Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 35.077
Filtrar
1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 378-392, mayo-sept. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202561

RESUMO

El Retén Episódico (RE) está tomando un creciente papel central en las explicaciones sobre el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa. De hecho, los últimos estudios de Baddeley y sus colaboradores sitúan al RE en el corazón del sistema de memoria. Recientemente la discusión también atañe a si este componente de la memoria operativa presenta una naturaleza independiente respecto a los recursos del ejecutivo central. Algunos estudios muestran como en tareas automatizadas, la construcción y mantenimiento de elementos almacenados en el RE no requieren de recursos desde el ejecutivo central. El presente trabajo pretende analizar esta cuestión para lo que se toman diferentes variables y se ha diseñado un nuevo test para medir el EB. En este test de doble tarea, la tarea secundaria consiste en la lectura de textos sencillos que contienen palabras ocultas. Los resultados muestran como a pesar del aumento del procesamiento debido al incremento de la longitud de los textos, no se produce un aumento en la carga demandada por el ejecutivo central, ni en la creación de los agrupamientos de información ni en su mantenimiento. Es por ello, que pensamos que el RE bajo ciertas circunstancias es independiente del ejecutivo central


The Episodic Buffer (EB) is taking a growing central role in explanations regarding the functioning of working memory. In fact, in the most recent studies by Baddeley and his collaborators, the EB has situated itself at the core of this memory system. Recently, the discussion also concerns whether this component of working memory seems to demonstrate an independent nature with respect to central executive resourcing. Some studies show that in automatic tasks the creation and maintenance of elements stored in the episodic buffer do not require resources from the central executive. The current work attempts to evaluate this assumption for what different variables are taken and a new test has been developed to measure the EB. In this double task test, the processing task consists of reading short simple texts that contain missing words. The results show that further processing due to increasing the length of the texts does not correspond to higher load demands made on the central executive, nor in the creation of chunks or their maintenance. Thus, we think that the EB is under certain circumstances independent of the central executive


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leitura , Fatores de Tempo , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
2.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104442, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116138

RESUMO

Place memory, the ability to remember locations, is a feature of many animal species. This episodic-like memory is displayed in the foraging behavior of animals and has been studied in many different kinds of laboratory spatial tasks. A horse stallion, Equus ferus caballus, will create "dung-heaps or stud-piles" by defecation in the same place suggesting that the behavior is central to spatial behavior but to date there has been little investigation of horse olfactory/spatial behavior. The present study describes investigatory behavior of horses for objects on the surface of a riding arena. Horses under saddle approached objects on the arena surface that included small pieces of straw, fur, and paper and larger objects including clumps of debris and were especially interested in dung droppings left by other horses. Once an object was investigated by sniffing, it was usually not approached again during that outing but could be approached anew on the following day. Dung investigatory behavior and place memory were confirmed in a number of structured tests in which test-retest intervals were varied. The results are discussed in relation to the dual process theory that proposes that spatial representations central to adaptive behavior require both allocentric Cartesian spatial information and egocentric episodic-like information.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Animais , Cavalos , Masculino , Comportamento Espacial
3.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1105-1117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163154

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of work is to assess the usefulness of oxidative stress parameters in the differential diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type and dementia of the Alzheimer's type with coexisting depression. Methods: The study involved three groups of people: patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (AD; N=27), patients with Alzheimer's disease and depression (D) (AD+D; N=30), and a control group that consisted of people without dementia and without depression (C; N=24). The assessment of cognitive functioning was carried out using among alia, Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Verbal Fluency Test. Furthermore, we determined the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and superoxide anion radical. Results: Multiple models with different combinations of independent variables showed that SOD together with Rey delayed recall were the best significant predictors of AD with the area under curve (AUC) of 0.893 (p = 0.001) and superoxide anion radical (O2•-) together with verbal fluency - sharp objects were the best significant predictors of AD +D diagnosis with the AUC of 0.689 (p = 0.034). Conclusion: This study confirmed the value of neuropsychological diagnosis and analysis of oxidative stress markers in the diagnosis of AD and major depressive disorder (MDD) in the course of AD. The combination of the use of biochemical markers and neuropsychological tests seems particularly important for differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estresse Oxidativo , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Depressão/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Exp Psychol ; 68(1): 18-31, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109806

RESUMO

According to the embodied approach of language, concepts are grounded in sensorimotor mental states, and when we process language, the brain simulates some of the perceptions and actions that are involved when interacting with real objects. Moreover, several studies have highlighted that cognitive performances are dependent on the overlap between the motor action simulated and the motor action required by the task. On the other hand, in the field of memory, the role of action is under debate. The aim of this work was to show that performing an action at the stage of retrieval influences memory performance in a recognition task (experiment 1) and a cued recall task (experiment 2), even if the participants were never instructed to consider the implied action. The results highlighted an action-based memory effect at the retrieval stage. These findings contribute to the debate about the implication of motor system in action verb processing and its role for memory.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arch Ital Biol ; 159(1): 28-37, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that item memory is processed based on both familiarity and recollection, and evidence can be found from behavioral as well as event-related potential (ERP) patterns. Recently, great consideration has been given to how the memory of items generated from internal and external sources differ from each other. To date, the modulation of fluency, perceptual fluency in particular, on item memory has been rarely explored from both behavioral and neural perspectives. To address these issues, an ERP experiment was conducted. METHODS: Stimuli were encoded in the status of perceived vs. imagined, of either high or low frequency, manipulated by times of exposure (once or twice). Subsequent memory for the items was tested, during which ERP signals were recorded. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The findings of the old/new effects reveal the distinctiveness between perceived and imagined items, and demonstrate an influence of fluency, with higher accuracy for items of high fluency than those low fluent ones. The sensitivity of item memory to fluency was discussed in terms of the dual-process model, together with other possible accounts.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico
6.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 36: 15333175211025911, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To first validate the diagnostic accuracy of the "Triana Test," a new story recall test based on emotional material. METHOD: A phase I study of validation. We included 55 patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and 69 healthy controls, diagnosed according to the "Memory Associative Test of the district of Seine-Saint-Denis" (TMA-93), and matched by age, gender, and educational level. The Triana Test's diagnostic accuracy was calculated by ROC curve analysis and Spearman correlations estimated its convergent validity with a hippocampal memory test, the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test with Immediate Recall (FCSRT+IR). RESULTS: The "Triana Test" immediate and delayed recalls showed adequate diagnostic accuracy (AUC ≥ 0,74). The delayed free recall showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.86). Correlations with the FCSRT+IR were moderate to strong. CONCLUSIONS: The "Triana Test" demonstrated accuracy for discriminating amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment patients from healthy controls and convergent validity with the FCSRT+IR.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 9-19, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201544

RESUMO

Cognitive Credibility Assessment (CCA) is a verbal lie detection tool consisting of several interview techniques. These techniques have been examined separately but never together. Reflecting the dynamic nature of CCA we combined several of the techniques (free recall followed by a model statement, followed by a reverse order instruction, and followed by a sketch instruction). We examined the new information provided after each stage of the interview and also compared the information provided in the initial recall with the information provided after the entire interview. A total of 47 truth tellers and 47 lie tellers went on a mission. Truth tellers were asked to report their mission truthfully, whereas lie tellers were requested to lie about several aspects of the mission. We measured the total units of information (total details) provided in the interview and the number of complications reported. The results indicate that the pre-registered hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) was supported for complications. Truth tellers reported more complications than lie tellers in each stage of the interview and the difference was more pronounced after the entire interview than after the free recall. As a conclusion, CCA was an effective lie detection method when complications were taken into account


La evaluación cognitiva de la credibilidad (ECC) es una herramienta verbal de detección de mentiras que incluye varias técnicas de entrevista. Dichas técnicas se han examinado por separado pero nunca juntas. Para reflejar el carácter dinámico de la ECC combinamos varias de las técnicas (recuerdo libre seguido de una declaración tipo, seguido de una instrucción de recuerdo en orden inverso, y de una instrucción para que hagan un sketch -esquema- durante la narración del evento). Analizamos la información nueva proporcionada tras cada etapa de la entrevista y también comparamos la información procedente del recuerdo inicial con la aportada por toda la entrevista. Un total de 47 sujetos que decían la verdad y 47 que mentían fueron enviados a una misión. A los participantes de la condición de testimonio verdadero se les pidió que informaran de su misión de modo veraz, mientras que los de la condición de mentira se les solicitó que mintieran sobre distintos aspectos de la misión. Se midió el total de unidades de información (detalles totales) de la entrevista y el número de complicaciones de las que se informaba. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes de la condición de verdad informaban de más detalles y complicaciones (hipótesis 1) en cada fase de la entrevista siendo las mayores diferencias tras la entrevista global que tras el recuerdo libre. En conclusión, la categoría complicaciones de la ECC es eficaz en la detección de la mentira


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Revelação da Verdade , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Cognição/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rememoração Mental/classificação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
8.
Neuropsychology ; 35(4): 434-450, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), cognitive function was tracked across multiple years by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. In this study, we examined the latent structure of the ADNI battery and evaluated the invariance of that structure among diagnostic groups and over time. METHOD: We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to investigate the invariance of the ADNI battery's latent factor structure among three diagnostic groups (healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment, patients with Alzheimer's disease) over a 2-year interval (baseline, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months). RESULTS: The results revealed a five-factor structure for the ADNI battery (memory, visuospatial processing, attention, language, executive function). This structure displayed configural invariance but not weak, strong, or strict invariance across the three diagnostic groups. Longitudinally, configural, weak, strong, and strict invariance were all established within each diagnostic group, except that strict invariance was rejected in healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The ADNI battery assesses the same cognitive abilities in the three diagnostic groups, but test scores do not calibrate to these abilities equally in the respective groups, making certain statistics (e.g., factor scores) noncomparable between groups. Within each group, the latent structure and the numerical relations between individual tests and underlying factors remained invariant over 2 years, suggesting that this battery is a reliable tool for tracking longitudinal changes in specific cognitive abilities within individual diagnostic groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Visual
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2632, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976141

RESUMO

The neural systems supporting scene-perception and spatial-memory systems of the human brain are well-described. But how do these neural systems interact? Here, using fine-grained individual-subject fMRI, we report three cortical areas of the human brain, each lying immediately anterior to a region of the scene perception network in posterior cerebral cortex, that selectively activate when recalling familiar real-world locations. Despite their close proximity to the scene-perception areas, network analyses show that these regions constitute a distinct functional network that interfaces with spatial memory systems during naturalistic scene understanding. These "place-memory areas" offer a new framework for understanding how the brain implements memory-guided visual behaviors, including navigation.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3177, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039970

RESUMO

Memories are thought to undergo an episodic-to-semantic transformation in the course of their consolidation. We here test if repeated recall induces a similar semanticisation, and if the resulting qualitative changes in memories can be measured using simple feature-specific reaction time probes. Participants studied associations between verbs and object images, and then repeatedly recalled the objects when cued with the verb, immediately and after a two-day delay. Reaction times during immediate recall demonstrate that conceptual features are accessed faster than perceptual features. Consistent with a semanticisation process, this perceptual-conceptual gap significantly increases across the delay. A significantly smaller perceptual-conceptual gap is found in the delayed recall data of a control group who repeatedly studied the verb-object pairings on the first day, instead of actively recalling them. Our findings suggest that wake recall and offline consolidation interact to transform memories over time, strengthening meaningful semantic information over perceptual detail.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Memória de Curto Prazo , Semântica , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cognition ; 212: 104714, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971460

RESUMO

What determines how well people remember images? Most past research has explored properties of the people doing the remembering - such as their age, emotional state, or individual capacity. However, recent work has also characterized memorability - the likelihood of an image being remembered across observers. But what makes some images more memorable than others? Part of the answer must surely involve the meanings of the images, but here we ask whether this is the entire story: is there also purely visual memorability, driven not by semantic content but by perceptual features per se? We isolated visual memorability in an especially direct manner - by eliminating semantic content while retaining many visual properties. We did so by transforming a set of natural scene images using phase scrambling, and then testing memorability for both intact and scrambled images in independent samples. Across several experiments, observers saw sequences of images and responded anytime they saw a repeated image. We found reliable purely visual memorability at the temporal scales of both short-term memory (2-15 s) and longer-term memory (several minutes), and this could not be explained by the extent to which people could generate semantic labels for some scrambled images. Collectively, these results suggest that the memorability of images is a function not only of what they mean, but also of how they look in the first place.


Assuntos
Memória de Longo Prazo , Semântica , Emoções , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Rememoração Mental
12.
Cortex ; 140: 51-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933930

RESUMO

The embodied meaning approach posits that understanding action-related language recruits motor processes in the brain. However, the functional impact of these motor processes on cognition has been questioned. The present study aims to provide new electrophysiological (EEG) evidence concerning the role of motor processes in the comprehension and memory of action language. Participants read lists of sentences including manual-action or attentional verbs, while keeping their hands either in front of them or crossing them behind their back. Results showed that posture impacted selectively the processing of manual action sentence, and not of attentional sentences, in three different ways: 1) EEG fronto-central beta rhythms, a signature of motor processes, were desynchronized while reading action sentences in the hands-in-front posture compared to the hands-behind posture. The estimated source was the posterior cingulate cortex, involved in proprioceptive regulation. 2) Recall of nouns associated with manual sentences decreased when learning occurred in the hands-behind posture. 3) ERPs analysis revealed that the initial posture at learning modulates neural processes during subsequent recall of manual sentences in the left superior frontal gyrus, which is related to motor processes. These results provide decisive evidence for the functional involvement of embodied simulations in the encoding and retrieval of action-related language.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Idioma , Compreensão , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Leitura
13.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 107, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerated long-term forgetting has been identified in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is attributed to a selective impairment of memory consolidation in which the hippocampus plays a key role. As blood may contain multiple senescence-related factors that involved in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, we tested whether there is an association between blood-borne factors and accelerated long-term forgetting in asymptomatic individuals from families with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). METHODS: We analyzed data of 39 asymptomatic participants (n = 18 ADAD mutation carriers, n = 21 non-carriers) from the Chinese Familial Alzheimer's Disease Network (CFAN) study. Long-term forgetting rates were calculated based on recall or recognition of two materials (word list and complex figure) at three delays comprising immediate, 30 min, and 7 days. Peripheral blood concentrations of candidate pro-aging factors (CC chemokine ligand 11 [CCL11] and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 [MCP1]) and rejuvenation factors (growth differentiation factor 11 [GDF11], thrombospondin-4 [THBS4], and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine like 1 [SPARCL1]) were evaluated in all participants. RESULTS: Despite normal performance on standard 30-min delayed testing, mutation carriers exhibited accelerated forgetting of verbal and visual material over 7 days in comparison with matched non-carriers. In the whole sample, lower plasma THBS4 was associated with accelerated long-term forgetting in list recall (ß = -0.46, p = 0.002), figure recall (ß = -0.44, p = 0.004), and list recognition (ß = -0.37, p = 0.010). Additionally, higher plasma GDF11 and CCL11 were both associated with accelerated long-term forgetting (GDF11 versus figure recall: ß = 0.39, p = 0.007; CCL11 versus list recognition: ß = 0.44, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated long-term forgetting is a cognitive feature of presymptomatic AD. Senescence-related blood-borne factors, especially THBS4, GDF11, and CCL11, may be promising biomarkers for the prediction of accelerated long-term forgetting.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Osteonectina , Reconhecimento Psicológico
14.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(4): 618-626, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In early-stage amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of each individual are subtle. We investigated differences in neuropsychological performance between aMCI patients with and without hypoperfusion in the medial parietal regions (MP). We further compared patients with hypoperfusion in the left and right lateral parietal regions. METHODS: We examined 165 aMCI patients (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.5 years; 87 women) who had undergone neuropsychological measurement and single-photon emission computed tomography. We classified participants into two subgroups with and without hypoperfusion: MP hypoperfusion (+) and MP hypoperfusion (-); classification was based on Z-scores (calculated by three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection technique) of three regions of interest in the parietal lobes (i.e. MP regions including posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus and left and right inferior parietal lobules (lateral parietal regions)). The MP hypoperfusion (-) group was classified into left lateral parietal hypoperfusion (+) and right lateral parietal hypoperfusion (+) subgroups. We performed either univariate or multivariate ancova to compare neuropsychological scores for continuous variables between groups and examined dichotomous variables using χ2 tests. RESULTS: In the overall aMCI sample, scores on logical memory delayed recall in the MP hypoperfusion (+) group were significantly lower than those in the MP hypoperfusion (-) group. Total scores on Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test delayed recall were also marginally lower in the MP hypoperfusion (+) group than in the MP hypoperfusion (-) group. Comparisons of neuropsychological test scores between the left and right lateral parietal hypoperfusion (+) groups revealed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that MP hypoperfusion (+) is associated with more robust memory deficits than MP hypoperfusion (-). Combining neuropsychological tests and single-photon emission computed tomography findings may be useful for early detection of cognitive decline in aMCI.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2100, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833228

RESUMO

The ventral striatum (VS) is considered a key region that flexibly updates recent changes in reward values for habit learning. However, this update process may not serve to maintain learned habitual behaviors, which are insensitive to value changes. Here, using fMRI in humans and single-unit electrophysiology in macaque monkeys we report another role of the primate VS: that the value memory subserving habitual seeking is stably maintained in the VS. Days after object-value associative learning, human and monkey VS continue to show increased responses to previously rewarded objects, even when no immediate reward outcomes are expected. The similarity of neural response patterns to each rewarded object increases after learning among participants who display habitual seeking. Our data show that long-term memory of high-valued objects is retained as a single representation in the VS and may be utilized to evaluate visual stimuli automatically to guide habitual behavior.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Comportamento de Procura de Droga/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estriado Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuropsychologia ; 157: 107848, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838146

RESUMO

Healthy aging is accompanied by increased false remembering in addition to reduced successful remembering in older adults. Neuroimaging studies implicate age-related differences in the involvement of medial temporal lobe and fronto-parietal regions in mediating highly confident false recollection. However, no studies have directly examined the relationship between white matter microstructure and false recollection in younger and older adults. Using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography, we examined how white matter microstructure within tracts connecting the hippocampus and the fronto-parietal retrieval network contribute to false recollection rates in healthy younger and older adults. We found only white matter microstructure within the fornix contributed to false recollection rates, and this relationship was specific to older adults. Fornix white matter microstructure did not contribute to true recollection rate, nor did common white matter contribute to false recollection, suggesting fornix microstructure is explicitly associated with highly confident false memories in our sample of older adults. These findings underlie the importance of examining microstructural correlates associated with false recollection in younger and older adults.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Idoso , Hipocampo , Humanos , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 126: 491-508, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857579

RESUMO

A network-level model of recollection-based recognition (R), familiarity-based recognition (F), and novelty recognition (N) was constructed, and its validity was evaluated through meta-analyses to produce an integrated view of neuroimaging data. The model predicted the following: (a) the overall magnitude of the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) activity (which supports retrieval and decision effort) is in the order of F > R > N; (b) that of the posterior medial temporal network (MTL) activity (which plays a direct role in retrieval) is in the order of R > N > F; (c) that of the anterior MTL activity (which supports novelty-encoding) is in the order of N > R > F; (d) that of the default mode network (DMN) activity (which supports the subjective experience of remembering) is in the order of R > N > F. The meta-analyses results were consistent with these predictions. Subsystem analysis indicated a functional dissociation between the cingulo-opercular vs. frontoparietal components of the FPCN and between the core vs. medial temporal components of the DMN.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rememoração Mental , Lobo Temporal
18.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795429

RESUMO

Gamma oscillations are thought to coordinate the spike timing of functionally specialized neuronal ensembles across brain regions. To test this hypothesis, we optogenetically perturbed gamma spike timing in the rat medial (MEC) and lateral (LEC) entorhinal cortices and found impairments in spatial and object learning tasks, respectively. MEC and LEC were synchronized with the hippocampal dentate gyrus through high- and low-gamma-frequency rhythms, respectively, and engaged either granule cells or mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal cells in a task-dependent manner. Gamma perturbation disrupted the learning-induced assembly organization of target neurons. Our findings imply that pathway-specific gamma oscillations route task-relevant information between distinct neuronal subpopulations in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuit. We hypothesize that interregional gamma-time-scale spike coordination is a mechanism of neuronal communication.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama , Aprendizagem , Neurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Rememoração Mental , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Navegação Espacial
19.
Cognition ; 212: 104694, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157209

RESUMO

The COVID-19 Pandemic is unique in its near universal scope and in the way that it has changed our lives. These facts suggest that it might also be unique in its effects on memory. A framework outlined in this article, Transition Theory, is used to explicate the mnemonically relevant ways in which the onset of the Pandemic differs from other personal and collective transitions and how the Pandemic Period might differ from other personally-defined and historically-defined autobiographical periods. Transition Theory also provides the basis for several predictions. Specifically, it predicts (a) a COVID bump (an increase in availability of event memories at the outset of the Pandemic) followed by (b) a lockdown dip (a decrease in availability of event memories from lockdown periods compared to other stable periods). It also predicts that (c) people may consider the Pandemic an important chapter in their life stories, but only when there is little continuity between their pre-Pandemic and post-Pandemic lives. Time will tell whether these predictions pan out. However, it is not too soon to highlight those aspects of the COVID-19 Pandemic that are likely to shape our personal and collective memories of this very unusual historical period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Memória Episódica , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet is a modifiable behavior of interest in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, measures of diet in persons with MS have not been vetted for feasibility, acceptability, and validity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined the Automated Self-Administered 24-H (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool in 30 persons with MS and 15 healthy control (HC) participants. Participants were prompted to complete six ASA24 recalls and undergo a standard doubly labeled water (DLW) protocol. Acceptability of ASA24 was assessed using an online questionnaire. Total energy expenditure (TEE) from DLW was compared with ASA24-reported energy intake for assessing validity. RESULTS: All participants completed four or more ASA24 recalls, indicating feasibility of ASA24. Regarding acceptability, the hardest part of completing the ASA24 was remembering everything eaten the previous day. Pearson correlation coefficients between DLW TEE and ASA24 kcal/day were not significant among HC (r = 0.40; p = 0.14) or MS (r = 0.26; p = 0.16) participants. The absolute mean error between DLW TEE and ASA24 among HC participants was 694.96 ± 506.25 mean kcal/day and among MS participants was 585.37 ± 529.02 mean kcal/day; this represents a mean difference of 30 and 25%, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study established the feasibility and acceptability of ASA24 in persons with MS and provides a foundation regarding the need for further validation research examining appropriate outcomes for supporting dietary interventions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Óxido de Deutério/administração & dosagem , Óxido de Deutério/metabolismo , Óxido de Deutério/urina , Registros de Dieta , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...