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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1415-1436, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995168

RESUMO

Este artigo trata da disputa gerada por profissionais identificados como "psicólogos cristãos" que defendem publicamente seu direito de oferecer auxílio terapêutico com o fim de reverter a homossexualidade. Esta polêmica adquiriu contornos particulares no Brasil, onde o Conselho Federal de Psicologia desde 1999 proíbe qualquer forma de patologização da orientação sexual. Com base na literatura especializada começamos por expor, por um lado, a trajetória da homossexualidade como objeto de discurso da Psicologia e, por outro, no campo evangélico. A seguir, explicamos a conformação da Psicologia como profissão regulamentada no Brasil. Em seguida, com base em fontes documentais de caráter público, examinamos a posição do Conselho Federal de Psicologia e analisamos as disputas jurídicas travadas por psicólogos que defendem seu direito a tratar a homossexualidade como expressão de desordem moral e desvio patológico. O antagonismo que emerge na polêmica em torno da chamada "cura gay" não opõe simplesmente ciência e religião, mas envolve atores públicos capazes de se localizar estrategicamente em um ou outro campo e de fazer uso do direito em seu favor. Sua capacidade de recolocar a homossexualidade como signo de desvio moral e transtorno mental constela a política sexual como questão de peso para a democracia brasileira.(AU)


This article examines the claims of professionals identified as "Christian psychologists" who publicly defend their right to offer therapy to "reverse homosexuality". This debate took shape when "conversion therapy" was banned by the Brazilian Federal Council of Psychology in 1999. Based on specialized literature, we begin by introducing, on the one hand, the itinerary of homosexuality as object of discourse in Psychology, and in the evangelical field, on the other. And we go on explaining the process of constitution of Psychology as a regulated practice in Brazil. Then, based on public records, we examine the stand taken by the Federal Council of Psychology, and analyze the legal claims made by psychologists who defend their right to treat homosexuality as a moral offense and a mental disorder. The antagonism that emerges in the so-called "gay cure" debate does not simply oppose science and religion but involves public actors capable of strategically placing themselves in one field or the other and use the Law in their favor. Their ability to consider homosexuality as a sign of moral deviance and a mental disorder places sexual politics as a significant issue with regards to Brazilian democracy.(AU)


Este artículo aborda la disputa generada por profesionales identificados como "psicólogos cristianos" que defienden públicamente su derecho a ofrecer apoyo terapéutico con el fin de revertir la homosexualidad. Esta polémica adquirió contornos particulares en Brasil, donde el Consejo Federal de Psicología desde 1999 prohíbe cualquier forma de patologización de la orientación sexual. Basándonos en literatura especializada, comenzamos por exponer, por un lado, la trayectoria de la homosexualidad como objeto de discurso de la Psicología y, por otro, en el campo evangélico. A continuación, explicamos la conformación de la Psicología como profesión reglamentada en Brasil. Luego, basándonso en fuentes documentales de carácter público, examinamos la posición del Consejo Federal de Psicología y analizamos las disputas jurídicas entabladas por psicólogos que defienden su derecho a tratar la homosexualidad como expresión de desorden moral y desvío patológico. El antagonismo que emerge en la polémica en torno de la llamada "cura gay" no opone simplemente ciencia y religión, sino que involucra actores públicos capaces de localizarse estratégicamente en uno u otro campo y de hacer uso del derecho a su favor. Su capacidad de re-colocar la homosexualidad como signo de desvío moral y trastorno mental constela la política sexual como cuestión de peso para la democracia brasileña.(AU)


Assuntos
Religião e Psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Psicologia
2.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(9): 504-510, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological dementia diagnosis of migrants are limited regarding the testing of cognitive abilities as well as the recording of everyday activities (Activities of Daily Living, ADL) such as linguistic, educational, lifestyle and cultural-religious factors have not been taken into account in psychometric instruments. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to develop a culturally sensitive ADL scale, which is suitable for both German people and Turkish migrants that takes into consideration gender, cultural-religious and lifestyle aspects. A further aim was to determine the quality criteria for the newly proposed ADL scale. METHODS: After the initial phase, including qualitative interviews (N = 15) with cognitively unimpaired German participants and Turkish migrants, a first version of the ADL instrument was developed. This version was then completed by cognitively unimpaired Germans (n = 197) and Turkish participants (n = 53) and the shortened ADL scale was generated based on an item analysis. It consisted of the three subscales 'cognition', 'Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL)' and 'Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)'. For Turkish participants, questions about Islamic prayers were added. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were applied to rule out cognitive impairment and depression. The 'Bayer-ADL' was used to measure the validity of the scale. RESULTS: The everyday life of Germans and Turkish migrants differs in aspects of religious practice and in terms of sociocultural activities, which are taken into account in the CC-ADL. The reliability of the new ADL scale in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) were regarding 'cognition' α = .43 for Germans and α = .80 for Turkish migrants; 'BADL' α = .55 for Germans and α = -.04 for Turkish migrants; 'IADL' α = .91 for Germans and α = .83 for Turkish migrants and α = .73 for Turkish migrants under the 'prayer items'. The correlation of the ADL total score with the Bayer ADL for Germans was ρ = .347 (p < .00) and for the Turkish sample ρ = .520 (p < .01). CONCLUSION: The development of a final version of the CC-ADL scale requires further data from healthy participants and patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Competência Cultural , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Religião e Psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Turquia/etnologia
3.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 288-303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476999

RESUMO

Is the influence of religiousness on fearful, depressive and somatic symptoms and psychic traumatization overestimated? A representative cross-sectional study Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove if religious faith, spirituality and religious praxis are joined with lower depression, anxiety and physical pain-level and if subjects with traumatic experiences report more spirituality. Methods: In this consecutive study, 2508 adults of a representative sample in Germany were interviewed about religious faith and spirituality in relation to depression, anxiety, physical disorders as well as traumatic experiences. Results: Unlike our hypotheses people who are charged with mental (PHQ-4; Löwe et al. 2010) or physical disorders (GBB_8; Kliem et al. 2017) report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis than people without mental or physical problems. As expected people with traumatic experiences in their childhood (CTS; Grabe et al. 2012) describe significantly more spirituality than people without these experiences. Conclusions: Other than expected people with more mental or physical disorders report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis. It is to discuss if spirituality is less a protective factor for mental or physical disorders than disorders activate to look for spirituality and private religious/spiritual praxis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia
4.
Memorandum ; 36: 1-20, jun. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007080

RESUMO

Esse estudo pretende pensar na psicanálise enquanto uma prática clínica essencialmente compatível com certas características dos fenômenos místicos, os que lhe permite abordá-los clinicamente. Iniciamos o texto apresentando nossa compreensão de mística como um fenômeno de alteridade ontológica, ao contrário de uma produção subjetiva do ser humano. A partir disso, abordamos três características da psicanálise que a tornam relevantes para uma clínica dos fenômenos místicos: seu método apofático, sua prática de desconstrução identitária do "eu" e sua inscrição antropológica entre o universal e o particular. Finalizamos o estudo, dessa maneira, pensando na possível função clínica da psicanálise ao abordar a mística, a partir da ideia de adoecimentos espirituais


This study intends to reflect on psychoanalysis as a clinical practice essentially compatible with certain characteristics of mystical phenomena, wich enables it to clinically approach them. We start the text introducing our understanding of mysticism as a phenomenon of alterity, rather than a subjective production of the human being. Through such idea, we approach three characteristics of apophatic method, its practice of deconstructing the identity of the "I" and its anthropological inscription between the universal and the particular. Thus, we finalize the study, thinking about the possible clinical function of psychoanalysis when approaching the mystic, based on the idea of spiritual illness


Assuntos
Psicologia Clínica , Psicanálise , Religião e Psicologia , Misticismo
5.
Qual Life Res ; 28(8): 2183-2193, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037591

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes is a major public health issue particularly in the elderly. Religion may affect the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in such patients, mediated by factors such as religious coping and social support. This study aimed to investigate the impact of religiosity on medication adherence and HRQoL. METHODS: 793 adults (> 65 years old, 45% females) were recruited from 4 diabetes care centers and followed for 1 year. Duke University Religion Index, Spiritual Coping Strategies, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support, Medication Adherence Report Scale, WHOQOL-BREF and Diabetes-specific Quality of Life Questionnaire Module were used for assessment, as well as HbA1c and fasting blood glucose level. Using structural equation modeling, the potential paths were tested between religiosity, medication adherence and HRQoL; social support, religious coping and medication adherence served as the mediators. RESULTS: Religious coping and social support were recognized as the significant mediators between religiosity and medication adherence (CFI = 0.983, TLI = 0.985, and RMSEA = 0.021). The relationships between religiosity and HRQoL were considerably mediated by social support, religious coping and medication adherence and these variables explained 12% and 33% of variances of generic and specific HRQoL, respectively. There was no significant direct effect of religiosity on HRQoL. HbA1c and fasting blood glucose level were successfully loaded on the latent construct of medication adherence (factor loading = 0.51 and 0.44, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The impact of religiosity on medication adherence and HRQoL occurs through the mediators such as religious coping and social support. Therefore, to improve the adherence to treatment and quality of life, interventions may be designed based on these mediators.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Irã (Geográfico) , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 460, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of religious affiliation and mental health is complex, and being part of a minority religious group could have negative effects on mental health. In this study, we assessed the association between religious affiliation and major depressive episode (MDE) in older adults (> = 60 years) from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Study on global Ageing and adult health (SAGE), with six nationally-representative community-based samples (n = 21,410). Religious affiliation was self-reported by participants, and we defined MDE based on ICD-10 classification. We estimated the association of MDE with religious affiliation versus no religious affiliation, and minority versus majority affiliation. RESULTS: We observed no association between having a religious affiliation (vs. no affiliation) and the odds of MDE in older adults. In most cases minorities had higher odds of MDE as compared with the majority religion, but the associations were only significant for Muslims in Ghana and for Muslims, Hindus and Other in South Africa. CONCLUSIONS: While the results were significant only for two countries, we observed higher odds of MDE among minorities in most of them. Older adults who are members of religious minorities might be at risk for mental health problems, and there is a need for public health interventions aimed at them.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
J Anal Psychol ; 64(2): 147-167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864203

RESUMO

In this paper the 'analyst as a citizen in the world' is understood as the analyst interconnecting and harmonising with his or her environment, including not only society, but also nature and the universe. In this sense, Buddhism teaches the Oneness of Life and its Environment, and links are made between Mahayana Buddhism and Jung's understanding of the Self and individuation. The Logic of Lemma in the Flower Ornament Sutra indicates that all phenomena in the world can merge with each other without losing individuality; ten stages are described from the Lotus Sutra and links are made with the development in respect to the ego; Kenji Miyazawa and his work are given as examples to illustrate this. Causality and synchronicity are explored in terms of the interaction between the individual and the environment, and three examples are given where sometimes individual, egoic, causality is more of a feature and sometimes synchronicity has a greater prominence. The paper ends with an examination of tree drawings, made over a period of 50 years by junior high school students, which indicates the way that these individuals have portrayed themselves and their relation to their environment.


Assuntos
Budismo , Psicanálise , Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2019(164): 49-66, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865351

RESUMO

This article explores how globalization reshapes moral development in northern Thailand. Employing a cultural-developmental approach to examine interview data gathered over the course of one year, the article discusses variations in Divinity-based moral reasoning among adolescents residing in variously globalized Thai communities. Quantitative analysis shows that moral reasoning diverges across contexts of globalization, with rural adolescents reasoning more in terms of the Ethic of Divinity than urban adolescents. Qualitative analysis shows how the meaning of Divinity diverges, with the Ethic of Divinity co-occurring alongside the Ethic of Community among rural adolescents, and the Ethic of Divinity co-occurring alongside the Ethic of Autonomy among urban adolescents. Analyses further indicate that rural and urban adolescents invoke distinct Divinity principles altogether. Findings suggest that in urban settings, Divinity is decontextualized from traditional community-driven Thai Buddhism and recontextualized to align with values that are adaptive in a globalized society. This article contributes to, and offers suggestions for, the empirical study of the moral psychology of globalization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Budismo , Internacionalidade , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Religião e Psicologia , Adolescente , Budismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Tailândia/etnologia , População Urbana
9.
J Affect Disord ; 250: 439-446, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide and alcohol use disorders (AUD) have high public health and economic costs. We investigate the relationship between religious features that are external to the individual (hereafter, contextual religiosity) and individuals' risk of AUD and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: Data are from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (analytic N = 34,326). Regression analysis assessed whether contextual (i.e., Geographic state) religiosity and membership rates of Catholics and the three major Protestant traditions, are associated with DSM-IV AUD risk in the past 12 months and suicidal thoughts since last interview, controlling for individual and state-level covariates. In a secondary analysis, we test for interactions between individual race/ethnicity and contextual religiosity on the outcomes since prior work suggested differences by race and individual religiosity. RESULTS: Some contextual religious variables were significantly associated with AUD risk but not suicidal thoughts. Individuals living in a state with higher membership rates of Evangelical Protestant had higher AUD risk (Adjusted Relative Risk [ARR]=1.27, 95%CI=1.08-1.49). Individuals living in states with higher membership rates of Historically Black Protestant had a lower risk of AUD (ARR=0.83, 95% CI=0.72-0.96). The interaction between individual race and contextual-level religious variables on the outcomes were not significant. LIMITATIONS: NESARC is an observational cross-sectional so causality between religiosity and the outcomes cannot be established. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of AUD among individuals varies depending on the religious membership rates among Protestant groups within their geographic state of residence. Contextual religiosity may impact AUD risk above and beyond one's individual religiosity.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
10.
Res Nurs Health ; 42(3): 189-197, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892713

RESUMO

African American caregivers for persons living with dementia frequently experience emotional strain, burden, social isolation, and depression. One source of support for them when in distress is their church community. However, many African American churches do not have programs to support families and congregants living with dementia. Dementia often restricts persons living with dementia and their caregivers from attending church. Both become increasingly uncomfortable in church settings due to fear of embarrassment, uncertainty about the behavior of the person living with dementia, and shame. Church attendance and religion has been shown to be beneficial for caregivers and elders living with dementia. However, there is little work exploring how involvement in religious practices together (caregivers and persons living with dementia) might enhance the quality of life for these families. This protocol is written to detail the designing and testing of the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a dementia-friendly faith village worship service. In the study, we will examine how dementia-friendly faith village worship services support the well-being of caregivers and care recipients in three African American churches through observation, interviews, and surveys. A sample of 30 dyads of African American caregivers and persons living with dementia will be asked to attend six modified worship services together over 6 months. In this study, we hope to demonstrate the significant role of churches in the lives of African American family caregivers and persons living with dementia and show that a faith-based, family-oriented approach can promote a greater quality of life for African American families living with dementia.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Idoso , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Am J Psychoanal ; 79(1): 103-113, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760818

RESUMO

The author contends that psychoanalytic theory has generally presented religious beliefs as developmentally immature or pathological. This viewpoint has resulted in a neglect of religion on the part of psychoanalysts and an avoidance of their religious life by patients. Even though there has been an evolution from the traditional Freudian foundational approach to religion as an "illusion" to the inclusion of psychoanalytical training within some Christian institutes and attributions that psychoanalysis, itself, is a religion, religious beliefs should be included in psychotherapy because they can become involved in transference and countertransference issues in ways that are ignored if religious issues are not discussed in therapy. The author presents clinical material to illustrate this problem.


Assuntos
Terapia Psicanalítica/métodos , Religião e Psicologia , Transferência (Psicologia) , Adulto , Contratransferência (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(1): 55-61, ene.-feb. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177278

RESUMO

Todas las vivencias del ser humano, incluidas las experiencias místicas y religiosas, tienen que ver en último término con la actividad funcional de su cerebro. El estudio, mediante técnicas de neuroimagen estructural (RM) y funcional (RMf, PET, SPECT) y técnicas neurofisiológicas con registros y estimulación mediante electrodos intracraneales, de casos de epilepsia extática nos ha proporcionado un mejor conocimiento de ciertos estados mentales, en los que hay síntomas con especiales connotaciones placenteras-afectivas y de clarividencia. Se postula que tales estados de éxtasis se producen por activación de la corteza insular anterior, conexionada con redes neuronales (por defecto, saliencia y neuronas en espejo), que intervienen en la introspección, cognición social, el procesado emocional y la memoria. De este modo, la neurociencia puede aportar una explicación científica, incluso de un modo retrospectivo, a algunos hechos y situaciones relacionados con personajes relevantes (Pablo de Tarso, Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, Dostoievski), que, en ámbitos extracientíficos, se consideran de origen paranormal o hasta sobrenatural. Con la epilepsia extática comparten síntomas y mecanismos fisiopatológicos la epilepsia orgásmica (excitación sexual que puede desembocar en orgasmos espontáneos en el transcurso de crisis comiciales), la epilepsia musicogénica (crisis comiciales desencadenadas por particulares emociones generadas al escuchar un determinado fragmento musical), así como en el síndrome de Stendhal (cuadros neuropsiquiátricos precipitados por una contemplación masiva de obras de arte) y algunos fenómenos autoscópicos (sobre todos las experiencias extracorporales, que ocasionalmente tienen lugar en situaciones de muerte inminente): en todos ellos existe sintomatología placentera-afectiva de alto impacto para los sujetos afectados


All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes. Thus, neuroscience could explain in a retrospective way some facts surrounding the situations of such relevant figures as Paul the Apostle, Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, and Dostoevsky, whose origin was previously considered paranormal or supernatural. Ecstatic epilepsy shares symptoms and mechanisms with orgasmic epilepsy (spontaneous orgasms in the course of epileptic seizures), musicogenic epilepsy (epileptic seizures triggered by listening to a certain musical piece), and also with Stendhal syndrome (neuropsychiatric disturbances caused when an individual is exposed to large amounts of art) and some autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experiences that occasionally take place in imminent death situations). In all these events, there are pleasant and affective symptoms which have a great impact on patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Epilepsia Reflexa/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Reflexa/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Orgasmo/fisiologia , Síndrome
13.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 47(4): 478-492, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrupulosity is a common yet understudied presentation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that is characterized by obsessions and compulsions focused on religion. Despite the clinical relevance of scrupulosity to some presentations of OCD, little is known about the association between scrupulosity and symptom severity across religious groups. AIMS: The present study examined the relationship between (a) religious affiliation and OCD symptoms, (b) religious affiliation and scrupulosity, and (c) scrupulosity and OCD symptoms across religious affiliations. METHOD: One-way ANOVAs, Pearson correlations and regression-based moderation analyses were conducted to evaluate these relationships in 180 treatment-seeking adults with OCD who completed measures of scrupulosity and OCD symptom severity. RESULTS: Scrupulosity, but not OCD symptoms in general, differed across religious affiliations. Individuals who identified as Catholic reported the highest level of scrupulosity relative to individuals who identified as Protestant, Jewish or having no religion. Scrupulosity was associated with OCD symptom severity globally and across symptom dimensions, and the magnitude of these relationships differed by religious affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings are discussed in terms of the dimensionality of scrupulosity, need for further assessment instruments, implications for assessment and intervention, and the consideration of religious identity in treatment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Obsessivo/terapia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Adulto Jovem
14.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 19-25, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181019

RESUMO

Los modelos cognitivos sobre la hipocondría postulan que las experiencias tempranas con la enfermedad promueven el desarrollo de creencias disfuncionales sobre la enfermedad. Estas creencias pueden permanecer latentes y activarse ante un incidente crítico. Los estudios publicados aportan datos que avalan de manera indirecta estos planteamientos. Teniendo en cuenta que en el núcleo familiar primario se comparten experiencias sobre la enfermedad, examinamos la relación entre las creencias disfuncionales que los progenitores y sus descendientes mantienen sobre la enfermedad y los pensamientos, tales como la intolerancia a la incertidumbre y la sobreestimación de la amenaza, y las relaciones entre dichas creencias, la sintomatología hipocondríaca y depresiva. Cuarenta estudiantes universitarios y sus progenitores (27 padres y 36 madres) completaron auto-informes sobre creencias disfuncionales acerca de la enfermedad, los pensamientos y síntomas hipocondríacos y depresivos. Los resultados mostraron que las creencias disfuncionales sobre la enfermedad y la sobrestimación de la amenaza de los padres, pero no de las madres, se asociaban con las de sus hijos e hijas. Asimismo, las creencias disfuncionales de padres, hijos, e hijas, se relacionaron con síntomas de hipocondría y depresión


Cognitive models about hypochondriasis postulate that early experiences with illness can lead individuals to develop dysfunctional beliefs about having an illness. These beliefs can remain in a latent state and be triggered by a critical incident. Published studies have provided data partially supporting these assumptions. Considering that the primary family context shares experiences about illness, we examined the relationships between the dysfunctional beliefs that parents and their offsprings maintain about illness and thoughts, such as intolerance to uncertainty and over-estimation of threat, as well as the relationships between these beliefs with hypochondriacal and depressive symptoms. Forty university students and their parents (27 fathers and 36 mothers) completed self-reports on dysfunctional beliefs about illness, thoughts and symptoms of hypochondriasis and depression. Results indicated that the fathers' dysfunctional beliefs about illness and overestimation of threat, but not those of mothers, were associated with their sons and daughters beliefs. Likewise, the dysfunctional beliefs of fathers, sons, and daughters were related to symptoms of hypochondriasis and depression


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipocondríase/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Família/psicologia , Doença/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Body Image ; 28: 135-141, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665031

RESUMO

Positive body image is a multidimensional construct referring to love, respect, and acceptance of one's body, including aspects inconsistent with sociocultural ideals. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential pathways leading from religion and spirituality to positive body image. Participants were 345 women who completed questionnaire measures of engagement with formal religion, spirituality, gratitude, self-objectification, and positive body image. Both engagement with formal religion and spirituality were found to be positively associated with positive body image. Further, mediation analyses showed that the relationship between spirituality and positive body image was mediated by gratitude and reduced self-objectification. It was concluded that a broader spiritual consciousness may assist women to develop a loving, appreciative, and respectful relationship with their bodies. In addition, gratitude and a de-emphasis on external appearance provide useful goals and potential intervention points for promoting positive body image.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Emoções , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 88-93, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite controversies regarding its existence as a legitimate mental health condition, self-reports of pornography addiction seem to occur regularly. In the United States, prior works using various sampling techniques, such as undergraduate samples and online convenience samples, have consistently demonstrated that some pornography users report feeling dysregulated or out of control in their use. Even so, there has been very little work in US nationally representative samples to examine self-reported pornography addiction. METHODS: This study sought to examine self-reported pornography addiction in a US nationally representative sample of adult Internet users (N = 2,075). RESULTS: The results indicated that most participants had viewed pornography within their lifetimes (n = 1,461), with just over half reporting some use in the past year (n = 1,056). Moreover, roughly 11% of men and 3% of women reported some agreement with the statement "I am addicted to pornography." Across all participants, such feelings were most strongly associated with male gender, younger age, greater religiousness, greater moral incongruence regarding pornography use, and greater use of pornography. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings are consistent with prior works that have noted that self-reported pornography addiction is a complex phenomenon that is predicted by both objective behavior and subjective moral evaluations of that behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Literatura Erótica , Hábitos , Princípios Morais , Transtornos Parafílicos/epidemiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(2): 379-397, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663935

RESUMO

Crash-landings are a recurrent theme in Ghanaian witchcraft discourse. In the society's witchcraft lore, these are inadvertently aborted flights of maleficent witches en route to secret nocturnal witches' assemblies or to carry out diabolical deeds. While those accused of being witches who have crash-landed invariably face severe mistreatment, no study has systematically explored this purported phenomenon. In this article, I describe the results of an analysis of 10 cases of alleged crash-landings of witches that were reported in the Ghanaian media over a 12-year period. In addition to identifying the common characteristics associated with the alleged crash-landings, I provide a summary description of each case. The results show that the alleged witches were overwhelmingly female, elderly, and poor, and suffered from grave psychopathological conditions. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Bruxaria , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/enfermagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Psicologia
18.
J Anal Psychol ; 64(1): 6-22, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618137

RESUMO

In his writings on individuation Jung often references Eastern religions and philosophies such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Hinduism. This essay discusses differences and similarities between analytical psychology's concept of individuation, especially in its advanced stages, and enlightenment as expressed in such texts as Zen (Chan) Buddhism's Ten Ox-Herding Pictures. I advance the argument that important common features can be found while cultural differences must also be respected. There is here a convergence between West and East that can foster dialogue and mutuality.


Assuntos
Budismo , Individuação , Teoria Psicanalítica , Religião e Psicologia , Humanos
19.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2019. s.p.p p.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016677

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre dimensões de religiosidade/espiritualidade, motivação para mudança e autoeficácia em usuários de crack em tratamento. MÉTODO: Estudo quantitativo, transversal, realizado com uma amostra de 50 pacientes em tratamento para uso de crack em um CAPS AD III em Porto Alegre. RESULTADOS: A maior parte dos pacientes identifica a importância da abordagem da religiosidade no seu tratamento. A religiosidade intrínseca (RI) foi associada a maior tempo de abstinência na vida (0,32, p=0,02) e maior autoeficácia (0,41, p=0,003). A religiosidade organizacional (RO) apresentou correlação positiva com autoeficácia (0,31, p=0,02) e estágio motivacional de manutenção (0,30, p=0,03) e a religiosidade não-organizacional (RNO) foi associada a autoeficácia (0,31, p=0,02) e maior tempo de abstinência ao longo da vida (0,28, p=0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados do estudo demonstram que diferentes aspectos da religiosidade impactam positivamente no tratamento de pacientes dependentes de crack atendidos em um CAPS AD III. Embora sem associações com motivação para a mudança, diferentes aspectos da religiosidade impactaram diretamente a autoeficácia, refletindo-se em maior tempo de abstinência ao longo da vida.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Religião , Religião e Psicologia , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Saúde Mental , Cocaína Crack
20.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(3): 591-599, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With growing interest in parenting stress among mothers of children with disabilities, the current study examined the multidimensional aspects of parenting stress and their impact on life satisfaction among Korean mothers of children with disabilities. Based on the suggestions of prior findings concerning the potential role of intrapersonal resources on moderating parenting stress, the study focused on intrinsic religious orientation as one of the intrapersonal resources. METHOD: Participants completed measures of three types of parenting stress (parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction and difficult child), life satisfaction and religious orientation. RESULTS: Two subscales of parenting stress (i.e., parental distress and difficult child) had negative associations with life satisfaction. Intrinsic religious orientation weakened the relationship between parental distress and life satisfaction, especially among individuals who held moderate and high levels of intrinsic religious orientation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the existence of differential associations between parenting stress type and life satisfaction in Korean mothers of children with disabilities. The current findings also identified the interrelationships between the religious resources and maternal parenting stress of children with disabilities. Intrapersonal religious resources have the potential to counterbalance the negative impact of maternal distress.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/enfermagem , Crianças com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual/enfermagem , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Religião e Psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/etnologia , República da Coreia/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
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