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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(6): 1540-1544, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between perceived primary parenting styles and attachment styles between single-parent children and children living with both parents. Methods: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, from September 2017 to March 2018, and comprised an equal number of children from single-parent families and those living with both the parents. Data was collected using the parental authority questionnaire and the Urdu version of the inventory of parental and peer attachment. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 200 children, 100(50%) were in each of the two groups, and both the groups had 50(50%) girls and boys each. The overall mean age of the sample was 14.56±3.03 years (range: 11-18 years). There was a significant negative correlation between permissive parenting styles with mother's communication (p<0.05); authoritarian parenting style had negative correlation with parental communication and trust(p<0.001). Authoritative parenting had significant positive relationship with trust (p<0.001), and communication with parents (p<0.001), and there was negative relationship between authoritative parenting with feeling alienated from parents (p<0.01). Single-parent children perceived their parents as authoritarian (p<0.001) and had more alienated attachment with parents (p<0.001), whereas children living with both the parents had more trust (p<0.001) and had better communication with their parents (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to understand the role of parents and different parenting styles in building up strong parentchild attachment.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Relações Pais-Filho , Permissividade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1009, 2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This feasibility pilot of the Parenting for Lifelong Health for Young Children program in Thailand aimed to: 1) explore the feasibility of study evaluation approaches; 2) assess the feasibility of delivering an adapted program; 3) report indicative effects on child maltreatment and related outcomes; and 4) examine intervention content associated with key mechanisms of change perceived by caregivers and facilitators. METHOD: Sixty primary caregivers of children aged 2-9 years were recruited for an 8-week parenting program embedded within the local health system. Mixed-methods approaches included quantitative caregiver-report and observational data from standardized instruments, and qualitative data from individual and group interviews with caregivers and program facilitators. Analyses involved Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, paired t-tests, Friedman's ANOVA, and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported that most (65%) were grandparents or great-grandparents. Study retention and response rates were high, and enrolled caregivers attended an average of 93% of sessions. Primary outcomes showed caregiver-reported pre-post reductions in overall child maltreatment (d = - 0.58, p < 0.001), as well as reductions in physical (d = - 0.58, p < 0.001) and emotional abuse (d = - 0.40, p < 0.001). Combined caregiver report and observational assessments using the HOME Inventory showed reductions in abusive and harsh parenting (d = - 0.52, p < 0.001). Secondary outcomes demonstrated decreases in child neglect; dysfunctional parenting; poor child monitoring and supervision; parental sense of inefficacy; child behavior problems; daily report on child problem behavior; parent overall depression, anxiety, and stress; and attitudes supporting physical punishment and harsh discipline. There were increases in overall positive parenting, daily positive parenting behavior, as well as HOME Inventory assessments on parent-child relationships. Thematic analyses from interviews and focus group data identified six key program themes associated with strengthened parent-child relationships, reduced child behavior problems, improved attitudes and strategies toward discipline, and improved management of parental stress. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents one of few evaluations to test the feasibility of an evidence-based parenting program embedded within routine public health service delivery in a low- or middle-income country. Findings show preliminary effectiveness in reducing child maltreatment, improvements on 22 of 24 secondary outcomes, and perceived mechanisms of change that support quantitative findings. Prospects are promising for program scalability, pending randomized controlled trial results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: 11/01/2019, ClinicalTrials.gov, ID# NCT03539341 .


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Saúde Pública , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Tailândia , Estados Unidos
4.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Divórcio , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 156, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As China's aging trend intensifies and the proportion of empty nests increases, the health-related quality of life of the elderly is the focus of social attention. Previous studies focused on the quality of life of the elderly, rather than empty nesters, and lacked the discussion of the mechanism of influencing factors. Thus, this study aimed to explore the influencing factors of the quality of life (QOL) and interaction mechanisms among empty nesters in Shanxi Province, China, so as to provide practical reference for improving the QOL of empty nesters. METHODS: A total of 4901 empty nesters in Shanxi Province, China, were selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling method in this cross-sectional study. The quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to examine the factor associated with QOL. Structural equation model (SEM) approach was conducted to test the direct and indirect association between QOL influencing factors with QOL. RESULTS: The average QOL score of empty nesters was 63.34 (SD = 17.23). The multiple linear regression revealed that gender, age, education, monthly income, drinking status, exercise frequency, physical examination frequency, attention to daily nutritional health, relationship with a spouse and relationship with children were significant predictors of the empty nester's QOL (P < 0.05) (R2 = 0.128). SEM showed that behavioral lifestyle had a direct effect on QOL (ß = 0.446, P < 0.001). Socio-economic status had an indirect effect (ß = 0.288, P < 0.001) on QOL through behavioral lifestyle. The family relationship had an indirect effect (ß = 0.115, P < 0.001) on QOL. CONCLUSION: Behavioral lifestyle was the strongest influencing factor in the quality of life among empty nesters, followed by socio-economic status and family relationships. Thus, maintaining a healthy behavioral lifestyle was important to improve the QOL of the empty nesters. Our findings provide a concrete and strong reference for the formulation of targeted intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 823, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parent-child separation is a considerable adversity for left-behind children (LBC), but there is little evidence on the association between detailed characteristics of parent-child separation and social-emotional development among LBC. This study examined the characteristics of parent-child separation and its impacts on developmental delay among under-3 LBC in poor rural China. METHODS: We used data from 811 LBC surveyed in five poor counties in rural China in 2018. Detailed characteristics of their parental migration were recalled by their primary caregivers in face-to-face interviews. The children's social-emotional development was measured by using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association of detailed characteristics of parent-child separation with early social-emotional problems after adjusting for the children's and primary caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: 287 (35.4%) children were left behind by fathers and cared for by mothers (FM-MC), while 524 (64.6%) were left behind by both parents and cared for by grandparents (PM-GC). The rate of social-emotional problems among LBC was 36.8% (PM-GC vs FM-MC: 40.6% vs 29.5%; aOR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.16). For paternal migration, the medians of the child's age at the first migration and average duration per migration were 3 months (IQR: 1 to 9 months) and 4.48 months (IQR: 2.38 to 7.54 months), respectively. For maternal migration, the corresponding values were 9 months (IQR: 6 to 13 months) and 4.65 months (IQR: 2.71 to 7.62 months), respectively. On average, LBC had been separated from fathers for 72% of their life due to paternal migration and from mothers for 52% of their life due to maternal migration. No significant association was found between the detailed characteristics of paternal migration and social-emotional development among LBC, while social-emotional problems among LBC were significantly associated with the proportion of cumulative duration of maternal migration in the child's lifetime (aOR 2.83; 95% CI: 1.13 to 7.10). CONCLUSIONS: LBC under 3 years had a high risk of social-emotional problems in poor rural China. Cumulative exposure to maternal migration may be detrimental to LBC's early social-emotional development. Programs are necessary to support these children as well as their families.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Divórcio , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(4): 425-430, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840418

RESUMO

As one of the most important non-nutritional factors associated with children's growth and development, feeding problems in children are getting more and more attention from medical professionals and guardians. The evaluation of feeding problems has developed from the single-factor and descriptive research in the past to the multi-factor and analytical research at present, and thus a good quantitative analysis system is increasingly important for researchers. However, the development of localized quantitative analysis tools remains a weak link in this field. Therefore, it is a research hotspot to develop child feeding assessment scales and questionnaires with high reliability, validity, and operability in combination with China's cultural background and eating habits and provide effective assessment tools for feeding problems in Chinese children. Through classification based on research mode and screening, this article reviews the research findings in the field of child feeding, so as to provide a basis for future research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Relações Pais-Filho , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803528

RESUMO

The functioning of the parents' emotional sphere is very important to a child's mental and physical health. This study focused on investigating the association between mothers' emotional intelligence (EI) and paediatric type I diabetes (T1DM) disease management in their children. We hypothesized that mothers' EI is associated with T1DM outcomes. Mothers of children with T1DM aged 6-12 years were surveyed. One hundred and thirty-four mothers, the main caregivers of their diabetic children, provided measures of EI and completed a demographic questionnaire. The primary indicator of diabetes management was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c; the main form of glycosylated haemoglobin). EI scales and subscales were associated with glycaemic management indices. Logistic regression analysis was applied for the assessment of the association between parents' EI and their paediatric with T1DM disease management. The analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between T1DM management and mothers' ability to understand and control own emotions, to transform their own negative emotions into positive and to control own negative emotions. Mothers' EI scales and subscales of understanding and regulating their own emotions, subscales of transforming their own negative emotions into positive ones and controlling their own negative emotions were statistically reliable predictors of glycaemic control in children with T1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Mães , Criança , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Global Health ; 17(1): 40, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for adolescent mental health problems during the COVID-19 outbreak. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, their association with study-relevant problems, and the moderating effect of parent-child relationship among Chinese adolescents during the school closures. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected in middle and high schools in Taizhou, China. Students completed an online survey between April 16 and May 14, 2020. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory. Three types of study problems were recorded, including having difficulty in studying at home, dislike of remote learning, and excessive screen entertainment time. Parental relationships were categorized into good or normal relationship and poor relationship. Linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between study-relevant problems and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Using data from 6435 adolescents, we found that the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17.7%. All the study problem measures were associated with more severe depressive symptoms. There was a moderating effect of the parental relationship on the associations between study problems and depressive symptoms. The association between number of study problems and depressive symptoms was stronger in adolescents with a poor parent-child relationship (regression coefficient 4.34 [95% CI 2.97, 5.72]) than those with a good or normal relationship (2.55 [2.35, 2.75]), p for interaction 0.002, on multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Study problems due to school closures were particularly problematic for adolescents who had poor parent-child relationships. Public health initiatives could help students to adjust study habits and improve parent-child relationships, thereby protecting against the development of depression.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e2111103, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914046

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding youth well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic can help appropriately allocate resources and inform policies to support youth. Objective: To examine caregiver-reported changes in the psychological well-being of their children 3 to 4 months after the start of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders, and to examine the association of caregiver-reported COVID-19 exposure and family stressors with caregiver perceptions of child psychological well-being. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used an anonymous survey distributed via email from June 24 to July 15, 2020, to 350 000 families of students attending public schools in Chicago, Illinois. The a priori hypotheses were that caregivers would report worsening in child psychological well-being during the closure period compared with preclosure and that exposure to COVID-19-related stressors would be associated with a higher probability of worsening child psychological well-being. Data were analyzed from September 10, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were 7 mental health concerns and 5 positive adjustment characteristics reported by caregivers using a retrospective pre-post design. COVID-19 exposure and family stressors were also reported by caregivers. Results: Among 350 000 families invited to participate, 32 217 caregivers (10 827 [39.3%] White, 8320 [30.2%] Latinx, 6168 [22.4%] Black; 2223 [8.1%] with multiple or other races/ethnicities) completed the survey on behalf of 49 397 children in prekindergarten through 12th grade. Child-specific outcomes were reported for 40 723 to 40 852 children depending on the specific question. The frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth mental health concerns ranged from 0.1 percentage point (suicidal ideation or self-harm, reported by 191 caregivers [0.5%] preclosure vs 246 caregivers [0.6%] during closure; P < .001) to 28.3 percentage points (loneliness, reported by 1452 caregivers [3.6%] preclosure vs 13 019 caregivers [31.9%] during closure; P < .001) higher after the end of in-person instruction compared with preclosure. Frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth positive adjustment characteristics ranged from -13.4 percentage points (plans for the future, reported by 18 114 caregivers [44.3%] preclosure vs 12 601 caregivers [30.9%] during closure; P < .001) to -30.9 percentage points (positive peer relationships, reported by 24 666 caregivers [60.4%] preclosure vs 19 130 caregivers [46.8%] during closure; P < .001) lower after the end of in-person instruction. Significant differences in COVID-19 exposure were observed across racial/ethnic (F3,27 534 = 614.8; P < .001) and household income strata (F5,27 506 = 842.0; P < .001). After accounting for covariates, all mental health concerns increased in probability (eg, angry: odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.48-1.62]; P < .001) and all the positive adjustment characteristics decreased in probability (eg, hopeful or positive: odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.92]; P < .001) as COVID-19 exposure and family stressors increased. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 and resulting exposure to stress were associated with worse youth psychological well-being, demonstrating the need for a comprehensive public health approach that prioritizes children's well-being and draws broad public attention to the mental health needs of youth.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Proteção da Criança , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , /epidemiologia , /psicologia , Criança , Educação à Distância , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/normas , Relações Pais-Filho , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918362

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a vision of the role of parent/caregiver with children affected by a rare disease. This vision is rooted in data obtained from our own research; however, our analysis and interpretation of this data have been subsequently checked against existing theoretical models. The research aims to explore how parents who look after children with a rare disease experience their role as caregivers and how they assimilate their role identity in this task. Semi-structured interviews were performed with parents of 10 children, and a qualitative data analysis was conducted using grounded theory. We have identified ten main categories using a grounded theory approach: stress, disorientation, insecurity, isolation, faith, trust, attention, communication with professionals, private proactivity and public proactivity. Our results also show that when parents perceive a greater burden due to looking after a child with a rare disease, the result is a change in the usual parental role. In our contribution, we offer a general outline of how parents build a role identity centred on caring for a child with a rare disease. We posit that this role identity is the outcome of the parents' success or failure in gradually overcoming fear through love. We have conceptualized this process as navigating between love and fear.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Doenças Raras , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Amor , Relações Pais-Filho , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
N Z Med J ; 134(1534): 17-30, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927435

RESUMO

AIM: To document the prevalence of child physical punishment by parents and associated predictors in the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) birth cohort over a 15-year period. METHOD: A cohort of 1,265 CHDS individuals were followed from birth (1977) to age 40 years. At ages 25 (n=155), 30 (n=337), 35 (n=585) and 40 years (n=636), the cohort members with dependent children (<16 years of age) were interviewed about their use of child physical punishment in the past 12 months using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Parent, child and family predictors were also examined. RESULTS: The most common forms of physical punishment were smacking on bottom and slapping on hand, arm or leg. Rates of all forms of physical punishment declined with age, ranging from 77% reporting any physical punishment at age 25 to 42% at age 40. In multivariable models, significant predictors included parental age, numbers/ages of children in the household, childhood family socioeconomic status, parental history of adolescent mental health problems and concurrent intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: Use of physical punishment remains a relatively common form of child discipline despite the 2007 anti-smacking legislation and reduced public tolerance for physical violence towards children. Implications for prevention/intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
14.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920602

RESUMO

Although there is a large body of research connecting emotion to eating behaviors, little is known about the role of caregivers' responses to children's emotions in the context of child feeding. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between caregivers' emotional responsiveness and feeding responsiveness. The mothers of 137 children between 2 and 6 years of age reported on their responses to children's negative emotions using the Coping with Children's Negative Emotions Scale and on their feeding practices using the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. The results showed that mothers' supportive emotion responses (e.g., problem-focused, emotion-focused, and expressive encouragement reactions) tend to be positively associated with responsive feeding practices (e.g., encouraging, modelling, and teaching healthy food-related behaviors). Instead, mothers' unsupportive responses (e.g., distress, punitive and minimization reactions) tend to be positively associated with nonresponsive feeding practices (e.g., food as reward or to regulate emotions, and pressure to eat) and negatively associated with responsive feeding practices. Our results suggest that emotional and feeding responsiveness may be intertwined and that differences in parent's emotional responsiveness may translate into differences in their feeding styles, setting the stage for parents' use of positive vs. negative feeding practices.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923208

RESUMO

Parenting in the digital age has been characterized as one of the most challenging tasks of the modern era. Parents are ambivalent about their mediating role. However, problematic aspects of adolescent online use have not been adequately addressed in education. The present study investigated parental perceptions of intervention needs within schools to prevent excessive/problematic use, enhance parent-child communication, and reduce family conflicts. Nine interviews with parents of adolescents residing in the UK were carried out and analyzed utilizing thematic analysis. Three main themes emerged as parental proposals: (i) schools as digital education providers and prevention hubs, (ii) provision of mental health literacy to raise awareness, resolve ambiguity regarding impacts and mitigate excessive use and impacts, and (iii) psychoeducation and upskilling. The third theme related to impacts from time spent on screens (time displacement), content-related impacts, and context-related impacts. The present study offers recommendations for media literacy during adolescence beyond e-safety (i.e., addressing interpersonal communication problems, privacy vs. disclosure issues), based on parents' views, and provides new insights for media and emotional health literacy collaboration efforts. Future work should investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions to support the emotional health of young people and prevent problematic internet use escalation.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Internet , Poder Familiar , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924860

RESUMO

Digital screens have become an integral part of everyday life. In the wake of the digital swell, pre-adolescents and their parents are learning to navigate seemingly new terrain regarding digital media use. The present study aimed to investigate parent and pre-adolescent perceptions of screen use and the source of conflict surrounding digital media. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of 200 parent and pre-adolescent dyads discussing screen use. Our analysis showed five overarching themes for screen use perceptions and conflict: screen time, effects of screen use, balance, rules, and reasons for screen use. In contrast to previous studies that mainly focused on parental perceptions, we were also able to shed light on pre-adolescent perceptions of screen use and the difference in opinions with their parents. Furthermore, we found that patterns of the source of screen use conflict were oftentimes rooted in the age-old developmental tug of war between autonomy-seeking pre-adolescents and authority-seeking parents. Though navigating autonomy-granting and seeking behavior is familiar to developmental scientists, negotiating these challenges in a new digital world is unfamiliar. Autonomy support, open dialogue, and playful interaction between parents and children are needed to understand and resolve conflict of digital media use in family contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Mães , Adolescente , Criança , Conflito Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Relações Pais-Filho , Tempo de Tela
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family is an important setting in the promotion of child health. The parent-child relationship affects the social and health development of children, and children's healthy behaviors are associated with positive parenting strategies. The parent-child relationship is bi-directional and the connection between parenting and child health is complex. However, few parenting interventions work with parents and children together, and more knowledge is needed on how to develop and implement interventions promoting healthy parent-child relationships. Focusing on a family cooking class program, this study addresses how community initiatives engaging parents and children together can contribute to integrating parenting support with local health promotion. METHODS: Participant-driven photo-elicited interviews (nine families), focus group evaluations (nine parents/14 children) and observations during cooking classes (10 classes) were applied to analyze the tools and mechanisms that can support positive parenting. RESULTS: The study found that visual, practical and sensory learning techniques, applied in a context-sensitive learning environment that ensured guidance, safety and a friendly social atmosphere, contributed to positive parent-child interaction and bonding. CONCLUSION: The cooking program facilitated parenting practices that support child involvement and autonomy. Thus, the program constituted an effective intervention to strengthen parent-child relationships and positive parenting.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Criança , Culinária , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920052

RESUMO

Food parenting practices (FPPs) have an important role in shaping children's dietary behaviors. This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations over a two-year follow-up between FPP and dietary intake and compliance with current recommendations in 6- to 11-year-old European children. A total of 2967 parent-child dyads from the Feel4Diabetes study, a randomized controlled trial of a school and community-based intervention, (50.4% girls and 93.5% mothers) were included. FPPs assessed were: (1) home food availability; (2) parental role modeling of fruit intake; (3) permissiveness; (4) using food as a reward. Children's dietary intake was assessed through a parent-reported food frequency questionnaire. In regression analyses, the strongest cross-sectional associations were observed between home availability of 100% fruit juice and corresponding intake (ß = 0.492 in girls and ß = 0.506 in boys, p < 0.001), and between parental role modeling of fruit intake and children's fruit intake (ß = 0.431 in girls and ß = 0.448 in boys, p < 0.001). In multilevel logistic regression models, results indicated that improvements in positive FPPs over time were mainly associated with higher odds of compliance with healthy food recommendations, whereas a decrease in negative FPP over time was associated with higher odds of complying with energy-dense/nutrient-poor food recommendations. Improving FPPs could be an effective way to improve children's dietary intake.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente) , Pai/educação , Pai/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Recomendações Nutricionais
19.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801409

RESUMO

SCOPE: B vitamers are co-enzymes involved in key physiological processes including energy production, one-carbon, and macronutrient metabolism. Studies profiling B vitamers simultaneously in parent-child dyads are scarce. Profiling B vitamers in parent-child dyads enables an insightful determination of gene-environment contributions to their circulating concentrations. We aimed to characterise: (a) parent-child dyad concordance, (b) generation (children versus adults), (c) age (within the adult subgroup (age range 28-71 years)) and (d) sex differences in plasma B vitamer concentrations in the CheckPoint study of Australian children. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1166 children (11 ± 0.5 years, 51% female) and 1324 parents (44 ± 5.1 years, 87% female) took part in a biomedical assessment of a population-derived longitudinal cohort study: The Growing Up in Australia's Child Health CheckPoint. B vitamer levels were quantified by UHPLC/MS-MS. B vitamer levels were weakly concordant between parent-child pairs (10-31% of variability explained). All B vitamer concentrations exhibited generation-specificity, except for flavin mononucleotide (FMN). The levels of thiamine, pantothenic acid, and 4-pyridoxic acid were higher in male children, and those of pantothenic acid were higher in male adults compared to their female counterparts. CONCLUSION: Family, age, and sex contribute to variations in the concentrations of plasma B vitamers in Australian children and adults.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina B 6/epidemiologia , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Plasma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807468

RESUMO

In this study, a total of 335 Palestinian refugees (M = 15.5 years, SD = 1.05, 49% males), recruited from four United Nations Relief and Work Agency (UNRWA) schools at the Al-Baqa'a and Jabal Al-Hussein refugee camps in Jordan, rated their neighborhood physical environment and neighborhood support and cohesion, separately rated their mothers' and fathers' parenting on several dimensions, and reported on their adjustment to these circumstances (internalizing symptoms, self-concept clarity, and norm breaking). Living in more dangerous physical environments was associated with higher levels of refugee youths' internalizing symptoms and norm breaking, but effects were not significant when parenting was considered. Our study showed that higher levels of psychological control-disrespect (significantly for fathers and marginally for mothers) and marginally, higher levels of maternal harsh punishment were associated with more teen internalizing symptoms. In addition, fathers' greater psychological control and lower levels of support had a marginally significant effect on teens' greater norm breaking. For behavioral control, only mothers' greater behavioral control was associated with refugee youths' greater self-concept clarity but not with paternal behavioral control. Thus, fathers' psychological control and mothers' behavioral control had the biggest association with adolescent outcomes.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Árabes , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Mães , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar
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