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1.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(10): 613-618, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004322

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected every aspect of daily life. Parents of adolescents, in particular, may be facing unique challenges in helping them navigate unexpected changes to their daily routine. This article discusses how adolescents may respond to stressful and traumatic situations and provides recommendations for clinicians who may be advising parents of adolescents or parenting their own children.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação não Profissionalizante , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , Pneumonia Viral , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 346-348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030450

RESUMO

The scientific and clinical interest in children with mentally ill parents increased in the last years. Those children belong to a high risk population so that prevention is urgently indicated. Due to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness there exists a higher risk for child abuse. They show a three to five time increased risk to develop mental problems which require treatment over the course of their lives. They show abnormalities in social, cognitive and emotional areas. Untreated mental disorders and associated behavioral problems in children often chronify and lead to permanent impairment of the emotional, social and also intellectual development. Early detection and treatment are indicated and of high relevance.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco
3.
Rev Prat ; 70(4): 444-446, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877106

RESUMO

How to talk about a serious event to a child? Talking to a child about a serious event is difficult. Should we be afraid of causing him trauma? We will present two clinical situations each involving a pedophile father. The contrasting evolutions make it possible to highlight the important elements to be taken into account in this type of situation, by insisting on the variables relating to the child rather than the pressure that can be put by the entourage and the urgency of the event. Then, we will discuss the case of the death of a loved one and an other on the announcement to a child of a collective disaster: the spread of the Covid-19.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Morte , Humanos , Pandemias , Pedofilia , Pneumonia Viral , Psicologia da Criança
5.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 23-27, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951692

RESUMO

In a cross-cultural consultation, a young girl of Tamil origin born in France seeks the love of her parents by oscillating between two cultures. Through group development and translation, the daughter and the mother are brought to understand each other's suffering and discover that they share the same deep love, even though it is expressed differently.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Amor
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1453, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines the relationships between childhood food allergy and parental unhealthy food choices for their children across attitudes towards childhood obesity as mediators and parental gender, income and education as potential moderators. METHODS: We surveyed parents with at least one child between the ages of 6 and 12 living in Canada and the United States. We received 483 valid responses that were analysed using structural equation modelling approach with bootstrapping to test the hypothetical path model and its invariance across the moderators. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that pressure to eat fully mediated the effects of childhood food allergy and restriction on parental unhealthy food choices for their children. Finally, we found that parental gender moderated the relationship between childhood food allergy and the pressure to eat. CONCLUSIONS: The paper contributes to the literature on food allergies among children and the marginalisation of families with allergies. Our explorative model is a first of its kind and offers a fresh perspective on complex relationships between variables under consideration. Although our data collection took place prior to Covid-19 outbreak, this paper bears yet particular significance as it casts light on how families with allergies should be part of the priority groups to have access to food supply during crisis periods.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S25-S32, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737229

RESUMO

In this article, I examine the role of minors' competence for medical decision-making in modern American law. The doctrine of parental consent remains the default legal and bioethical framework for health care decisions on behalf of children, complemented by a complex array of exceptions. Some of those exceptions vest decisional authority in the minors themselves. Yet, in American law, judgments of minors' competence do not typically trigger shifts in decision-making authority from adults to minors. Rather, minors' decisional capacity becomes relevant only after legislatures or courts determine that the default of parental discretion does not achieve important policy goals or protect implicated constitutional rights in a particular health care context and that those goals can best be achieved or rights best protected by authorizing capable minors to choose for themselves. It is at that point that psychological and neuroscientific evidence plays an important role in informing the legal inquiry as to whether minors whose health is at issue are legally competent to decide.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação Infantil , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Civis , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Família , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Consentimento Informado por Menores/ética , Consentimento Informado por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/normas , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Patient Self-Determination Act , Autonomia Pessoal , Procurador/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of overweight during early childhood seems promising. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the parenting-based BBOFT+ overweight prevention program on child BMI, child health behavior and parenting behavior among 0-36 month old children. BBOFT+ is an acronym for the key healthy lifestyle behaviors that are targeted in the BBOFT+ intervention: breastfeeding (B), daily breakfast (B), daily going outdoors (O), limiting sweet beverages (in Dutch, F) and minimal TV or computer time (T), complemented with healthy sleep behavior and improvement of parenting skills (+). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial in newborn children visiting well-baby clinics, comparing the BBOFT+ intervention (N = 901) with care as usual (CAU) (N = 1094). In both groups, parents received regular well-child visits (±11 visits in the first 3 years). In the intervention group, care was supplemented with the BBOFT+ program, which focuses on improving parenting skills from birth onwards to increase healthy behavior. Questionnaires were filled in at child's age 2-4 weeks, 6, 14 and 36 months. In multivariate analyses we corrected for child's birthweight, age, ethnic background, mother's educational level and BMI. RESULTS: No differences were found in weight status at 36 months between intervention and control group children. At 6 months, BBOFT+ parents reported their child drinking less sweet beverages than control parents (48% vs 54%;p = .027), and going outdoors daily with their child less often (57% vs 62%;p = .03). At 14 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported to have breastfed for six months or longer (32% vs 29%;p = .022). At 36 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported their child going outside daily (78% vs 72%;p = .011) and having less TV/computer time on week- (38% vs 46%;p = .001) and weekend days (48% vs 56%;p = .002). Also, BBOFT+ parents reported having more parental control than control parents (3.92 vs 3.89;p = .02). No significant differences were found for daily breakfast, sleep duration and parenting practices in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: The BBOFT+ overweight prevention program showed small improvements in parent-reported child health behaviors, compared to care as usual; no effect was observed on child BMI. The identified modifiable elements are potentially relevant for interventions that aim to prevent overweight.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Países Baixos , Visita a Consultório Médico , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Public Health ; 186: 110-115, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between changing family relationships (marital relationships and parent-child relationships) and adolescents' mental health in transitional China. It further explored the potential moderating role of living arrangements in the abovementioned associations. STUDY DESIGN: The study design used in the study is a longitudinal study. METHODS: Data were derived from wave 1 (academic year: 2013-2014, grade 7) and wave 2 (academic year: 2014-2015, grade 8) of the China Education Panel Survey (CEPS). We used fixed-effects models in the longitudinal data analysis (N = 7237). RESULTS: Descriptive analysis indicated significant changes in both adolescents' mental health and self-reported family relationships during the transition from grade 7 to grade 8. The fixed-effects models showed that high marital quality and close parent-child relationships improved the mental health of adolescents. Interaction analysis suggested that paternal living arrangements significantly moderated the association between the father-child relationships and adolescents' mental health: effects of the father-child relationships were weaker among those living away from their biological fathers than among those living with their biological fathers. CONCLUSIONS: Family relationships play an important role in shaping Chinese adolescents' psychological status. However, the effect of the father-child relationships varies based on the paternal living arrangements. This finding highlights the importance of considering the context in examining the effects of family relationships on adolescents' well-being.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Características da Família , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento , Modelos Estatísticos , Relações Pais-Filho , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 785-795, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parents have profound impacts on adolescents' health behaviors. Yet parents receive minimal training in the elements of conversations that optimally inspire their children toward engaging in healthy behaviors. The current study examines a novel interpersonal target: parent-adolescent conversations about adolescent health behavior change. Derived from advances in the science of behavior change, the Parent Behavior Change Intervention (PBC-I) contains conversational elements (e.g., behavior change techniques, positive communication strategies) hypothesized to reduce parent-adolescent coercion and conflict and facilitate upward spirals of healthy behavior change in adolescents. METHOD/DESIGN: The first phase of the study involves the development of the PBC-I in a small case series (N = 12 dyads). The second phase involves an open trial of the PBC-I (N = 36 dyads). Adolescents will receive six 50-min sessions of the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention to improve sleep while their parents receive six50-min sessions of the PBC-I. Parent-adolescent dyads will be assessed before and after the intervention. The primary analysis will examine whether postintervention use of behavior change techniques and positive communication strategies by parents is higher than preintervention use and whether increased use by parents predicts more positive conversational behaviors, less parent-adolescent conflict, higher adolescent motivation for change, and improved adolescent sleep. DISCUSSION: This research provides an initial test of the hypothesis that improving the parent-adolescent conversation will improve adolescent sleep health behavior. While sleep-related health behaviors are the focus of this study, the research is designed to be relevant to a broad range of health behavior change in young people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 818-826, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger. RESULTS: Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Medição de Risco
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the 2% of US children being raised by their grandparents. We sought to characterize and compare grandparent- and parent-headed households with respect to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), child temperament, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and caregiver aggravation and coping. METHODS: Using a combined data set of children ages 3 to 17 from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 National Survey of Children's Health, we applied survey regression procedures, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders, to compare grandparent- and parent-headed households on composite and single-item outcome measures of ACEs; ADHD; preschool inattention and restlessness; child temperament; and caregiver aggravation, coping, support, and interactions with children. RESULTS: Among 80 646 households (2407 grandparent-headed, 78 239 parent-headed), children in grandparent-headed households experienced more ACEs (ß = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07 to 1.38). Preschool-aged and school-aged children in grandparent-headed households were more likely to have ADHD (adjusted odds ratio = 4.29, 95% CI: 2.22 to 8.28; adjusted odds ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.20). School-aged children in these households had poorer temperament (ßadj = .25, 95% CI: -0.63 to 1.14), and their caregivers experienced greater aggravation (ßadj = .29, 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.49). However, these differences were not detected after excluding children with ADHD from the sample. No differences were noted between grandparent- and parent-headed households for caregiver coping, emotional support, or interactions with children. CONCLUSIONS: Despite caring for children with greater developmental problems and poorer temperaments, grandparent caregivers seem to cope with parenting about as well as parents.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Família , Avós/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Avós/educação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Família de Pais Solteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Temperamento
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 4708091, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774393

RESUMO

Background: A significant number of adolescents as well as young men and women aged 10 to 24 years die each year in the world due to avoidable sexual and reproductive health problems such as unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. This is attributed to low access to and/or uptake of sexual and reproductive health services. Objective: To assess parent-adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues and associated factors among secondary and preparatory school students in Dabat town, northwest Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 10, 2018, using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected from 550 participants using structured, pretested, and self-administered questionnaire; entered into Epi Info version 7; and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed, and variables with less than 0.05 P value in the multivariable regression were considered as statistically significant. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was used to determine the strengths and directions of associations. Result: This study revealed that 48.5% of the participants discussed sexual and reproductive health issues with parents. Male sex (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.25), family income greater than ETB 1,000 (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.02-2.57), good knowledge of sexual and reproductive health (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.09), and favorable attitude to sexual and reproductive health issues (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.29-2.67) were factors significantly associated with parent-adolescent communication on the issues. Conclusion: This study showed that the proportion of parent-adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues was low. Male sex, family income greater than ETB 1,000, and good knowledge and favorable attitude of adolescents had significant association with the communication.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Pais-Filho , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 51(5): 671-682, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749568

RESUMO

Research confirms that the mental health burdens following community-wide disasters are extensive, with pervasive impacts noted in individuals and families. It is clear that child disaster outcomes are worst among children of highly distressed caregivers, or those caregivers who experience their own negative mental health outcomes from the disaster. The current study used path analysis to examine concurrent patterns of parents' (n = 420) experience from a national sample during the early months of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic. The results of a multi-group path analysis, organized by parent gender, indicate good fit to the data [X2(10) = 159.04, p < .01]. Results indicate significant linkages between parents' caregiver burden, mental health, and perceptions of children's stress; these in turn are significantly linked to child-parent closeness and conflict, indicating possible spillover effects for depressed parents and compensatory effects for anxious parents. The impact of millions of families sheltering in place during the COVID-19 pandemic for an undefined period of time may lead to unprecedented impacts on individuals' mental health with unknown impacts on child-parent relationships. These impacts may be heightened for families whose caregivers experience increased mental health symptoms, as was the case for fathers in the current sample.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Isolamento Social/psicologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764810

RESUMO

Disrupted parental sleep, presenting as post-partum fatigue and perceived as problematic infant sleep, is related to increased symptoms of depression and anxiety among new mothers and fathers. Previous research indicates that UK parents would value an approach that facilitates meeting their infants' needs while supporting their own sleep-related well-being throughout their infant's first year. Six initial stakeholder meetings were held with 15 practitioners and 6 parents with an interest in supporting parent-infant sleep needs, to explore existing service provision and identify gaps. The Possums Sleep Program developed and delivered in Brisbane, Australia in a GP clinic setting, was chosen as an appropriate approach. Working collaboratively with a stakeholder group, we translated the Possums Sleep Program into an intervention that could be universally delivered in the UK via NHS antenatal and postnatal practitioners. Parent and practitioner views of the initial materials were obtained via feedback questionnaires and the tool was revised. The intervention was then field-tested by 164 practitioners who delivered it to at least 535 new parents and babies over 5 UK locations, to capture anonymous parent and practitioner views of the intervention concept, the materials, and their experiences with both. The intervention helps parents recalibrate their expectations of infant sleep development, encourages responsive parenting and experimentation to meet their infant's needs, offers parents strategies for supporting the development of their babies' biological sleep regulators and promote their own well-being, and teaches parents to manage negative thinking and anxiety that can impede sleep using the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The 'Sleep, Baby & You' discussion tool, a 14 page illustrated booklet for parents, was field-tested and evaluated by practitioners and parents who offered enthusiastic feedback. Practitioners reported the 'Sleep, Baby & You' materials were easy for them to explain and for parents to understand, and were a good fit with the responsive parenting approaches they employed in other areas of their work. Parents who received the intervention postnatally understood the material and found the suggestions easy to follow. All parents who provided feedback had implemented one or more of the suggested changes, with the majority of changes (70%) being sustained for at least two weeks. Practitioners recommended development of digital and antenatal versions and offered feedback on circumstances that might challenge effective uptake of the intervention. 'Sleep, Baby & You' is a promising tool for promoting parental attitude and behaviour-change, that aims to adjust parental expectations and reduce negative thinking around infant sleep, promote responsive infant care in the face of infant-related sleep disruption and fatigue, and support parental well-being during the first year of parenthood. Initial field-testing provided insights useful for further development and subsequent testing via a randomised trial. Support exists for incorporating 'Sleep, Baby & You' into an anticipatory, universal intervention to support parents who may experience post-partum fatigue and infant sleep disruption.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pais/educação , Sono
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839242

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Family-based lifestyle interventions are recommended for adolescent obesity treatment, yet the optimal role of parents in treatment is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine systematically the evidence from prospective randomized controlled and/or clinical trials (RCTs) to identify how parents have been involved in adolescent obesity treatment and to identify the optimal type of parental involvement to improve adolescent weight outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Data sources included PubMed, PsychINFO, and Medline (inception to July 2019). STUDY SELECTION: RCTs evaluating adolescent (12-18 years of age) obesity treatment interventions that included parents were reviewed. Studies had to include a weight-related primary outcome (BMI and BMI z score). DATA EXTRACTION: Eligible studies were identified and reviewed, following the Preferred Reporting for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality and risk of bias were evaluated by using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. RESULTS: This search identified 32 studies, of which 23 were unique RCTs. Only 5 trials experimentally manipulated the role of parents. There was diversity in the treatment target (parent, adolescent, or both) and format (group sessions, separate sessions, or mixed) of the behavioral weight loss interventions. Many studies lacked detail and/or assessments of parent-related behavioral strategies. In ∼40% of unique trials, no parent-related outcomes were reported, whereas parent weight was reported in 26% and associations between parent and adolescent weight change were examined in 17%. LIMITATIONS: Only RCTs published in English in peer-reviewed journals were eligible for inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Further research, with detailed reporting, is needed to inform clinical guidelines related to optimizing the role of parents in adolescent obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 has changed American society in ways that are difficult to capture in a timely manner. With this study, we take advantage of daily survey data collected before and after the crisis started to investigate the hypothesis that the crisis has worsened parents' and children's psychological well-being. We also examine the extent of crisis-related hardships and evaluate the hypothesis that the accumulation of hardships will be associated with parent and child psychological well-being. METHODS: Daily survey data were collected between February 20 and April 27, 2020, from hourly service workers with a young child (aged 2-7) in a large US city (N = 8222 person-days from 645 individuals). A subsample completed a one-time survey about the effects of the crisis fielded between March 23 and April 26 (subsample n = 561). RESULTS: Ordered probit models revealed that the frequency of parent-reported daily negative mood increased significantly since the start of the crisis. Many families have experienced hardships during the crisis, including job loss, income loss, caregiving burden, and illness. Both parents' and children's well-being in the postcrisis period was strongly associated with the number of crisis-related hardships that the family experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with our hypotheses, in families that have experienced multiple hardships related to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis, both parents' and children's mental health is worse. As the crisis continues to unfold, pediatricians should screen for mental health, with particular attention to children whose families are especially vulnerable to economic and disease aspects of the crisis.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Desemprego/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
20.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 41-45, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120976

RESUMO

La atención de salud abre una ventana de reflexiones compartidas entre los distintos actores que convergen hoy alrededor de la infancia y la adolescencia: profesionales de la salud, de la educación, instituciones y familias. El desarrollo humano implica una interacción dinámica. El conjunto de cuidados que conforman la crianza tiene lugar en múltiples contextos: la casa, la familia extendida, la escuela y la sociedad, cuyos valores, creencias y prácticas definen la cultura. Somos parte de una realidad que está evolucionando y creciendo en complejidad, en un escenario multifactorial y polifacético. Emergen enfermedades que, si bien son conocidas por parte de los profesionales de la salud, ganan una importancia creciente en la sociedad actual. Varias de estas patologías emergentes vienen catalizadas por factores medioambientales y por determinantes de tipo social que antes tenían una influencia menor o que, sencillamente, no se tenían en cuenta. Las transformaciones que experimentan los/as niños/as existen de manera visible, por lo que se hace imprescindible que madres, padres, docentes y profesionales de la salud, desde nuestro lugar de adultos, actuemos con responsabilidad en todos los espacios en los que deambulan los/as niños/as y los/as adolescentes de hoy (AU)


Health care opens a window for shared reflections among the different people who interact with children and adolescents: family, health professionals, educators and institutions today. Human development involves dynamic interaction. Care takes place in multiple contexts: the immediate and the extended family, the school and society with its values, beliefs and practices that define the culture where the individual grows up. We are part of a reality that is evolving and growing in complexity, facing a multifactorial and multifaceted scenario. A number of diseases while known by health professionals, gain increasing importance in today's society. Several of these emerging pathologies are catalyzed by environmental factors and by social determinants that previously had less influence or that were simply not taken into account. The transformations that the child undergoes nowadays are visible, and for that reason, it is essential that mothers, fathers, teachers and health professionals viewed from our position as adults, act responsibly in all the spaces where children and adolescents of today are (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Medicina do Adolescente , Relações Pais-Filho , Argentina , Gravidez na Adolescência , Suicídio , Tabagismo , Violência , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Depressão , Alcoolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Identidade de Gênero , Obesidade
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