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2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 254-261, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant diseases are one of the leading mortalities in the world, causing a range of psychological symptoms and reducing the quality of life in oncology patients. Examine the correlation of religion with the quality of life and psychological symptoms in oncology patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 100 oncology patients in the test group and 80 internal medicine patients in the control group. A sociodemographic questionnaire was specifically designed for this study, the Duke University Religion Index, the Symptom Check List 90, and the WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment were used to collect the data. RESULTS: The average score in oncology patients was significantly lower on the subscales for physical health (p<0.000), social connections (p<0.002), and intrinsic religiousness (p<0.046) in comparison to internal medicine patients. On the psychological symptoms scale, the average score was higher in oncology patients with the largest difference observed on the psychoticism subscale (p<0.078). CONCLUSION: Oncology patients are statistically less religious and are not satisfied with the quality of life in comparison to internal medicine patients. Psychological symptoms are more pronounced in oncology patients but the difference is not statistically significant. A lower level of religiousness is statistically negatively correlated with a higher severity of psychological symptoms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4503, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908145

RESUMO

Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237923, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817661

RESUMO

We are living nowadays in a social paradigm characterized by a high degree of fluidity. From professional career to leisure, from family patterns to neighborhood relationships, from cultural consumption to domestic technology, almost all the components of social reality have changed during recent decades. A given couple's experience is not insulated from these dynamics, or at least from the pressure that new trends constantly put on it. How can functional relationships be preserved in a continuously changing world? What possibilities are there for couples to sustain viable relationships in the face of all the waves of change, involving as they do new content, new rules, and, in many cases, new values? This paper sets out to analyze how the main factors related to marital life interact and what their impact is on individual satisfaction in the dyadic experience. To this end we planned and applied a sociological survey to a national sample (N = 455 participants, error limit 4.7) using a questionnaire focusing on an evaluation of dyadic life experience that included the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The major finding is that more liberal sexual attitudes and people's high view of the importance of money are the strongest predictors of a low-quality dyadic experience. The patterns observed also raise the possibility that positive perception of the parental model may serve to compensate for a couple's relatively shorter period of marital experience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Casamento/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Romênia/epidemiologia , Sociologia/tendências
5.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 446-448, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525371

RESUMO

The mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are particularly relevant in African-American communities because African-Americans have been disproportionately impacted by the disease, yet they are traditionally less engaged in mental health treatment compared with other racial groups. Using the state of Michigan as an example, we describe the social and psychological consequences of the pandemic on African-American communities in the United States, highlighting community members' concerns about contracting the disease, fears of racial bias in testing and treatment, experiences of sustained grief and loss, and retraumatization of already-traumatized communities. Furthermore, we describe the multilevel, community-wide approaches that have been used thus far to mitigate adverse mental health outcomes within our local African-American communities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Pesar , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Trauma Psicológico/etnologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Michigan/etnologia , Pandemias , Trauma Psicológico/terapia
6.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S143-S145, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538649

RESUMO

Religious leaders are at risk of psychological trauma and moral injury during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article highlights potentially traumatic or morally injurious experiences for religious leaders and provides evidence-based recommendations for mitigating their impact. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Clero , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Trauma Psicológico , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Clero/ética , Clero/psicologia , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Trauma Psicológico/etiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S258-S260, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538652

RESUMO

This commentary describes the religiously innovative adaptations made to customary rituals by Jewish religious leaders to address issues of belonging and resilience during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic quarantine. These adaptations included allowing religious prayer through a "balcony" minyan, conducting an online chavruta using video conferencing, and broadcasting the Passover ceremony. The approach shown here could contribute to future evidence-based research, conducted among different faiths, about the roles of both religious leadership and information and communications technology (ICT) in preserving one's sense of belonging and resilience in times of crisis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Religião e Psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Clero , Humanos , Israel , Judeus
8.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(2): 149-163, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552584

RESUMO

Increased attention of radiotherapy patients to religiousness and spirituality - a comparison with patients in a psychosomatic outpatient clinic Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove both hypothesis, that patients of radiation therapy are different to patients of a psychosomatic outpatient unit in case of their spirituality and religiosity and that these attitudes have an influence of their own lives. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a data set of the Department of Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy of the University Hospital Münster in 2013 (n = 1110) was compared to data from 2017 by the Department of Radiation Therapy - Radiation oncology of the University Münster (n = 275) in terms of their religiosity and spirituality. The survey was carried out by a questionnaire on religious attitudes (FRA-RE, Heuft 2016). An age- and gender-controlled statistical analysis has been made by means of partial correlations and mean comparisons. Results: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that patients of radiotherapy, in contrast to psychosomatic patients, are more religious, more spiritual, show more private, but also public religious/spiritual practice, have a stronger desire for more religiosity in their lives and belief that religiosity helps to overcome times of crisis. Conclusions: Thus, it is of particular importance to provide this burdened patient clientele spiritual/religious offers for coping with their disease.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Atenção , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Adv Cancer Res ; 146: 189-217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241389

RESUMO

According to the American Cancer Society's guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention, weight control, eating practices and physical activity are second only to tobacco use as modifiable determinants of cancer risk. However, no evidence-based interventions have been targeted to African American men or tailored to individual African American men's preferences, needs or identities. The goal of this chapter is to describe the rationale for the components, aims and setting of Mighty Men: A Faith-Based Weight Loss Intervention for African American Men. We begin by discussing the rationale for focusing on weight loss in the context of cancer prevention, and argue that obesity and obesogenic behaviors are important yet modifiable determinants of cancer risk. Next, we briefly review the scarce literature on interventions to promote healthy eating, physical activity and weight loss in our population of interest, and then discuss the rationale for conducting the intervention in faith- based organizations rather than other common settings for recruiting African American men. We conclude with a discussion of the conceptual foundations and components of Mighty Men, and discuss our focus and goals in the context of the larger literature in this area.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Religião e Psicologia , Perda de Peso , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Prognóstico
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163429

RESUMO

Knowledge, attitude and willingness of ethnic minorities in China towards cadaver donation programs were assessed. Questionnaire and interviews were conducted to investigate Yi, Bai, Hani, Dai and Han ethnicities. Educational level and per capita income of ethnic minorities were lesser than those of Han ethnicity (p<0.01). Agriculture was the primary occupation and proportions of technical personnel and public officials was lesser among ethnic minorities (p<0.01). Surveyed ethnic minorities universally practice religious traditions, Bai and Dai ethnicities practice Buddhist beliefs also (p<0.01). Knowledge of Yi, Bai, Hani and Dai ethnic respondents was lesser than those of Han ethnicity (p<0.01). Over 83.8% of Yi, Bai, Hani and Dai ethnicity residents were unwilling to register for body donation programs with receiving a driver's license (p<0.01). Less than 46.9% of ethnic minorities supported use of honorary certificates (p<0.01). Ethnic minorities were supportive of financial compensation for body donations and denied that financial compensation led to the commercialization of cadaver donation (p<0.01, p<0.01). Willingness of ethnic minorities to participate in cadaver donation programs was primarily related to religious beliefs (p<0.01), economic status (p<0.01). Knowledge, attitude and willingness of ethnic minorities to participate in cadaver donation programs were markedly different from those of Han ethnicity, and the religious belief and economic status played a decisive role. To increase participation, programs based on respecting religious belief should be developed to support improvements in economy, education, medical care and social security system.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Cadáver , China , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Religião , Religião e Psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 106-112, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The birth of a sick child, as well as the infant's subsequent hospitalization in an neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), is undoubtedly stressful for the parents of the infant. Most studies conducted in groups of parents of such children focus on the assessment of the negative changes in their functioning due to such stress. The authors were interested in positive changes in the psychological functioning of parents that may occur after traumatic experiences. These changes are referred to as post-traumatic growth (PTG). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether parents experience post-traumatic growth and to determine the predictors of PTG in fathers and mothers, depending on the coping strategy adopted. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 82 parents, whose children were previously hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit. The methods used included the following standardized psychological tests: the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the COPE Inventory. Socio-demographic and medical data were also collected. RESULTS: Analysis of the data proved that the illness and hospitalization of a child are significantly associated with the occurrence of post-traumatic growth in parents. PTG in mothers is higher than in fathers. Predictors of PTG in fathers include the use of strategies aimed at seeking emotional support and positive reinterpretation and growth, while in the group of mothers, seeking emotional support, religious coping and planning were the coping strategies used. CONCLUSIONS: Research on post-traumatic growth should be expanded. Knowledge of the predictors of positive growth in a difficult situation can contribute to the widespread implementation of primary and secondary prevention of post-traumatic stress symptoms as well as increase positive changes in individuals who have experienced traumatic events.


Assuntos
Pai/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Religião e Psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Pediatrics ; 145(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220905

RESUMO

The American Academy of Neurology believes that doctors have the right to do tests to evaluate whether a patient is brain dead even if the family does not consent. They argue that physicians have "both the moral authority and professional responsibility" to do such evaluations, just as they have the authority and responsibility to declare someone dead by circulatory criteria. Not everyone agrees. Truog and Tasker argue that apnea testing to confirm brain death has risks and that, for some families, those risks may outweigh the benefits. So, what should doctors do when caring for a patient whom they believe to be brain dead but whose parents refuse to allow testing to confirm that the patient meets neurologic criteria for death? In this article, we analyze the issues that arise when parents refuse such testing.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Exame Neurológico/psicologia , Consentimento dos Pais , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Morte , Temas Bioéticos , Morte Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Masculino , Futilidade Médica/legislação & jurisprudência , Futilidade Médica/psicologia , Exame Neurológico/ética , Consentimento dos Pais/ética , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Pais , Religião e Psicologia , Suicídio
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 25, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic violence (DV) has become a global burden. The high occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) across the globe has implications for the socioeconomic wellbeing and health of children and women. METHODS: Data for the study was from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). The association between approval of wife-beating and background characteristics of women was examined by the use of a Binary Logistic Regression model. RESULTS: A higher proportion of respondents were from urban areas (53.7 and 52.2% women and men respectively). The ages of women ranged from 15 to 49 (mean = 30, SD = 9.7) whilst the age range of men was 15-59 (mean = 32, SD = 12.5). Twenty-four percent of the men and 23% of the women were within the richest wealth category. The results showed that few women (6.3%) and men (11.8%) had attained higher education. Both women (AOR = 1.3; CI = 1.01-1.24) and men (AOR = 2.2; CI = 1.72-2.76) aged 15-24 had higher odds of approving wife-beating than those aged 35-49 (reference category). Poorest women (AOR = 2.7; CI = 2.14-3.38) and men (AOR = 1.7; CI = 1.11-2.69) alike had higher odds of approving wife-beating, as compared with those in the richest wealth status (reference category). As compared to research participants with higher/tertiary education, both women (AOR = 5.1; CI = 3.52-7.51) and men (AOR = 4.2; CI = 2.37-7.16) without any formal education were found to be at higher odds to approve wife-beating; however, this observation seems to decline as one's educational status advances. CONCLUSION: Age, wealth status, level of education, frequency of listening to radio, frequency of reading newspaper/magazine, frequency of watching television, ethnicity, and religion were found to be significantly associated with Ghanaian men and women's approval of wife-beating. Policies, interventions, and campaigns must target Ghanaians without formal education and young adults on the need to uphold human rights in order to dissuade them from endorsing intimate partner violence. Mass media has also proven to be a protective factor against domestic violence approval and, as such, much progress can be made if utilised by human rights activists, especially through radio, magazine and television broadcasting.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Religião e Psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Relig Health ; 59(2): 828-844, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052279

RESUMO

There is a growing interest in addressing spirituality in health care with evidence emerging that personal spiritual and religious practices, and support of these, can influence mental health in a positive way. However, there can be distinct challenges to spiritual expression and mental health issues for youth who identify as LGBT+. The goal of this paper was to undertake a systematic review of the available evidence to investigate the relationship between mental health, spirituality and religion as experienced by LGBT+ youth. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases that focused on spirituality, mental health and LGBT+ youth. The search yielded a total of ten articles published in English between May 2008 and June 2018. The key findings highlighted issues around discriminatory attitudes, shame related to disclosure, spirituality as a supportive resource, internalised conflict and external factors around sexual orientation concerns. The psychological, social and health implications are presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião e Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
19.
Qual Life Res ; 29(6): 1631-1639, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life and psychological responses to transplantation are constructs used to assess various psychosocial aspects after organ transplantation. The purpose of this study is to compare physical, psychological, social, and environmental quality of life between recipients of four organs: liver, lung, heart, and kidney. METHODS: In order to compare the four types of quality of life and emotional responses post-transplant, HRQOL and TxEQ questionnaires were administered to 427 transplant recipients. RESULTS: Heart and liver recipients report significantly higher health-related quality of life than lung and kidney recipients. Heart and lung patients report significantly fewer concerns and worries than liver and kidney patients. New additional variables were explored in our study: psychological connection to the living donor/deceased donor's family and commitment to them. We also found that heart recipients feel their personality traits changed, postoperative. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of our study was the finding that ethno-religious and psychosocial variables have a positive effect on four dimensions of HRQOL. It may be useful to design psychological support interventions specifically adapted to patients after organ transplantation that aim at enhancing patients' HRQOL and alleviating negative emotional responses.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Transplante de Pulmão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transplantados/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Morte , Emoções , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(1): 40-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026880

RESUMO

Introduction: Medical students report higher levels of anxiety than students from other majors. Knowledge about their psychological well-being is scarce. Objective: To identify sociodemographic and academic factors that predict the level of anxiety and psychological well-being in Mexican medical students. Method: Cross-sectional study of Mexican medical students of first (n = 59), third (n = 43) and fifth semester (n = 59), who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Psychological Well-being Scale for adults and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale. Results: Females showed higher levels of anxiety (p < 0.01). Anxiety in males was similar in the different semesters (p > 0.05); women of third and fifth semesters were more anxious than those at first semester (p < 0.01). Anxiety and psychological well-being were negatively correlated (p < 0.001). The "Less anxiety, higher level of well-being" and "More anxiety, lower level of well-being" subgroups were characterized, and a logistic regression identified that being a woman (OR = 4.70) and not practicing any religion (OR = 2.49) are predictive factors of higher levels of anxiety. Conclusions: Female medical students constitute a population at risk for higher levels of anxiety and less psychological well-being, which compromises their learning, quality of life and future professional practice.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Religião e Psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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