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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180468, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059150

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the relationship of sociodemographic predictors, morbidities, depression indicative score, as well as the mediating role of religiosity, spirituality and personal beliefs about quality of life. Method: cross-sectional study conducted between March and July 2016, with 613 elderly, applying the instruments; Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, Brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults. In the data analysis, through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, absolute and relative frequency, measures of central tendency and variability and modeling with structural equations involving exogenous and endogenous latent constructs were used to highlight the mediating role of religiosity, spirituality and beliefs between the indicative of depression and quality of life (p≤0.005). Results: females, 60┤70 years old, married, with 4├7 years of schooling, income of one minimum wage, 6.16±3.70 morbidities and average of 3.84±3.01 for the indicative depression score prevailed. The highest score was for the connection with spiritual being or strength facet, Social Relations domain and Intimacy; Totality and integration facet, the Environment domain and the Death and dying facet had the lowest scores. There was a mediating function of religiosity, spirituality and personal beliefs, between the indicative depression score and the quality of life. Conclusion: it is necessary to invest in the practice of religiosity, spirituality and personal beliefs, as a health strategy, since they have shown an impact on the decrease of depression and a significant increase in quality of life.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la relación de predictores sociodemográficos, morbilidad, puntaje indicativo de depresión, así como el papel mediador de la religiosidad, espiritualidad y creencias personales sobre la calidad de vida. Método: estudio transversal realizado entre marzo y julio de 2016, con 613 personas mayores aplicando instrumentos Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, Brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire e World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults. En el análisis de datos, a través del Statiscal Package for Social Sciences, se utilizaron frecuecias absolutas y relativas, medidas de tendencia central y variabilidad y moldeado con ecuaciones estructurales que implican constructos latentes exógenos y endógenos para resaltar el papel mediador de la religiosidad, la espiritualidad y creencias entre indicativos de depresión y calidad de vida (p≤0.005). Resultados: prevaleció el género femenino, 60┤70 años, casados, 4├7 años de escolaridad, ingreso de un salario mínimo, 6,16±3,70 morbilidades y media de 3,84±3,01 del indicativo de depresión. El puntaje más alto fue para la faceta de conexión con el ser o fuera espiritual, el dominio de las relaciones sociales y la faceta intimidad; el puntaje más bajo fue para la faceta Totalidad e integración, el dominio Medio ambiente y la faceta Muerte y morir. Hubo una función mediadora de religiosidad, espiritualidad y creencias personales, entre el puntaje indicativo de depresión y la calidad de vida. Conclusión: es necesario invertir en la práctica de la religiosidad, la espiritualidad y las creencias personales, como estrategia en salud, ya que han demostrado un impacto en la disminución de los indicadores de depresión y un aumento significativo en la calidad de vida.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a relação de preditores sociodemográficos, morbidades, escore do indicativo de depressão, bem como o papel mediador da religiosidade, espiritualidade e crenças pessoais sobre a qualidade de vida. Método: estudo transversal realizado, entre março a julho de 2016, com 613 idosos, aplicando-se instrumentos Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, Brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire e World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults. Na análise de dados, por meio do Statiscal Package for Social Sciences, utilizou-se frequência absolutas e relativas, medidas de tendência central e variabilidade e a modelagem com equações estruturais, envolvendo construtos latentes exógenos e endógenos para evidenciar o papel mediador da religiosidade, espiritualidade e crenças entre o indicativo de depressão e a qualidade de vida (p≤0,005). Resultados: prevaleceu o sexo feminino, 60┤70 anos, casados, 4├7 anos de estudo, renda de um salário mínimo, 6,16±3,70 morbidades e média de 3,84±3,01 do indicativo de depressão. O maior escore foi para a faceta conexão com ser ou força espiritual, domínio Relações sociais e faceta Intimidade; já o menor escore foi para a faceta Totalidade e integração, domínio Meio ambiente e faceta Morte e morrer. Houve uma função mediadora da religiosidade, espiritualidade e crenças pessoais, entre o escore do indicativo de depressão e a qualidade de vida. Conclusão: faz-se necessário investir na prática da religiosidade, espiritualidade e crenças pessoais, como estratégia na saúde, uma vez que demonstraram impacto na diminuição do indicativo de depressão e aumento significativo da qualidade de vida.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Religião , Saúde do Idoso , Espiritualidade , Depressão
2.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(329): 31-35, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129403

RESUMO

Mental health facilities, despite the evolution of recent decades, remain in part places in which patients are deprived of their liberty. For elderly people with mental health issues, spirituality and freedom of expression are even more legitimate. Religious tolerance is a challenge for caregivers, and a patient's request to practise their religion must be acknowledged. The provision of dedicated spaces and the presence of chaplains must favour the respect of cultural liberties.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Transtornos Mentais , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Religião , Respeito , Idoso , Cuidadores/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Espiritualidade
3.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(12): 49-51, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196392
4.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 855-860, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090052

RESUMO

The concept of "double jeopardy"-being both older and Black-describes how racism and ageism together shape higher risks for coronavirus exposure, COVID-19 disease, and poor health outcomes for older Black adults. Black people and older adults are the two groups most affected by COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Double jeopardy, as a race- and age-informed analysis, demonstrates how Black race and older age are associated with practices and policies that shape key life circumstances (e.g., racial residential segregation, family and household composition) and resources in ways that embody elevated risk for COVID-19. The concept of double jeopardy underscores long-standing race- and age-based inequities and social vulnerabilities that produce devastating COVID-19 related deaths and injuries for older Black adults. Developing policies and actions that address race- and age-based inequities and social vulnerabilities can lower risks and enhance protective factors to ensure the health of older Black Americans during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Religião , Isolamento Social , Segregação Social/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 293-299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072199

RESUMO

Diabetes is a significant public health problem and one of the causes of death and disability globally. One of the main problems with diabetes control is the lack of adherence to therapeutic regimens in people with diabetes. This study investigates the experiences and views of the Iranian people with diabetes to identify the challenges of the process of adherence to treatment. A grounded theory research design was used, incorporating in-depth interviews to collect the data. Using purposeful sampling, 28 people with type 2 diabetes (9 men, 19 women) from different places were included in the study. Constant comparative analysis was undertaken to identify key categories. The main challenge in this process is losing the golden time of preventing the complications of the disease that occurs for the following reasons: cultural habits and values, religious beliefs (believing diabetes was God's will), resistance to change due to age, job conditions, lack of harmony in the family, and non-shared decision-making in the health system. People with diabetes go through trial and error in order to achieve awareness and insight, and consequently, adherence to treatment. Therefore, they need help and support to achieve insight and adherence to treatment faster and without complications. In fact, if the care plan is designed to encourage active patient participation by the treatment team in the shortest possible time, the time to achieve compliance will be shorter and will have the least side effects for these people.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cultura , Tomada de Decisões , Assistência à Saúde , Emprego , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Religião
6.
J Med Ethics ; 46(11): 732-735, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958693

RESUMO

A recent update to the Geneva Declaration's 'Physician Pledge' involves the ethical requirement of physicians to share medical knowledge for the benefit of patients and healthcare. With the spread of COVID-19, pockets exist in every country with different viral expressions. In the Chareidi ('ultra-orthodox') religious community, for example, rates of COVID-19 transmission and dissemination are above average compared with other communities within the same countries. While viral spread in densely populated communities is common during pandemics, several reasons have been suggested to explain the blatant flouting of public health regulations. It is easy to fault the Chareidi population for their proliferation of COVID-19, partly due to their avoidance of social media and internet aversion. However, the question remains: who is to blame for their community crisis? The ethical argument suggests that from a public health perspective, the physician needs to reach out and share medical knowledge with the community. The public's best interests are critical in a pandemic and should supersede any considerations of cultural differences. By all indications, therefore, the physician has an ethical obligation to promote population healthcare and share medical knowledge based on ethical concepts of beneficence, non-maleficence, utilitarian ethics as well as social, procedural and distributive justice. This includes the ethical duty to reduce health disparities and convey the message that individual responsibility for health has repercussions within the context of broader social accountability. Creative channels are clearly demanded for this ethical challenge, including measured medical paternalism with appropriate cultural sensitivity in physician community outreach.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/ética , Obrigações Morais , Pandemias/ética , Médicos/ética , Papel Profissional , Responsabilidade Social , Acesso à Informação , Beneficência , Betacoronavirus , Códigos de Ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Competência Cultural , Cultura , Teoria Ética , Equidade em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Paternalismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/ética , Religião , Justiça Social
7.
Adv Mind Body Med ; 34(3): 18-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931458

RESUMO

Background: Spiritual health forms the core of health and is associated with better physical and mental health. Spiritual health and wellbeing has been shown to be significantly associated with better mental outcomes, yet there's lack of understanding of the determinants of spiritual health. Religious practices have been shown to improve health and have been assumed to be associated with spirituality, yet there remains a gap between religious practices and spiritual health. It is therefore, crucial to understand the role of religious beliefs and practices in improving spiritual health. Purpose: To assess spiritual wellbeing between religious and non-religious professionals and assess how regional religious beliefs and practices are associated with spiritual wellbeing. Methods: We examined spiritual health among religious and non-religious professionals. A comparative cross sectional study was done with a sample size of 210. Differences of spiritual health and spiritual experiences, perceived spiritual traits and psychological parameters were observed. Results: Religious professionals were found to be more spiritually healthy than non-religious professionals (P < .05). Spiritual experiences weakly contribute to spiritual health (r = 0.39, P < .05). Perceived spiritual traits including frequency of prayer (ß = 5.25, CI = 1.80-8.70, P < .01) and belief in the presence of Supreme Being (ß = 1.001, CI = 0.120-1.883, P < .05) influenced spiritual wellbeing and spiritual wellbeing showed a negative association with psychological parameters including anger (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.929-0.987, P < .05). Conclusion and Implications: The findings from this study show that religious professionals tend to be more spiritually healthy than non-religious professionals highlighting the importance of incorporating religious practices to ensure spiritual wellbeing. Improving spiritual wellbeing can provide an important tool for promoting holistic healing.


Assuntos
Terapias Espirituais , Espiritualidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Paquistão , Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 330-339, mayo 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192070

RESUMO

En la actualidad, la corrupción constituye uno de los principales problemas psicológicos, sociales, económicos y políticos a nivel mundial. El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar las variables psicológicas asociadas a la corrupción a través de una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones entre 2008 y 2018. Tras realizar una búsqueda en las bases de datos Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo y Dialnet, se encontraron 44 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de selección propuestos. Los grandes núcleos encontrados fueron la ética organizacional, creencias y valores culturales, moral y normas percibidas, y personalidad y variables relacionadas. En general, los resultados apuntan a que variables organizacionales como la percepción de la conducta de sus dirigentes o las estrategias de justificación están relacionadas con la corrupción. Valores culturales meritocráticos y materialistas también han sido ligados a la conducta corrupta, como ocurre en el caso de la percepción de un entorno corrupto y de las normas sociales. En cuanto a la personalidad, rasgos como el narcisismo y la psicopatía se encuentran íntimamente ligados a este fenómeno. Por otra parte, variables como la percepción del poder o el sexo de los participantes han recibido un sustento empírico ambiguo


Nowadays, corruption is one of the most important psychological, social, economic and political issues worldwide. The present paper aims to analyse psychological variables related to corruption through a systematic review of publications from 2008 to 2018. After carrying out a bibliographic search in scientific databases such as Psycinfo, Web of Science and Dialnet, 41 papers were found to match selection criteria. Core topics haven been organizational ethics, cultural beliefs and values, perceived norms and moral, and personality and related variables. Overall, results have shown that organizational variables such as leaders' behaviour and justification strategies are linked to corruption. Meritocratic and materialist values have also been linked to corrupt behaviour, just like perceiving a corrupt environment and social norms. In regard to personality, features such as narcissism and psychopathy are deeply connected with this phenomenon. On the other side, perception of power and gender have a mixed empirical support


Assuntos
Humanos , Corrupção/psicologia , Valores Sociais , Normas Sociais , Ética Institucional , Religião , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Moral
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4503, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908145

RESUMO

Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 43-47, 2020 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988185

RESUMO

We want here to examine the challenge of cultural pluralism that the new discipline of Bioethics is rising to a Church that wants to leave the sacristy. Being herself in the contemporary world, the Church should be involved in those issues and should be concerned by the common anguish shared by secularized society, which does not share necessarily a religious vision of the world. We should question why theology should be interested in bioethics and its problems and the way we tackle them. We should also search what may be the perspectives for dialogue faced with those challenges such as the health as a right and duty; dilemmas that arise at the beginning and end of life, the role of the theologian and religious persons in the new research ethics committees.


Assuntos
Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Religião , Humanos , América Latina , Teologia
12.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(1): 49-61, 2020 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988186

RESUMO

When bioethics, by its multidisciplinary and pluralist nature, calls on many constitutive sources, moral and religious thought as philosophy find all the more their place that bioethics is a culture of discussion to make, if not emerge, less to reconstruct or adapt to their time, values whose history is linked to that of religions and philosophical trends. This brief text has only the interest of synthesizing this contribution in the light of what bioethics is today, a phenomenon in which everyone can find an anchor where, as in the labyrinth of Theseus, he will be able to find his way by following a guideline.


Assuntos
Bioética , Diversidade Cultural , Princípios Morais , Religião , Humanos , Filosofia
13.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 203-222, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910672

RESUMO

The crisis in the health system caused by COVID-19 has left some important humanitarian deficits on how to care for the sick in their last days of life. The humanization of the dying process has been affected in three fundamental aspects, each of which constitutes a medical and ethical duty necessary. In this study, I analyze why dying accompanied, with the possibility of saying goodbye and receiving spiritual assistance, constitutes a specific triad of care and natural obligations that should not be overlooked - even in times of health crisis - if we do not want to see human dignity violated and violated some fundamental rights derived from it.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Espiritualidade , Assistência Terminal/ética , Desumanização , Emoções , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Obrigações Morais , Cuidados Paliativos , Conforto do Paciente , Isolamento de Pacientes/ética , Direitos do Paciente , Pessoalidade , Papel do Médico , Religião , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Visitas a Pacientes
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3310, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand the influence of the religious beliefs on the decision of a group of women residing in the Huila Department to continue their pregnancies despite perinatal infection by the Zika virus. METHOD: a focused ethnography. The participants were 21 women who had presented a perinatal infection by the Zika virus and whose babies were born with congenital microcephaly. 2 discussion groups and 6 semi-structured interviews were conducted, and thematic analysis was used for data treatment. RESULTS: three themes emerged, namely: "God, why me?" is the initial questioning of the women to God for the prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly in their babies, "Clinging to a divine miracle" describes how the women did not lose their faith and begged for a divine miracle for their babies to be born healthy, and "It was God's will" means acceptance, resignation, and respect for God's will, as well as the denial to abort despite the medical recommendations. CONCLUSION: religiosity and religious beliefs were determinant factors in the women's decision to continue their pregnancies. It becomes necessary to continue investigating this theme to understand their experiences and to generate follow-up and support actions from nursing care.


Assuntos
Infecções , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Religião
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841262

RESUMO

Although there is a wide array of evidence showing the beneficial effect of religiosity on violence among adolescents, nationwide studies in the general population are scarce. This study aims to explore whether religiosity is associated or not with diminishing violence in a Brazilian population-based representative sample. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011-2012 using face-to-face interviews and included 4,608 individuals 14 years and older. The survey included measures of religiosity (religious affiliation and importance of religion), violence (involvement in fights, domestic violence and police detention), depression, social support and alcohol dependence. We used logistic regression models and mediation analyses. In the total sample analyses, after adjustments, having a religious affiliation was inversely associated with lower involvement in fights (OR = 0.60,CI95%:0.37-0.98) and less police detention (OR = 0.37,CI95%:0.20-0.70), whereas the importance of religion was only associated with less fights (OR = 0.60,CI95%:0.36-0.99). Subanalyses revealed different associations depending on the age group evaluated. Mediation tests showed that the association of religious affiliation on violence outcomes was mediated by alcohol use. In conclusion, religiosity seems to be an important factor associated with lower levels of violence in this nationwide representative survey and alcohol dependence seems to mediate this relationship. Health professionals should be aware of these findings in their clinical practice.


Assuntos
Religião , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 68-70, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193249

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: El interés del caso es la documentación de las vicisitudes asistenciales de personas con TMG que se presentan con creencias religiosas inusuales (nuestra paciente era devota de Hare Krishna) y que además estén en una insólita situación de desaparición y necesidad de identificación policial. CASO CLÍNICO: Se trata de una mujer con diagnóstico de trastorno psicótico crónico, que fue ingresada en una Unidad de Hospitalización de Adultos de Psiquiatría por orden judicial. Transcurridas varias semanas de su ingreso, finalmente, fue identificada por la policía científica, donde constaba que se encontraba desaparecida desde hacía dos años en otra Comunidad Autónoma. RESULTADOS: Entre las personas sin hogar destaca una elevada prevalencia de trastorno mental, patología dual o ambos. En recientes estudios se encontraron las siguientes características sociodemográficas: mayor proporción de hombres, edad media, más sintomatología médica, bajo nivel de educación, mayor gravedad de síntomas psiquiátricos, con un deterioro funcional grave, periodos de más de 36 meses de estar sin hogar, y casi la mitad presentaban abuso de sustancias. Se encontró que el 78% de los pacientes tenían trastorno mental con psicosis. Además, en otro estudio, se objetivó que la mortalidad en mujeres indigentes de más de 45 años era más del doble de lo esperado. CONCLUSIONES: Sería conveniente mejorar las estructuras y procesos del trabajo comunitario, como se realiza en otros países de Europa, para poder atender a las personas sin hogar de una forma más adecuada, asegurando que reciben los servicios de salud que requieran


OBJECTIVE: The interest of this case is the documentation of the healthcare vicissitudes of people with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) who have unusual religious beliefs (our patient was a devotee of Hare Krishna), and who are also in an unusual situation of disappearance, and need of police identification. CLINICAL CASE: This is a woman diagnosed with chronic psychotic disorder, who was admitted to an Adult Psychiatric Ward by court order. After several weeks of admission, she was finally identified by the forensic police, stating that she had been missing for two years in another city. RESULTS: There is a high prevalence of mental disorder and/or dual disorder among the homeless. In recent studies the following sociodemographic characteristics were found: higher proportion of men, middle aged, more medical symptoms, low level of education, greater severity of psychiatric symptoms, with severe functional impairment, periods of more than 36 months of being homeless, and almost half had substance abuse. More than three-quarters (78%) of patients were found to have mental disorder with psychosis. Furthermore, in another study, it was found that mortality was more than double that expected in homeless women over 45 years old. CONCLUSIONS: It would be worthwhile to improve the structures and processes of community work, as has happened in other European countries, in order to be able to attend to the homeless in a more adequate way, ensuring that they receive the health services they deserve


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Religião , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença Crônica
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790699

RESUMO

Although scientists agree that replications are critical to the debate on the validity of religious priming research, religious priming replications are scarce. This paper attempts to replicate and extend previously observed effects of religious priming on ethical behavior. We test the effect of religious instrumental music on individuals' ethical behavior with university participants (N = 408) in the Czech Republic, Japan, and the US. Participants were randomly assigned to listen to one of three musical tracks (religious, secular, or white noise) or to no music (control) for the duration of a decision-making game. Participants were asked to indicate which side of a vertically-bisected computer screen contained more dots and, in every trial, indicating that the right side of the screen had more dots earned participants the most money (irrespective of the number of dots). Therefore, participants were able to report dishonestly to earn more money. In agreement with previous research, we did not observe any main effects of condition. However, we were unable to replicate a moderating effect of self-reported religiosity on the effects of religious music on ethical behavior. Nevertheless, further analyses revealed moderating effects for ritual participation and declared religious affiliation congruent with the musical prime. That is, participants affiliated with a religious organization and taking part in rituals cheated significantly less than their peers when listening to religious music. We also observed significant differences in cheating behavior across samples. On average, US participants cheated the most and Czech participants cheated the least. We conclude that normative conduct is, in part, learned through active membership in religious communities and our findings provide further support for religious music as a subtle, moral cue.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Música , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Sinais (Psicologia) , República Tcheca , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Jogos de Vídeo/ética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 262: 113106, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800393

RESUMO

There is established and consistent findings from epidemiologic studies, among individuals, that religion- broadly assessed through frequency of attending worship services-is associated with lower all-cause and cause-specific mortality attributed to suicide, alcohol, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Religious norms, social support, character, virtue, compassion, love, generosity, and religious community are among some mechanisms purported to explain lower mortality, on aggregate. The religious ecology or characteristics of religion within an area or geographic level (e.g., county, ZIP-code, country), has been linked with overall and cause-specific mortality, but directions of findings are mixed. Mechanisms to explain the links between the religious ecology and mortality included social integration, civic engagement, and social control. The study by Clark 2020 a fresh and timely perspective by investigating another mechanism: investment in local healthcare spending. The study found some support of an indirect association from county-level religious denominational composition, through investments in health spending, on Black and White all-cause mortality rates. Should society or government invest finances in religious institutions to indirectly improve population health? This work adds evidence to debate that question. Future work on the topic will need to address several conceptual and methodological challenges. Conceptually, is investigating the market share of religious denominations (i.e., % Catholics vs % Protestants) relevant today given diversity in population and declining trends of worship attendance? Is mortality the most relevant for moving policy or should the focus be on well-being? Methodologically, are there alternate observable measures religious investments/spending in the local economy? Mechanisms, challenges, and opportunities for social epidemiology research on this topic are discussed.


Assuntos
Religião , Suicídio , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , Protestantismo , Apoio Social
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797104

RESUMO

Although rurality is often treated as an aspect of diversity, researchers disagree regarding whether the traditional rural values of self-reliance, distrust of outsiders, religiosity, centrality of family, and fatalism continue to differentiate rural versus urban undergraduates. The present study examined 1) whether differences in these values exist between rural and urban college students in the United States and 2) whether these rural values might mediate the association between geographic remoteness and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity. College undergraduates in the United States who reported experiencing traumatic and/or stressful events (N = 213) completed measures of these constructs through an online survey. T-test results indicated that rural respondents had significantly higher levels of PTSS severity and distrust of outsiders and significantly lower levels of religiosity when compared with urban participants. After controlling for gender, distrust of outsiders and religiosity also emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between geographic remoteness and PTSS severity. Thus, despite research that highlights differences based on geographic location, similarities and differences exist for rural and urban undergraduates in the United States with regard to traditionally rural values. For rural undergraduate clients presenting with trauma symptoms, our results suggest that building trust and religious and/or spiritual self-care may be particularly critical.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Religião , Autocuidado/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudantes/classificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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