Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.585
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200010, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of suicide attempt (SA) with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PSTD), Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and variables related to socioeconomic and demographic aspects in a cohort of women enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in Recife. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, nested in a prospective cohort study with 644 women aged 18 to 49 enrolled in the Family Health Strategy of the Sanitary District II of Recife, PE, between July 2013 and December 2014. The SA was evaluated by the question "Have you ever tried to end your life?" PTSD was diagnosed through the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C). A hierarchical modeling was performed, applying the χ2 test and Standardized Waste Analysis. The association of the independent variables with SA was estimated through simple and adjusted Logistic Regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of SA was 10.9%, and the frequency of PSTD was 16%. Women who had PTSD and those who did not have a religion showed higher risk for suicide (odds ratio - OR = 5.11, 95%CI 2.9 - 8.7, OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.0 - 2.9 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There was a higher risk of SA in women who had PTSD and low adherence to a religion. Thus, it was understood that coping with PTSD comes from preventing, treating and promoting greater knowledge about this disorder, in addition to aggregating and social protective effect promoted by religiosity, which can be a strategy for the reduction and prevention of SA.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Religião , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cônjuges , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nervenarzt ; 91(1): 64-72, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In present times, we see ourselves confronted by the challenge of engaging increasingly diverse views of the world, god and healing in a constructive dialogue. Consequently, it is important to research into the contrary effects of religiosity on the human psyche. METHODS: Original- and literary medical historian research RESULTS: Gottfried Ewald (1888-1963), a psychiatric expert at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen, was appointed 90 years ago with the task of examining Therese Neumann (1898-1962), colloquially known as Resl of Konnersreuth. In 1927, Ewald retrospectively confirmed the diagnosis of "most severe hysteria with blindness and partial paralysis". Within the context of regular pastoral care, Resl's "hysterical blindness" disappeared on 24.06.1923. This remission might be ascribed to a positive effect of religiosity on mental health. Besides the beneficial effects of religiosity on healing, pathogenic phenomena of religion can also be seen in the case of Resl. During Lent in 1926, Resl experienced ecstatic states as well as blood-stained tears. On Good Friday in 1926, bleeding of the scalp occurred; since Holy Saturday 1927, she experienced stigmata on her hands and the soles of her feet. Ewald assessed the latter as probably being genuine, although he spoke in favor of a clinical observation in hospital to obtain scientifically substantiated findings. DISCUSSION: The story of Resl of Konnersreuth shows the contrary influences of religiosity on mental health in one and the same individual. CONCLUSION: Detailed psychiatric historical and ethical research on the interaction of the psyche and religiosity can provide information about mechanisms that channel the psychic power of religiosity to promote remission. It is further important to take a religious and spiritual history of the patients.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos , Religião , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espiritualidade
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1705, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying lifestyle-related health predictors affecting adolescent behaviors is a matter of interest and study for diverse audiences, including the religious sphere. The Adventist religion recommends their followers to adopt a healthy diet, adequate rest, physical activity, sufficient water intake, and non-use of addictive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, as well as fostering faith and hope to give meaning to life. METHODS: A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted among adolescent students aged 13 to 19 years old in Montemorelos City, Nuevo León, Northern Mexico, between September 14, 2017 and February 13, 2018. This study included 363 Mexican adolescents, consisting of 202 Adventists and 161 non-Adventists. The binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between religious affiliation and life-style behaviors and evaluate the effect of life-style behaviors on health outcomes by religious affiliation. Age, gender, type of residence, and place of birth were controlled. RESULTS: We found that Adventist adolescents were more likely to be watching TV for 2 h or less per day (p < 0.001), have enough sleeping time for 7 h or more (p < 0.001), go to bed early at 11 o'clock or before (p < 0.001), and have breakfast (p = 0.006) than non-Adventist adolescents significantly. It indicates that Adventist students are more likely to have healthier life-style behaviors than non-Adventist students. The multiple binomial regression models showed that in the group of Adventist adolescents sporting activity and hours watching TV were significantly associated with obesity risk (p = 0.001) and risky eating patterns (p = 0.044), respectively, controlling for age, gender, type of residence, and place of birth. No relationship was found between life-style behaviors and health outcomes in non-Adventist adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Religious affiliation could serve as a predictor of healthy behaviors among adolescents. This study concluded that Adventist adolescents are more likely to have a healthier lifestyle behavior than non-Adventist adolescents and various health-related behaviors were specifically identified among Adventist participants.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Religião , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Rev. psicanal ; 26(3): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/469/489, dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050014

RESUMO

O artigo aborda a violência racial e o efeito de pensamento vindo de perspectivas minoritárias sobre o genocídio étnico-racial no Brasil. Ao seguir as pistas de uma perspectiva religiosa afro-brasileira sobre pretos velhos, o artigo sonda uma filosofia do tempo que insiste sobre a persistência atual da escravidão. E se, como parece sugerir a religiosidade afro-brasileira, o sistema de escravidão negra iniciado no século XV não terminou? A primeira seção do artigo esboça uma etnografia para retirar consequências dessa proposição sobre a duração do sistema escravista. Na segunda parte, o artigo articula essa proposição a posicionamentos do ativismo antirracista do movimento negro. Por fim se sugere uma leitura da relação entre a problemática racial e os limites da democracia brasileira (AU)


This paper approaches the racial violence and the effects of the thought of the minority perspectives about ethnic-racial genocide in Brasil. Following the leads of an afro-brazilian religious perspective about the preto velho, the article probes a time philosophy that insists in the endurance of the current slavery. And as the afro-Brazilian religiosity suggests, has the black slavery system, that initiated in the 15th century, finished yet? The first section of the article sketches an ethnography to get to the consequences of the proposition concerning the length of the enslavement system. In the second part, the paper articulates this proposition to place the anti-racist activism in the black movement. Finally, it suggests a possible relation between the racial issue and the brazilian democracy


El artículo aborda la violencia racial y el efecto de pensamiento de las perspectivas minoritarias sobre el genocidio étnico-racial en Brasil. Siguiendo las pistas de una perspectiva religiosa afro-brasileña acerca de los pretos velhos, el artículo indaga una filosofía del tiempo que insiste acerca de la persistencia actual de la esclavitud. Según lo que parece sugerir la religiosidad afro-brasileña, el sistema de esclavitud negra iniciado en el siglo XV ¿ha terminado? La primera sección del artículo esboza una etnografía para retirar consecuencias de esa proposición acerca de la duración del sistema esclavista. En la segunda parte el texto articula esa proposición con posicionamientos del activismo antirracista del movimiento negro. Por fin sugiere una lectura de la relación entre la problemática racial y los límites de la democracia brasileña


Assuntos
Racismo , Pobreza , Carência Psicossocial , Religião , Segregação Social
6.
J Clin Ethics ; 30(4): 376-383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851628

RESUMO

An Asian Indian Hindu family chose no intervention and hospice care for their newborn with hypoplastic right heart syndrome as an ethical option, and the newborn expired after five days. Professional nursing integrates values-based practice and evidence-based care with cultural humility when providing culturally responsive family-centered culture care. Each person's worldview is unique as influenced by culture, language, and religion, among other factors. The Nursing Team sought to understand this family's collective Indian Hindu worldview and end-of-life beliefs, values, and practices, in view of the unique aspects of the situation while the team integrated evidence-based strategies to provide family-centered culture care. Parental care choices conflicted with those of the Nursing Team, and some nurses experienced moral distress and cultural dissonance when negotiating their deeply held cultural and religious views to advocate for the family. The inability to reconcile and integrate a stressful or traumatic experience impacts nurses' well-being and contributes to compassion fatigue. Nurses need to be intentional in accessing interventions that promote coping and healing and moral resilience. Reflection and cultural humility, assessment, and knowledge in context, increase evidence-based culture care and positive outcomes. U.S. society's views on ethical behavior continue to evolve, and some may argue that the law should place more limits on parents' right to choose or to refuse treatment for their infants and children. Moral distress can lead to moral resilience and satisfaction of compassion when nurses provide family-centered culture care with cultural responsiveness and integrate values-based practice with evidence-based care, and aim to first do no harm.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Familiar/ética , Princípios Morais , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família/ética , Religião , Estresse Psicológico , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/ética , Atitude Frente a Morte/etnologia , Criança , Cultura , Empatia , Hinduísmo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
7.
Public Health Rep ; 134(2_suppl): 58S-63S, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682555

RESUMO

The Plain community is the fastest-growing religious minority in Wisconsin. This community has a high incidence of genetic disorders, many of which are identifiable through newborn screening. We describe efforts by the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Program (WNSP) to improve health care in the Plain community by targeting early identification of, and intervention for, patients with inherited metabolic disorders. WNSP formed partnerships with families and health care providers to increase awareness of screening procedures and the intended benefits of screening, modify testing algorithms to enhance detection, and establish medical homes for patients with confirmed disorders. The estimated number of Plain newborns screened increased by 25.5% during the study period, from 547 in 2011 to 736 in 2017; 122 persons underwent carrier testing, and 143 newborns received second-tier testing. From 2014 to 2017, affected patients received 71 metabolic evaluations in their community medical home without travel to major health centers. This article demonstrates how a comprehensive public health program can help increase screening rates, enhance detection, and establish follow-up care in a hard-to-reach religious community. A key lesson learned was the importance of communication among all stakeholders to develop an effective public health program.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Assistência de Longa Duração , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Triagem Neonatal , Religião , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forty-five states permit religious exemptions to school immunization laws; 15 allow personal belief exemptions. Updated religious exemption estimates are lacking, and it is unclear if personal belief exemption availability impacts religious exemption rates. We aimed to (1) update religious exemption trends in kindergartners, (2) compare states' proportions of kindergartners with religious exemptions by personal belief exemption availability, and (3) describe whether the proportion of kindergartners with religious exemptions changed in Vermont after it eliminated personal belief exemptions in 2016. METHODS: We analyzed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data on exemptions for children entering kindergarten from 2011 to 2018, including 295 state-years in our final analysis. Using a quasi-binomial regression analysis, we compared mean proportions of kindergartners with religious exemptions in states allowing both nonmedical exemptions against states with religious exemptions only, adjusting for policy strength and school year. RESULTS: States with religious and personal belief exemptions were one-fourth as likely to have kindergartners with religious exemptions as states with religious exemptions only (risk ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.38). After Vermont's policy change, the mean proportion of kindergartners with a religious exemption increased from 0.5% to 3.7%. States were significantly more likely to have kindergartners with religious exemptions during the 2017-2018 school year compared with the 2011-2012 school year (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Religious exemption rates appear to be associated with personal belief exemption availability, may be subject to a replacement effect on personal belief exemption elimination, and are increasing. Researchers and policy makers should confirm findings with individual-level studies and reconsider the purpose and nature of religious exemption laws.


Assuntos
Movimento contra Vacinação/tendências , Religião , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Recusa de Vacinação/tendências , Vacinação/tendências , Movimento contra Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Recusa de Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinas/uso terapêutico
9.
Sleep Health ; 5(6): 592-597, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore (a) how perceptions of personal and divine control over one's sleep schedule combine in distinct ways to predict sleep quality among college students and (b) whether health behaviors and psychological distress mediate the associations between perceptions of sleep control and sleep quality. METHODS: We surveyed 1251 students attending a public university in South Texas. All measures were derived from self-reports. Binary logistic regression techniques were used to predict the odds of reporting high-quality sleep in the past month. Mediation analyses were used to decompose the estimated effects of perceptions of sleep control on sleep quality via smoking, drinking, and psychological distress. RESULTS: Compared to participants who reported both low personal control and low divine control over their sleep schedules, students who reported both high personal control and high divine control exhibited 148% greater odds of reporting high-quality sleep (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% confidence interval = 1.434-4.294). These same participants also showed the highest predicted probabilities of reporting high-quality sleep (22%) compared to students with other sleep control orientations. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced psychological distress partially accounted for these differences, whereas smoking and drinking behaviors did not. CONCLUSION: College students who felt they and God both shared full control over their sleep schedules reported the highest quality sleep, which was partially explained by their lower average levels of psychological distress.


Assuntos
Controle Interno-Externo , Religião , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC) has emerged as a primary approach to health care. This care focuses on the cultural diversity of the patients rather than the views of the health care professionals. PC-CSHC enables the patient to feel comfortable, respected, and trusted in the health care delivery process. As users of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) rarely inform their conventional health care providers of such use, the providers need to identify the users of T&CM themselves to avoid negative interaction with conventional medicine and to be able to provide them with PC-CSHC. Since the patterns of traditional medicine (TM) use are different to those of complementary medicine (CM), the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, and the health- and sociodemographic associations for visits to TM- and CM providers in an urban population. METHOD: The data were collected through two self-administrated questionnaires from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study, a population-based cohort study conducted in 2015-2016. All inhabitants of Tromsø aged 40 or above were invited (n = 32,591) and n = 21,083 accepted the invitation (response rate 65%). Pearson chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were used to describe differences between the groups whereas binary logistic regressions were used for adjusted values. RESULTS: The results revealed that 2.5% of the participants had seen a TM provider, 8.5% had seen a CM provider whereas 1% had visited both a TM and a CM provider during a 12-month period. TM users tended to be older, claim that religion was more important to them, have poorer economy and health, and have lower education compared to CM users. We found that more than 90% of the participants visiting T&CM providers also used conventional medicine. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of the participants in this study employed parallel health care modalities including visits to conventional, traditional, and complementary medicine providers. To offer patient-centered culturally sensitive health care that is tailored to the patients' treatment philosophy and spiritual needs, conventional health care providers need knowledge about, and respect for their patients' use of parallel health care systems.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Religião , Confiança
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765532

RESUMO

The article discusses issue of possibility of influence of religious organizations on the attitude of population to issues of human organ transplantation. The attitude of followers of different religions to key issues of bioethics related to organ donation and transplantation is analyzed. It is concluded that there are no definite prohibitions on implementing this kind of medical intervention in modern religious regulations. The study of results of questionnaire survey of two groups of respondents revealed certain part of population, whose decision on the issues of posthumous organ donation would be influenced by the opinion of representative of religious organization. It is established that every tenth respondent appealed to the Orthodox priest when making decision to sign consent paper concerning posthumous exempt of organ from relatives. It is concluded that it is possible to affect the formation in certain part of population understanding of need to support organ donation and transplantation in case of active work in this direction of representatives of religious organizations.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3107692, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637256

RESUMO

Introduction: Nurses play an important role in caring for dying patients. However, little is known about the attitude towards death of the registered nurses in China. Materials and Methods: A knowledge, attitude, and the practice (KAP) survey using standardized questionnaires was conducted at eight teaching hospitals in Jiangsu Province, China. In total, 366 nursing interns were recruited and 357 turned in valid response. Data about the interns' demographic characteristics and their attitudes to death in five domains, including fear of death, death avoidance, natural acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance, were collected. Results: Compared to the norms, the nursing interns had statistically significantly higher scores in the domains death avoidance, approach acceptance, and fear of death (14.9 vs. 11.1, 26.2 vs. 24.2, and 20.3 vs. 19.0, respectively); however, statistically significantly lower scores were in the domains natural acceptance and escape acceptance (18.4 vs. 22.0, and 13.6 vs. 15.1, respectively). Religious belief, experience of a deceased relative in family, death education, and family atmosphere of discussing death are positively associated with one or more domains of attitude towards death. Conclusion: The positive attitude towards death and death education before clinical practice are helpful for nursing interns when they care for dying patients. In general, the scores of attitude towards death are at a moderate level in the surveyed Chinese nursing interns. The death education for nursing students needs to be reinforced in China.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Morte , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Religião , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17265, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies indicate that religious values of physicians influence clinical practice. The aim of this study was to test prior hypotheses of prevalence of this influence using a meta-analysis design. METHODS: Based on a systematic literature search we performed individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) on data based on 2 preselected questionnaires. Ten samples from 7 countries remained after exclusion (n = 3342). IPDMA was performed using a random-effects model with 2 summary measures: the mean value of the scale "Religiosity of Health Professionals"; and a dichotomized value of the question "My religious beliefs influence my practice of medicine." Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed using a mixed-models design controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Mean score of religiosity (95% confidence interval [CI]) was significantly lower in the European subgroup (8.46 [6.96-9.96]) compared with the Asian samples India (10.46 [9.82-10.21]) and Indonesia (12.52 [12.19-12.84]), whereas Brazil (9.76 [9.54-9.99]) and USA (10.02 [9.82-10.21]) were placed in between. The proportion of the European physicians who agreed to the statement "My religious beliefs influence my practice of medicine" (95% CI) was 42% (26%-59%) compared with Brazil (36% [29%-43%]), USA (57% [54%-60%]), India (58% [52%-63%]), and Indonesia (91% [84%-95%]). CONCLUSIONS: Although large cross-cultural variations existed in the samples, 50% of physicians reported to be influenced by their religious beliefs. Religiosity and influence of religious beliefs were most pronounced in India, Indonesia, and a European faith-based hospital. Education regimes of current and future physicians should encompass this influence, and help physicians learn how their personal values influence their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Religião e Medicina , Adulto , Austrália , Brasil , Dinamarca , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Masculino , Médicos/psicologia , Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569371

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct and indirect relationships among death anxiety, religious doubt, and depressive symptoms in older adults. This study also investigates race as a moderator for these relationships. This study used data from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey. Participants identified as Christian, identified as Black or White, lived in a non-institutionalized household within the U.S., were retired, and spoke English. Using PROCESS, results revealed that religious doubt partially mediated the relationship between death anxiety and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, moderated mediation models revealed that race moderated the relationship between religious doubt and depressive symptoms. Specifically, there was significant, positive relationship between religious doubt and depressive symptoms for participants who identified as Black but not White. Results highlight how religious doubt can influence depressive outcomes among the geriatric communities of color. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/etnologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Depressão/etnologia , Religião , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 50(2): 67-76, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607764

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the relationship between religiosity and self-rated health among older adults in Colombia. Methods: Data are drawn from the SABE (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento) Colombia Study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 involving 18,871 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older living in urban and rural areas of Colombia. Religiosity was assessed by self-rated religiosity (how religious are you: not at all, somewhat or very). Self-rated health during previous 30 days was assessed as very good, good, fair, poor or very poor, analyzed as an ordinal variable (1-5) using weighted logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Results: Those who were more religious were older, female, had lower socioeconomic status, and were more likely to be married. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that older adults who were more religious had better self-rated health (OR 0.92 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p= 0.038); however, there was a significant interaction effect between gender and religiosity on self-rated health (p= 0.002), such that the relationship between religiosity and health was stronger in men (OR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79-0.94, p= 0.001) but not significant in women. Conclusion: Older adults in Colombia who consider themselves more religious, especially men, are less likely to perceive their physical health as poor compared to those who are less religious.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Vida Independente , Religião , Idoso , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2514-2521, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520239

RESUMO

To inform the development of interventions to increase uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we explored perceptions of ART in semi-structured interviews with 52 men and women from UK black African and black Caribbean communities. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Perceptions of ART could be grouped into two categories: doubts about the personal necessity for ART and concerns about potential adverse effects. Doubts about necessity stemmed from feeling well, doubts about the efficacy of ART, religious beliefs and the belief that treatment was futile because it could not cure HIV. Concerns about adverse effects included the fear that attending HIV services and taking treatment would lead to disclosure of HIV, feeling overwhelmed at the prospect of starting treatment soon after diagnosis, fears about side effects and potential long-term effects, and physical repulsion. The findings will facilitate the development of interventions to increase uptake and adherence to ART.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Medo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Estigma Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Saudi Med J ; 40(9): 867-878, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systemically review the evidence concerning the prevalence and reported risk factors of smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, studies that examined the prevalence and risk factors of smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia were identified through a computerized literature search using the following databases up to March 2018: PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and BIOSIS. The following search terms were used: smoking OR smok* OR tobacco OR cigar* OR shisha OR shesha OR sheesha AND Saudi Arabia OR KSA. Peer-reviewed articles published within the period from 2007 to 2018 were selected. Studies that reported prevalence data, patterns, and risk factors of smoking among adolescents were included. Extracted data from each study were tabulated, and data were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies that reported the prevalence of smoking in the adolescent age group were included in the narrative evidence synthesis. These studies were conducted on secondary school students (n=11), college students (n=14), and an adolescent age group without educational specifications (n=7). According to published reports between 2007 and 2018, the prevalence of tobacco smoking among adolescents in Saudi Arabia ranged from 2.4% to 39.6%. Influence of friends, and family negligence were the most commonly reported risk factors for smoking. Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking is relatively high among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. The social influence of friends, teachers or parents, low academic performance, having spare time, living away from home, and the desire to relieve stress were the most commonly reported risk factors for smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Humanos , Motivação , Infuência dos Pares , Prevalência , Religião , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 9(4): 397-403, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assessing whether interventions are implemented as intended (fidelity) is critical to establishing efficacy in clinical research yet rarely applied in advance care planning (ACP) interventions. We aimed to develop and implement a fidelity audit tool for an ACP intervention. METHODS: We developed a fidelity audit tool assessing: (A) content; (B) quality (general communication, eliciting EOL preferences and prognostic communication); and (C) family/caregiver involvement. We audited (double-coded) 55 audio-recordings of ACP discussions delivered to advanced cancer patients and caregivers, within a clinical trial. RESULTS: Fidelity to content was high: mean=9.38/11 but lower for the quality of general communication (mean=12.47/20), discussion of patient preferences (mean=4.67/7), prognosis (mean=3.9/6) and family/caregiver involvement (mean=2.67/4). Older patient age and caregiver religiosity were associated with higher fidelity. Higher fidelity to content was associated with the trial primary outcome of family caregiver report of patient wishes being discussed and met. CONCLUSIONS: Fidelity to content, but not quality, of the ACP intervention is strong. Communication skills training is critical for ACP interventionists. Adherence was higher with older patients and religious carers, factors that may influence acceptance of death and readiness to undertake ACP, making the discussion easier. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12613001288718.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Idoso , Cuidadores , Comunicação , Documentação , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Prognóstico , Religião , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Assistência Terminal
19.
Nurs Philos ; 20(4): e12282, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478347

RESUMO

Nursing, with its socially embedded theory and practice, inevitably operates in the realm of power and politics. One of these political sites is that of religion, which to varying degrees continues to shape beliefs about health and illness, the delivery of healthcare services and the nurse-patient encounter. In this paper, I attempt to complicate nursing's views on religion and politics in healthcare, with the intent of thinking critically and philosophically about questions that arise at the intersection of religion, politics and nursing/healthcare. These questions include the following: What is the domain of religion and politics? How (non)religious are the contemporary societies in which nurses practice? What are the variations and implications of secularism? How is religion entangled with other intersecting social relations of power? How does a political reading of religion and politics matter to the concerns of nursing?


Assuntos
Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Política , Religião , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
20.
Transplant Proc ; 51(7): 2163-2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the basic data for the improvement of the weak points by determining the knowledge and attitude of professionals in anesthesiology and reanimation or/and intensive care, who are 50% responsible for the diagnosis of brain death. METHODS: After the approval of the ethics committee, questionnaires were sent to participants. The data were collected electronically. The questionnaire consists of 89 questions. RESULTS: A total of 564 (22.56%) completed questionnaires were returned. The sex distribution of the respondents was 207 (36.7%) female and 357 (63.3%) male; the mean age was 37 (SD, 7) years. Among participants, 87.2% reported needing ancillary testing for the diagnosis of brain death. Nevertheless, the rate of those who never needed ancillary testing was high among the participants who were specialized and working in hospitals covered by Erzurum RCC (31.2% and 26.7%, respectively) (P < .05). A total of 55.3% of respondents reported considering brain death and 41.9% reported considering circulatory arrest at the time of death. Participants' religious beliefs are not against to organ donation (93.4%). However, the percentage of respondents who thought that families refuse organ donation because of their religion was 84.1%. Suggestions for increasing organ transplants from deceased donors include education (54.1%), religious support (21.4%), use of media resources (25%), government support and legislative changes (10.1% and 7.6%, respectively), and education of health workers (9.4%). CONCLUSION: The most important way to solve this problem is to give adequate education to main stakeholders. This is the most effective method to improve the public's behavior.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Morte Encefálica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA