 months old. Mothers reported their socioeconomic status (SES), social support, marital relationship quality, family dysfunction, parenting stress, and infants' functional regulatory problems at 7 months postpartum, and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 33 months. Children completed a receptive vocabulary assessment at 33 months in the lab. Latent class growth analysis identified three postnatal MDS trajectory classes that fit the data best: low-decreasing, moderate, and increasing. Psychosocial measures at seven months postpartum primarily predicted membership to these postnatal trajectory classes, which subsequently differed in children's internalizing, externalizing, and receptive vocabulary in late toddlerhood, controlling for family SES and functional regulatory problems in infancy. We discuss salient antecedents and consequences of postnatal depression for mothers and their offspring.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto , Estudos Prospectivos , Classe Social , Apoio Social
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to violence perpetrated on a mother by her intimate partner (IPV or intimate partner violence) has an impact on the psychosocial adjustment of her children. In addition, the violence suffered by mothers could affect parental competences. METHODS: Through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), this work analyzes the psychosocial adjustment in children between 6 and 17 years old who live with their mothers in shelters after having experienced IPV situations. It also explores the association between mothers' parenting competences and children's adjustment in shelters. RESULTS: The evaluation shows a negative correlation between the quality of mothers' care of their children during their stay in shelters and the rate of children's behavioral problems, so that the better the parental competences of mothers, the lower the rate of behavioral problems presented by children. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of IPV, mother-child relationships can be affected. Children exposed to IPV may exhibit more externalizing behavior problems and their mothers may have difficulty demonstrating competent parenting behaviors while living in a shelter. Work should be aimed at reestablishing parenting competences in mothers and the quality of mother-child interactions while they remain in the shelters, in an effort to mitigate the psychosocial consequences of IPV for their children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães
19.
Hist Psychiatry ; 31(2): 227-231, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969024

RESUMO

Harry Harlow, famous for his experiments with rhesus monkeys and cloth and wire mothers, was visited by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby and by child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim in 1958. They made similar observations of Harlow's monkeys, yet their interpretations were strikingly different. Bettelheim saw Harlow's wire mother as a perfect example of the 'refrigerator mother', causing autism in her child, while Bowlby saw Harlow's results as an explanation of how socio-emotional development was dependent on responsiveness of the mother to the child's biological needs. Bettelheim's solution was to remove the mother, while Bowlby specifically wanted to involve her in treatment. Harlow was very critical of Bettelheim, but evaluated Bowlby's work positively.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/história , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Amor , Macaca mulatta/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Psiquiatria/história , Psicologia da Criança
20.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101416, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986315

RESUMO

A randomized control trial was conducted to investigate the effects of skin-to-skin, chest-to-chest contact (kangaroo care, KC) in mother-infant dyads on patterns of infant brain activity and associated mother-infant neurohormone releases. 33 mother-infant dyads participated during pregnancy (29-38 weeks gestation), at neonatal and 3-month periods. Overall, analyses indicated that: 1) infants in the KC group showed left frontal brain activation patterns (asymmetry and coherence) associated with KC training; 2) KC produced moderate to large increases in oxytocin levels; and 3) KC yielded moderate decreases in cortisol reactivity. Findings suggest KC may garner favorable neuro-maturational and neurobiological outcomes for dyads.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Método Canguru/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Método Canguru/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Saliva/metabolismo
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