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1.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 30(1): 2-9, jun. 2015. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868795

RESUMO

La biotecnología ambiental recurre a organismos capaces de reducir los niveles de metales pesados, entre ellos el Cr(VI), contenido en residuos y efluentes agroindustriales. El objetivo del trabajo fue estudiar la biorremediación de un residuo como pulpa de limón contaminada con Cr(VI) y el efecto del metal sobre el crecimiento fúngico. Se utilizaron tres hongos filamentosos como Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum y P. islandicum para remediar pulpa de limón (residuo) contaminada con Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) que se realizó en las siguientes condiciones de cultivo: la pulpa se suplementó con urea, 0,006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0,012; KH2PO4,0,003 y KCl, 0,001 g/ g; 105 conidios/g, a pH 2,5, 30°C y 96 h de incubación. Se estudió el efecto tóxico de diferentes concentraciones (5; 10; 20 y 50 mg/L) del metal sobre el desarrollo del hongo de mayor eficiencia de remediación (Ef. por ciento). Aspergillus niger; obtuvo mayor EF. de remediación (97 por ciento) respecto a Penicillium expansum (95 por ciento) y P. islandicum (94 por ciento), del residuo contaminado con 50 mg/L de Cr(VI). Se determinó que la presencia de Cr(VI) y no su concentración estimuló la maduración temprana (48 h) de los conidios (blancos a negros) de A. niger, sin que se observe alteraciones en el micelio con respecto al control (72h), desarrollado en la pulpa sin el metal. En conclusión, A. niger fue más resistente y presentó altas Ef. de remediación de Cr(VI) de residuos sólidos, este proceso es una alternativa a las tecnologías físico-químicas, debido que los microorganismos pueden remover selectivamente diferentes iones de zonas contaminadas.


Environmental biotechnology uses organisms capable of reducing levels of heavy metals, including the Cr (VI), contained in waste and agro-industrial effluents. The objective of this work was to study bioremediation of waste contaminated with Cr(VI) lemon pulp and the effect of the metal on the fungal growth. We used three filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger; Penicillium expansum and P. islandicum to remedy pulp from lemon (residue) contaminated with Cr(VI) (50 mg/L) that was conducted in the following conditions of cultivation: the pulp is supplemented with urea, 0.006; (NH4) 2SO4, 0.012; KH2PO4, 0.003 and KCl, 0.001 g / g; 105 conidia/g, at pH 2.5, 30 ° C and 96 h of incubation. We studied the toxic effect of different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/L) of the metal on the development of the fungus increased efficiency of remediation (Ef. percent). Aspergillus niger; obtained greater EF. remediation (97 percent) with respect to Penicillium expansum (95 percent) and P. islandicum (94 percent), 50 mg/L of Cr (VI)-contaminated waste. It was determined that the presence of Cr (VI) and not its concentration stimulated early maturation (48 h) of conidia (white on black) from A. niger, unless you observe alterations in the mycelium as compared to the control (72 h), developed in the pulp without the metal. In conclusion, A. niger was stronger and presented high Ef. remediation of Cr (VI) waste, this process is an alternative to physico-chemical technologies, due to the micro-organisms be removed selectively different ions from contaminated areas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aspergillus niger/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/toxicidade , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Remoção de Contaminantes/métodos , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 15(6): 8-8, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-662206

RESUMO

Six strains of white-rot fungi isolated from southern Chile were evaluated for their ergosterol/biomass correlation and ligninolytic potential in solid medium to formulate pellets for Reactive Orange 165 (RO165) decolourization. The fungus Anthracophyllum discolor was selected to formulate complex pellets (fungal mycelium, sawdust, and activated carbon), coated pellets (complex pellet + alginate) and simple pellets (fungal mycelium). The activity of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, manganese peroxidase, manganese-independent peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase) was evaluated in both the complex and coated pellets in modified Kirk medium, and the morphology of the pellets was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Complex pellets of A. discolor showed a higher enzymatic production mainly MnP (38 U L-1 at day 15) compared to coated and simple pellets. Examinations using SEM showed that both pellets produced a black core that was entrapped by a layer of fungal mycelium. Decolourization of RO165 was demonstrated with all the pellets formulated. However, the highest and fastest decolourization was obtained with complex pellets (100 percent at day 8). Therefore, complex pellets of A. discolor can be used for the biological treatment of wastewater contaminated with RO165.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo , Agaricales/enzimologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Corantes , Lignina , Remoção de Contaminantes/métodos
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