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1.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 243-258, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876552

RESUMO

Objectives: Addressing the lack of population-based data, the purpose of this representative study was to assess sex- and age-specific associations of maternal and paternal rearing behavior with depressiveness and anxiety controlling for sociodemographic and somatic variables. Methods: 8,175 subjects participating in a population-based study completed standardized questionnaires measuring Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and distress. Results: Women recalled their fathers as more controlling and warmer, and their mothers as more rejecting than men. Comparisons between age groups (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years) revealed that younger participants recalled more parental control and emotional warmth. In addition to sociodemographic and somatic risk factors, paternal rejection and maternal control were associated with depressiveness and anxiety both for women and men (OR 1.58-1.96; OR 1.37-1.66). Maternal warmth was negatively related to distress (OR 0.66-0.69). Conclusions: Findings suggested sex- and age-specific differences in recalled maternal and paternal rearing behavior. The current results highlighted the important role of recalled parental rearing behavior besides sociodemographic factors and somatic diseases for the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms across the age groups.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação Infantil , Depressão/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Mães/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1054-1058, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970554

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development and deployment of a web-based, self-triage tool for severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19 disease) aimed at preventing surges in healthcare utilization could provide easily understandable health guidance with the goal of mitigating unnecessary emergency department (ED) and healthcare visits. We describe the iterative development and usability testing of such a tool. We hypothesized that adult users could understand and recall the recommendations provided by a COVID-19 web-based, self-triage tool. METHODS: We convened a multidisciplinary panel of medical experts at two academic medical schools in an iterative redesign process of a previously validated web-based, epidemic screening tool for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We then conducted a cross-sectional usability study over a 24-hour period among faculty, staff, and students at the two participating universities. Participants were randomly assigned a pre-written health script to enter into the self-triage website for testing. The primary outcome was immediate recall of website recommendations. Secondary outcomes included usability measures. We stratified outcomes by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A final sample of 877 participants (mean age, 32 years [range, 19-84 years]; 65.3% female) was used in the analysis. We found that 79.4% of the participants accurately recalled the recommendations provided by the website. Almost all participants (96.9%) found the website easy to use and navigate. CONCLUSION: Adult users of a COVID-19 self-triage website, recruited from an academic setting, were able to successfully recall self-care instructions from the website and found it user-friendly. This website appears to be a feasible way to provide evidence-based health guidance to adult patients during a pandemic. Website guidance could be used to reduce unnecessary ED and healthcare visits.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autocuidado/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e20105, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis investigating the effects of exercise on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients across specific cognitive domain outcomes. We also analyzed and identified the level of influence of exercise interventions on specific cognitive domains. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, the Wan Fang Database, and CBM were searched from inception to April 2018. Randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions in MCI patients older than 55 years, with an outcome measure of cognitive function were included. RESULTS: Eleven studies with sufficient data met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Exercise interventions significantly improved general function (g mini-mental state examination Montreal cognitive assessment = 0.32, 95% the 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 0.54, P = .005 and g Alzheimer disease assessment scale-cognition = -0.45, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.08, P = .02); executive functions (g digit span forward test, digit span backward test, digit span forward test -B, stroop test-A, stroop test-B = 0.66, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.15, P = .008); memory (g Wechsler memory scale immediate recall and Wechsler memory scale delayed recall = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.60, P = .001); language ability (g category verbal fluency test and letter verbal fluency test = 0.55, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.89, P = .001); and visuospatial ability (g block design score = 0.38, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.72, P = .03). However, the improvement exercise conferred on the trail-making test part B-A was not statistically significant (g trail-making test part B-A  = -0.25, 95% CI -0.88 to 0.39, P = .45). The preliminary ranking of the effect on the overall effect was as follows: Z language ability > Z executive functions >   memory > Z visuospatial ability. CONCLUSION: Exercise improves performance in the 5 cognitive domains. Across cognitive domains, language ability was the domain most affected by exercise. Besides, the kind of ranking (Z value) provides a new perspective for community health care workers to prescribe targeted exercise interventions for MCI patients.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018093902.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776948

RESUMO

When voluntarily describing their past or future, older adults typically show a reduction in episodic specificity (e.g., including fewer details reflecting a specific event, time and/or place). However, aging has less impact on other types of tasks that place minimal demands on strategic retrieval such as spontaneous thoughts. In the current study, we investigated age-related differences in the episodic specificity of spontaneous thoughts using experimenter-based coding of thought descriptions. Additionally, we tested whether an episodic specificity induction, which increases episodic detail during deliberate retrieval of events in young and older adults, has the same effect under spontaneous retrieval. Twenty-four younger and 24 healthy older adults performed two counterbalanced sessions including a video, the episodic specificity or control induction, and a vigilance task. In the episodic specificity induction, participants recalled the details of the video while in the control they solved math exercises. The impact of this manipulation on the episodic specificity of spontaneous thoughts was assessed in the subsequent vigilance task, in which participants were randomly stopped to describe their thoughts and classify them as deliberate/spontaneous. We found no differences in episodic specificity between age groups in spontaneous thoughts, supporting the prediction that automatic retrieval attenuates the episodic specificity decrease in aging. The lack of age differences was present regardless of the induction, showing no interactions. For the induction, we also found no main effect, indicating that automatic retrieval bypasses event construction and accesses pre-stored events. Overall, our evidence suggests that spontaneous retrieval is a promising strategy to support episodic specificity in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Imaginação/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797102

RESUMO

Counterfactual thoughts center on how the past could have been different. Such thoughts may be differentiated in terms of direction of comparison, such that upward counterfactuals focus on how the past could have been better, whereas downward counterfactuals focus on how the past could have been worse. A key question is how such past-oriented thoughts connect to future-oriented individual differences such as optimism. Ambiguities surround a series of past studies in which optimism predicted relatively greater downward counterfactual thinking. Our main study (N = 1150) and six supplementary studies (N = 1901) re-examined this link to reveal a different result, a weak relation between optimism and upward (rather than downward) counterfactual thinking. These results offer an important correction to the counterfactual literature and are informative for theory on individual differences in optimism.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785218

RESUMO

The forgetting of previously remembered information has, for a long time, been explained by purely passive processes. This viewpoint has been challenged by the finding that humans show worse memory for specific items that they have been instructed to forget. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has, through imaging, lesion and brain stimulation studies, been implied in controlling such active forgetting processes. In this study, we attempted to solidify evidence for such a causal role of the dlPFC in directed forgetting by replicating an existing rTMS study (Hanslmayr S, 2012) in a preregistered within-participant design. We stimulated participants at the dlPFC (BA9) or vertex using 45s of 1Hz rTMS after instructions to forget previously remembered words in a list-method directed forgetting paradigm and tested for effects on the amount of forgotten information. Contrary to the study we were attempting to replicate, no significant increase in forgetting under dlPFC stimulation was found in our participants. However, when combining our results with the study we were attempting to replicate, dlPFC stimulation led to significantly increased directed forgetting in both studies combined. We further explored if the rTMS parameters used here and in earlier work (Hanslmayr S, 2012) influenced inhibitory processing at their time of delivery or in a more persistent manner. Unaltered incongruency and negative priming effects in a Stroop task conducted directly after stimulation suggests that our rTMS stimulation did not continue to influence inhibitory processing after the time of stimulation. As the combined evidence for increased directed forgetting due to rTMS dlPFC stimulation is still quite weak, additional replications are necessary to show that directed forgetting is indeed causally driven by an active prefrontal process.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sleep Med ; 73: 1-10, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused substantial changes in lifestyle, responsibilities, and stressors. Such dramatic societal changes might cause overall sleep health to decrease (stress view), to remain unchanged (resilience view), or even to improve (reduced work/schedule burden view). METHODS: We addressed this question using longitudinal, cross-sectional, and retrospective recall methodologies in 699 American adult participants in late March 2020, two weeks following the enactment of social distancing and shelter-in-place policies in the United States. RESULTS: Relative to baseline data from mid February 2020, cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses demonstrated that average sleep quality was unchanged, or even improved, early in the pandemic. However, there were clear individual differences: approximately 25% of participants reported that their sleep quality had worsened, which was explained by stress vulnerability, caregiving, adverse life impact, shift work, and presence of COVID-19 symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the COVID-19 pandemic has detrimentally impacted some individuals' sleep health while paradoxically benefited other individuals' sleep health by reducing rigid work/school schedules such as early morning commitments.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20201269, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635875

RESUMO

Ordinality is a numerical property that nectarivores may use to remember the specific order in which to visit a sequence of flowers, a foraging strategy also known as traplining. In this experiment, we tested whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) could use ordinality to visit a rewarded flower. Birds were presented with a series of linear arrays of 10 artificial flowers; only one flower in each array was rewarded with sucrose solution. During training, birds learned to locate the correct flower independent of absolute spatial location. The birds' accuracy was independent of the rewarded ordinal position (1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th), which suggests that they used an object-indexing mechanism of numerical processing, rather than a magnitude-based system. When distance cues between flowers were made irrelevant during test trials, birds could still locate the correct flower. The distribution of errors during both training and testing indicates that the birds may have used a so-called working up strategy to locate the correct ordinal position. These results provide the first demonstration of numerical ordinal abilities in a wild vertebrate and suggest that such abilities could be used during foraging in the wild.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Rememoração Mental , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Flores , Aprendizagem , Recompensa
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3380, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665586

RESUMO

Eyewitness misidentification accounts for 70% of verified erroneous convictions. To address this alarming phenomenon, research has focused on factors that influence likelihood of correct identification, such as the manner in which a lineup is conducted. Traditional lineups rely on overt eyewitness responses that confound two covert factors: strength of recognition memory and the criterion for deciding what memory strength is sufficient for identification. Here we describe a lineup that permits estimation of memory strength independent of decision criterion. Our procedure employs powerful techniques developed in studies of perception and memory: perceptual scaling and signal detection analysis. Using these tools, we scale memory strengths elicited by lineup faces, and quantify performance of a binary classifier tasked with distinguishing perpetrator from innocent suspect. This approach reveals structure of memory inaccessible using traditional lineups and renders accurate identifications uninfluenced by decision bias. The approach furthermore yields a quantitative index of individual eyewitness performance.


Assuntos
Crime , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0228903, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701992

RESUMO

Dream reports collected after rapid eye movement sleep (REM) awakenings are, on average, longer, more vivid, bizarre, emotional and story-like compared to those collected after non-REM. However, a comparison of the word-to-word structural organization of dream reports is lacking, and traditional measures that distinguish REM and non-REM dreaming may be confounded by report length. This problem is amenable to the analysis of dream reports as non-semantic directed word graphs, which provide a structural assessment of oral reports, while controlling for individual differences in verbosity. Against this background, the present study had two main aims: Firstly, to investigate differences in graph structure between REM and non-REM dream reports, and secondly, to evaluate how non-semantic directed word graph analysis compares to the widely used measure of report length in dream analysis. To do this, we analyzed a set of 133 dream reports obtained from 20 participants in controlled laboratory awakenings from REM and N2 sleep. We found that: (1) graphs from REM sleep possess a larger connectedness compared to those from N2; (2) measures of graph structure can predict ratings of dream complexity, where increases in connectedness and decreases in randomness are observed in relation to increasing dream report complexity; and (3) measures of the Largest Connected Component of a graph can improve a model containing report length in predicting sleep stage and dream report complexity. These results indicate that dream reports sampled after REM awakening have on average a larger connectedness compared to those sampled after N2 (i.e. words recur with a longer range), a difference which appears to be related to underlying differences in dream complexity. Altogether, graph analysis represents a promising method for dream research, due to its automated nature and potential to complement report length in dream analysis.


Assuntos
Sonhos , Sono REM , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Fases do Sono , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609778

RESUMO

Advances in computer and communications technology have deeply affected the way we communicate. Social media have emerged as a major means of human communication. However, a major limitation in such media is the lack of non-verbal stimuli, which sometimes hinders the understanding of the message, and in particular the associated emotional content. In an effort to compensate for this, people started to use emoticons, which are combinations of keyboard characters that resemble facial expressions, and more recently their evolution: emojis, namely, small colorful images that resemble faces, actions and daily life objects. This paper presents evidence of the effect of emojis on memory retrieval through a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. A total number of fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the experiment, during which successive stimuli were presented, containing words with intense emotional content combined with emojis, either with congruent or incongruent emotional content. Volunteers were asked to recall a memory related to the stimulus. The study of the reaction times showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations led to longer reaction times in memory retrieval compared to congruent combinations. General Linear Model (GLM) and Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods have been tested in assessing the influence of the emojis on the process of memory retrieval. The analysis of the fMRI data showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations activated the Broca's area (BA44 and BA45) in both hemispheres, the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and the inferior prefrontal cortex (BA47), compared to congruent combinations. Furthermore, compared to pseudowords, word+emoji combinations activated the left Broca's area (BA44 and BA45), the amygdala, the right temporal pole (BA48) and several frontal regions including the SMA and the inferior prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Comunicação , Compreensão , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Redação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 112-122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729406

RESUMO

The forward testing effect (FTE) refers to the finding that testing of previously studied information enhances memory for subsequently studied other information. Previous research demonstrated that the FTE is a robust phenomenon that generalizes across different materials and populations. The present study examined whether the FTE is robust under acute psychosocial encoding/retrieval stress. In each of two experimental conditions, participants studied three item lists in anticipation of final cumulative recall testing. In the testing condition, participants were tested immediately on lists 1 and 2, whereas in the restudy condition, they restudied lists 1 and 2. In both conditions, participants were tested immediately on list 3. Acute psychosocial stress was induced in participants prior to the encoding of item lists using the Trier social stress test for groups protocol. No stress was induced in a control group. Salivary cortisol, alpha amylase, and subjective stress were measured repeatedly to capture the biopsychological stress response. The results showed a significant FTE on list 3 recall, that is, testing of lists 1 and 2 enhanced the recall of list 3. No significant effect of stress on the FTE was observed, suggesting that the FTE is robust under acute psychosocial encoding/retrieval stress. The discussion provides suggestions for future research directions.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Exp Psychol ; 67(3): 178-185, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684147

RESUMO

The process of spontaneous refreshing plays a central role in current models of working memory but is yet to be observed directly. In a recent study, Rey, Versace, and Plancher (2018) introduced a novel approach to investigate the mechanisms underlying refreshing: They presented tones previously associated with a visual mask during the free time of a complex span task and found that this impaired memory, presumably because reactivation of the masks disrupts refreshing. Here, we aimed to replicate their finding under more controlled settings with more observations per participant. We failed to replicate the previous findings, thereby questioning the robustness of the original effect.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726368

RESUMO

Individual differences in dispositional coping might influence how ambiguous situations involving interactions of men and women are interpreted and remembered. Specifically, we hypothesized that women with a sensitive coping style actively maintain ambiguously threatening stimuli in their memory, showing so-called sensitive maintenance. As a prerequisite to investigate this hypothesis, two surveys (Studies 1 and 2; N = 151 and N = 252) were conducted to answer the questions whether fear of sexual assault is of relevance for young women in Germany and whether ambiguous (rather than only unambiguously threatening) situations are experienced to a significant extent. After confirming this for our target population, our main hypothesis was tested in Study 3 (N = 192) by combining tasks assessing the appraisal and the forgetting of nonthreatening, threatening, and ambiguous pictures showing interactions of men and women, and by varying the cognitive load during the retention interval. Whereas fear of rape predicted the appraisal of pictures, coping dispositions predicted forgetting of ambiguously and unambiguously threatening pictures in the hypothesized way. Results are discussed from the perspective of adaptivity and functionality of memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 24(10): 780-781, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660896

RESUMO

The ability to remember our past depends critically on the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but their respective roles are debated. Contrary to classic theories, recent work (McCormick et al.) has shown that vmPFC drives the hippocampus during memory retrieval, irrespective of how old the recalled memories are.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Encéfalo , Hipocampo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rememoração Mental , Córtex Pré-Frontal
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497051

RESUMO

METHOD: We collected 130 short semi-structured interviews following treatment sessions from 30 participants with ADHD receiving NF using slow cortical potential training (SCP). The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes where evaluated for changes over-time and between participants with high/low treatment compliance. Interviews from 14 participants who had undergone at least five completed interviews were examined in more depths, aiming to establish typical strategy/training profiles. RESULTS: We identified 16 strategies covering four domains: cognitive, physiological, emotional and unspecified. Typical of most strategies were that they served as a vehicle to regulate mental arousal. Overall, no clear patterns of changes over time were found. Highly compliant participants reported to use the strategies from the emotional domain and the strategy focus more frequently than neutral compliant participants did, while neutral compliant participants reported the use of the strategies muscular activity and passivity more often than participants did with high compliance. Across participants, three strategy profiles were derived, those who handled the task by manipulating their state of mind in relation to the NF task, those who were mainly manifest and concrete towards the task, and those who were mostly unaware of what they were doing. These profiles differed in self-regulatory performance, and only participants showing the state of mind profile experienced a decrease of ADHD symptoms accompanied by objectively measured improvements in self-regulation. In addition, compliance affected both how and what strategies were used. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: A heterogeneous array of cognitive and other strategies is used at varying levels of training compliance by participants with ADHD during SCP that could be condensed to three prototypical profiles. Future research should take compliance and strategy/training profiles into account when evaluating NF. The latter may help to clarify which and how brain activity regulating mechanisms drive training, individual response to NF, and how they are influenced by motivational factors. Our findings might also help to facilitate more effective instructions in how to approach SCP in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Neurorretroalimentação/métodos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Cognição , Sistemas Computacionais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Motivação , Neurorretroalimentação/fisiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração , Vigília
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence points to a relationship between hearing function and cognitive ability in later life. However, the exact mechanisms of this relationship are still unclear. This study aimed to characterise latent cognitive trajectories in recall memory and identify their association with subsequent risk of hearing impairment. METHODS: We analysed data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 1 (2002/03) until Wave 7 (2014/15). The study population consisted of 3,615 adults aged 50+ who participated in the first wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, who had no self-reported hearing impairment in Wave 1, and who underwent a hearing test in Wave 7. Respondents were classified as having hearing impairment if they failed to hear tones quieter than 35 dB HL in the better ear. RESULTS: The trajectories of recall memory scores were grouped using latent class growth mixture modelling and were related to the presence of hearing impairment in Wave 7. Models estimating 1-class through 5-class recall memory trajectories were compared and the best-fitting models were 4-class trajectories. The different recall memory trajectories represent different starting points and mean of the memory scores. Compared to respondents with the highest recall memory trajectory, other trajectories were increasingly likely to develop later hearing impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term changes in cognitive ability predict hearing impairment. Further research is required to identify the mechanisms explaining the association between cognitive trajectories and hearing impairment, as well as to determine whether intervention for maintenance of cognitive function also give benefit on hearing function among older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Memória/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559202

RESUMO

Pain is evolutionarily hardwired to signal potential danger and threat. It has been proposed that altered pain-related associative learning processes, i.e., emotional or fear conditioning, might contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Pain in or near the face plays a special role in pain perception and processing, especially with regard to increased pain-related fear and unpleasantness. However, differences in pain-related learning mechanisms between the face and other body parts have not yet been investigated. Here, we examined body-site specific differences in associative emotional conditioning using electrical stimuli applied to the face and the hand. Acquisition, extinction, and reinstatement of cue-pain associations were assessed in a 2-day emotional conditioning paradigm using a within-subject design. Data of 34 healthy subjects revealed higher fear of face pain as compared to hand pain. During acquisition, face pain (as compared to hand pain) led to a steeper increase in pain-related negative emotions in response to conditioned stimuli (CS) as assessed using valence ratings. While no significant differences between both conditions were observed during the extinction phase, a reinstatement effect for face but not for hand pain was revealed on the descriptive level and contingency awareness was higher for face pain compared to hand pain. Our results indicate a stronger propensity to acquire cue-pain-associations for face compared to hand pain, which might also be reinstated more easily. These differences in learning and resultant pain-related emotions might play an important role in the chronification and high prevalence of chronic facial pain and stress the evolutionary significance of pain in the head and face.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Face , Mãos , Dor/psicologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estimulação Elétrica , Extinção Psicológica , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor
19.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508304

RESUMO

Deep inside the temporal lobe of the brain, the hippocampus has a central role in our ability to remember, imagine and dream.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Sonhos , Hipocampo , Rememoração Mental
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 208: 103091, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485340

RESUMO

Movement planning disrupts the recall performance in a short term memory task, indicating that both processes share common working memory (WM) resources. In the current study, we tested whether this interference was bidirectional. To this end, we combined an easy or a difficult memory task (depleting different amounts of WM resources) with a sequential motor task (opening a column of drawers). The size of the hysteresis effect in the sequential motor task was measured as a proxy for the fraction of motor plan reuse. The different WM loads created by the memory task had no effect on the fractions of motor plan reuse and motor (re-)planning, which supports the idea that motor planning has priority access to WM. A recency effect (better recall of late items) was absent in a verbal memory task but present in a spatial one. Recency is commonly attributed to the episodic buffer, a non-domain-specific storage of the central executive. The domain-specific interference of the motor task with recency indicates that the second assumption needs to be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Rememoração Mental , Movimento/fisiologia , Humanos
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