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1.
Life Sci ; 258: 118156, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735886

RESUMO

AIMS: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), participates in fatty acid ß oxidation as a cofactor, which has been confirmed to enhance SCAD activity and expression. However, the role of FAD on hypertensive vascular remodeling is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of FAD on vascular remodeling and endothelial homeostasis. MAIN METHODS: Morphological examination of vascular remodeling were analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Verhoeff's Van Gieson (EVG) staing, Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and Sirius red staining. HUVECs apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry and HUVECs reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by DHE-probe. Enzymatic reactions were used to detect SCAD enzyme activity. The protein level was detected by Western Blots, the mRNA level was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. KEY FINDINGS: In vivo experiments, FAD significantly decreased blood pressure and ameliorated vascular remodeling by increasing SCAD expression, Nitric Oxide (NO) production and reducing ROS production. In vitro experiments, FAD protected against the tBHP induced injury in HUVEC, by increasing the activity of SCAD, increasing the elimination of free fatty acid (FFA), scavenging ROS, reducing apoptotic rate, thereby improving endothelial cell function. SIGNIFICANCE: FAD has a new possibility for preventing and treating hypertensive vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Acil-CoA Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Ativadores de Enzimas/uso terapêutico , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativadores de Enzimas/farmacologia , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar
2.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1781-1796, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712670

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated at periconception affect key events in early pregnancy, i.e. decidualization and spiral artery remodeling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Two PIs, lopinavir and darunavir, currently offered as cART options in HIV-positive pregnancies were evaluated, and we found that lopinavir-based cART, but not darunavir-based cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both human ex vivo and mouse in vivo experimental models. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early initiation of cART is recommended for pregnant women living with HIV. However, poor birth outcomes are frequently observed in HIV-positive pregnancies exposed to PI-based cART, especially when it is initiated prior to conception. The correlation between early initiation of PI-cART and adverse birth outcomes is poorly understood, due to lack of data on the specific effects of PI-cART on the early stages of pregnancy involving uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Lopinavir and darunavir were evaluated in clinically relevant combinations using an ex vivo human first-trimester placenta-decidua explant model, an in vitro human primary decidual cell culture system, and an in vivo mouse pregnancy model. The first-trimester (gestational age, 6-8 weeks) human placenta-decidua tissue was obtained from 11 to 15 healthy women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. C57Bl/6 female mice (four/treatment group) were administered either lopinavir-cART, darunavir-cART or water by oral gavage once daily starting on the day of plug detection until sacrifice. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Human: Spiral artery remodeling was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of first-trimester placenta-decidua explant co-culture system. Trophoblast migration was measured using a placental explant culture. A primary decidual cell culture was used to evaluate the viability of immune cell populations by flow cytometry. Soluble factors, including biomarkers of decidualization and angiogenesis, were quantified by ELISA and Luminex assay using decidua-conditioned media. Mouse: In the mouse pregnancy model, gestational day 6.5 or 9.5 implantation sites were used to assess decidualization, spiral artery remodeling and uterine natural killer (uNK) cell numbers by immunohistochemistry. Transcription factor STAT3 was assayed by immunohistochemistry in both human decidua and mouse implantation sites. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, impaired uterine decidualization and spiral artery remodeling in both experimental models. Lopinavir-cART treatment was also associated with selective depletion of uNK cells, reduced trophoblast migration and defective placentation. The lopinavir-associated decidualization defects were attributed to a decrease in expression of transcription factor STAT3, known to regulate decidualization. Our results suggest that periconceptional initiation of lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, causes defective maturation of the uterine endometrium, leading to impairments in spiral artery remodeling and placentation, thus contributing to the poor birth outcomes. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The human first-trimester placenta/decidua samples could only be obtained from healthy females undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. As biopsy is the only way to obtain first-trimester decidua from pregnant women living with HIV on PI-cART, ethics approval and participant consent are difficult to obtain. Furthermore, our animal model is limited to the study of cART and does not include HIV. HIV infection is also associated with immune dysregulation, inflammation, alterations in angiogenic factors and complement activation, all of which could influence decidual and placental vascular remodeling and modify any cART effects. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings provide mechanistic insight with direct clinical implications, rationalizing why the highest adverse birth outcomes are reported in HIV-positive pregnancies exposed to lopinavir-cART from conception. We demonstrate that dysregulation of decidualization is the mechanism through which lopinavir-cART, but not darunavir-cART, use in early pregnancy leads to poor birth outcomes. Although lopinavir is no longer a first-line regimen in pregnancy, it remains an alternate regimen and is often the only PI available in low resource settings. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current guidelines recommending lopinavir use in pregnancy and indicate that lopinavir should be avoided especially in the first trimester, whereas darunavir is safe to use and should be the preferred PI in pregnancy.Further, in current times of the COVID-19 pandemic, lopinavir is among the top drug candidates which are being repurposed for inclusion in clinical trials world-over, to assess their therapeutic potential against the dangerous respiratory disease. Current trials are also testing the efficacy of lopinavir given prophylactically to protect health care workers and people with potential exposures. Given the current extraordinary numbers, these might include women with early pregnancies, who may or may not be cognizant of their gestational status. This is a matter of concern as it could mean that women with early pregnancies might be exposed to this drug, which can cause decidualization defects. Our findings provide evidence of safety concerns surrounding lopinavir use in pregnancy, that women of reproductive age considering participation in such trials should be made aware of, so they can make a fully informed decision. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by funding from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (PJT-148684 and MOP-130398 to L.S.). C.D. received support from CIHR Foundation (FDN143262 to Stephen Lye). S.K. received a TGHRI postdoctoral fellowship. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. L.S. reports personal fees from ViiV Healthcare for participation in a Women and Transgender Think Tank.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Placentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Técnicas de Cocultura , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Decídua/irrigação sanguínea , Decídua/citologia , Decídua/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Endométrio/irrigação sanguínea , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Trofoblastos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2143-2158, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) exerts nuclear genomic actions and also rapid membrane-initiated steroid signaling. The mutation of the cysteine 451 into alanine in vivo has recently revealed the key role of this ERα palmitoylation site on some vasculoprotective actions of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and fertility. Here, we studied the in vivo role of the arginine 260 of ERα which has also been described to be involved in its E2-induced rapid signaling with PI-3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) as well as G protein in cultured cell lines. Approach and Results: We generated a mouse model harboring a point mutation of the murine counterpart of this arginine into alanine (R264A-ERα). In contrast to the C451A-ERα, the R264A-ERα females are fertile with standard hormonal serum levels and normal control of hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. Although R264A-ERα protein abundance was normal, the well-described membrane ERα-dependent actions of estradiol, such as the rapid dilation of mesenteric arteries and the acceleration of endothelial repair of carotid, were abrogated in R264A-ERα mice. In striking contrast, E2-regulated gene expression was highly preserved in the uterus and the aorta, revealing intact nuclear/genomic actions in response to E2. Consistently, 2 recognized nuclear ERα-dependent actions of E2, namely atheroma prevention and flow-mediated arterial remodeling were totally preserved. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the exquisite role of arginine 264 of ERα for endothelial membrane-initiated steroid signaling effects of E2 but not for nuclear/genomic actions. This provides the first model of fertile mouse with no overt endocrine abnormalities with specific loss-of-function of rapid ERα signaling in vascular functions.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/lesões , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 452-460, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies suggest that fenofibrate prevents abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development by lowering aortic osteopontin (OPN) concentration and reducing the number of macrophages infiltrating the aortic wall. The current study examined the effects of a short course of fenofibrate on AAA pathology in people with large AAAs awaiting aortic repair. METHODS: This randomised double blind parallel trial included male and female participants aged ≥ 60 years who had an asymptomatic AAA measuring ≥ 50 mm and were scheduled to undergo open AAA repair. Participants were allocated to fenofibrate (145 mg/day) or matching placebo for at least two weeks before elective AAA repair. Blood samples were collected at recruitment and immediately prior to surgery. AAA biopsies were obtained during aortic surgery. The primary outcomes were (1) AAA OPN concentration; (2) serum OPN concentration; and (3) number of AAA macrophages. Exploratory outcomes included circulating and aortic concentrations of other proteins previously associated with AAA. Outcomes assessed at a single time point were compared using logistic regression. Longitudinal outcomes were compared using linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Forty-three participants were randomised. After three withdrawals, 40 were followed until the time of surgery (21 allocated fenofibrate and 19 allocated placebo). As expected, serum triglycerides reduced significantly from recruitment to the time of surgery in participants allocated fenofibrate. No differences in any of the primary and exploratory outcomes were observed between groups. CONCLUSION: A short course of 145 mg of fenofibrate/day did not lower concentrations of OPN or aortic macrophage density in people with large AAAs.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Fenofibrato/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fenofibrato/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteopontina/sangue , Queensland , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1918-1934, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) 15-a membrane-bound metalloprotease from the ADAM (disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family-has been linked to endothelial permeability, inflammation, and metastasis. However, its function in aortic aneurysm has not been explored. We aimed to determine the function of ADAM15 in the pathogenesis of aortic remodeling and aneurysm formation. Approach and Results: Male Adam15-deficient and WT (wild type) mice (10 weeks old), on standard laboratory diet, received Ang II (angiotensin II; 1.5 mg/kg per day) or saline (Alzet pump) for 2 or 4 weeks. Ang II increased ADAM15 in WT aorta, while Adam15-deficiency resulted in abdominal aortic aneurysm characterized by loss of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), elastin fragmentation, inflammation, but unaltered Ang II-mediated hypertension. In the abdominal aortic tissue and primary aortic SMCs culture, Adam15 deficiency decreased SMC proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced contractile properties along with F-actin depolymerization to G-actin. Ang II triggered a markedly greater increase in THBS (thrombospondin) 1 in Adam15-deficient aorta, primarily the medial layer in vivo, and in aortic SMC in vitro; increased SSH1 (slingshot homolog 1) phosphatase activity and cofilin dephosphorylation that promoted F-actin depolymerization and G-actin accumulation. rhTHBS1 (recombinant THBS1) alone was sufficient to activate the cofilin pathway, increase G-actin, and induce apoptosis of aortic SMCs, confirming the key role of THBS1 in this process. Further, in human abdominal aortic aneurysm specimens, decreased ADAM15 was associated with increased THBS1 levels and loss of medial SMCs. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for ADAM15 in abdominal aortic aneurysm through regulating the SMC function, thereby placing ADAM15 in a critical position as a potential therapeutic target for abdominal aortic aneurysm.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ADAM/deficiência , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Trombospondina 1/análise , Vasoconstrição
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1854-1869, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our recent work demonstrates that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is an important regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. SMC-specific PTEN deletion promotes spontaneous vascular remodeling and PTEN loss correlates with increased atherosclerotic lesion severity in human coronary arteries. In mice, PTEN overexpression reduces plaque area and preserves SMC contractile protein expression in atherosclerosis and blunts Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced pathological vascular remodeling, suggesting that pharmacological PTEN upregulation could be a novel therapeutic approach to treat vascular disease. Approach and Results: To identify novel PTEN activators, we conducted a high-throughput screen using a fluorescence based PTEN promoter-reporter assay. After screening ≈3400 compounds, 11 hit compounds were chosen based on level of activity and mechanism of action. Following in vitro confirmation, we focused on 5-azacytidine, a DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase-1) inhibitor, for further analysis. In addition to PTEN upregulation, 5-azacytidine treatment increased expression of genes associated with a differentiated SMC phenotype. 5-Azacytidine treatment also maintained contractile gene expression and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression after PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) stimulation, suggesting 5-azacytidine blocks PDGF-induced SMC de-differentiation. However, these protective effects were lost in PTEN-deficient SMCs. These findings were confirmed in vivo using carotid ligation in SMC-specific PTEN knockout mice treated with 5-azacytidine. In wild type controls, 5-azacytidine reduced neointimal formation and inflammation while maintaining contractile protein expression. In contrast, 5-azacytidine was ineffective in PTEN knockout mice, indicating that the protective effects of 5-azacytidine are mediated through SMC PTEN upregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates 5-azacytidine upregulates PTEN expression in SMCs, promoting maintenance of SMC differentiation and reducing pathological vascular remodeling in a PTEN-dependent manner.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
7.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568218

RESUMO

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is a pathophysiological condition, defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure exceeding 25 mm Hg at rest, as assessed by right heart catheterization. A broad spectrum of diseases can lead to PH, differing in their etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, prognosis, and response to treatment. Despite significant progress in the last years, PH remains an uncured disease. Understanding the underlying mechanisms can pave the way for the development of new therapies. Animal models are important research tools to achieve this goal. Currently, there are several models available for recapitulating PH. This protocol describes a two-hit mouse PH model. The stimuli for PH development are hypoxia and the injection of SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor antagonist. Three weeks after initiation of Hypoxia/SU5416, animals develop pulmonary vascular remodeling imitating the histopathological changes observed in human PH (predominantly Group 1). Vascular remodeling in the pulmonary circulation results in the remodeling of the right ventricle (RV). The procedures for measuring RV pressures (using the open chest method), the morphometrical analyses of the RV (by dissecting and weighing both cardiac ventricles) and the histological assessments of the remodeling (both pulmonary by assessing vascular remodeling and cardiac by assessing RV cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis) are described in detail. The advantages of this protocol are the possibility of the application both in wild type and in genetically modified mice, the relatively easy and low-cost implementation, and the quick development of the disease of interest (3 weeks). Limitations of this method are that mice do not develop a severe phenotype and PH is reversible upon return to normoxia. Prevention, as well as therapy studies, can easily be implemented in this model, without the necessity of advanced skills (as opposed to surgical rodent models).


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(4): 299-308, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572706

RESUMO

Large conductive arteries undergo to structural modifications by aging, eventually leading to increased vascular stiffness. As consequence, cardiovascular hemodynamic changes by increasing central blood pressure which may be also associated to the remodelling of peripheral resistance arteries that contribute to increase further the central vascular stiffness and blood pressure. These modifications resemble the ones that has been shown in essential hypertension, thus a condition of "early vascular aging" has been described in hypertensive patients. Since hypertension related target organs, particularly the heart, face aortic blood pressure rather than brachial blood pressure, it has been recently suggested that central blood pressure and other parameters of large arteries' stiffness, including pulse wave velocity (PWV), may better correlate with subclinical organ damage and might be useful to assess the cardiovascular risk of patients beyond the traditional risk factors. Different devices have been validated to measure central blood pressure and PWV, and are currently available for clinical use. The increasing application of these tools in clinical practice could improve the management of hypertensive patients by better defining the cardiovascular risk and address the antihypertensive therapy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Vascular , Rigidez Vascular , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0227582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302306

RESUMO

Molecular hydrogen is thought to have an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of various diseases including cardiovascular disease; however, few reports have assessed the preventive effect of constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas on of vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. After constitutive inhalation of compressed hydrogen gas (O2 21%, N2 77.7%, hydrogen 1.3%) or compressed air only (O2 21%, N2 79%) by C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age in a closed chamber, inflammatory cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery under anesthesia, and hydrogen gas administration was continued until sampling of the femoral artery. Neointima formation, accompanied by an increase in cell proliferation, was significantly attenuated in the hydrogen group compared with the control group. NADPH oxidase NOX1 downregulation in response to cuff injury was shown in the hydrogen group, but the expression levels of NADPH oxidase subunits, p40phox and p47phox, did not differ significantly between the hydrogen and control groups. Although the increase in superoxide anion production did not significantly differ between the hydrogen and control groups, DNA damage was decreased as a result of reduction of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical (⋅OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in the hydrogen group. These results demonstrate that constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates vascular remodeling partly via reduction of oxidative stress, suggesting that constitutive inhalation of hydrogen gas at a safe concentration in the living environment could be an effective strategy for prevention of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Neointima/prevenção & controle , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/complicações , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases/administração & dosagem , Gases/química , Humanos , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , Neointima/etiologia , Neointima/patologia , Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Ácido Peroxinitroso/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233792

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the combined exposure of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) to morphine and viral protein(s) results in the oxidative stress-mediated induction of autophagy, leading to shift in the cells from early apoptotic to apoptosis-resistant proliferative status associated with the angioproliferative remodeling observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study, we tried to delineate the major source of HIV-1 protein Tat and morphine induced oxidative burst in HPMECs and its consequences on vascular remodeling and PAH in an in vivo model. We observed switch from the initial increased expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 in response to acute treatment of morphine and HIV-Tat to later increased expression of NOX4 on chronic treatment in the endoplasmic reticulum of HPMECs without any alterations in the mitochondria. Furthermore, NOX-dependent induction of autophagy was observed to play a pivotal role in regulating the endothelial cell survival. Our in vivo findings showed significant increase in pulmonary vascular remodeling, right ventricular systolic pressure, and Fulton index in HIV-transgenic rats on chronic administration of morphine. This was associated with increased oxidative stress in lung tissues and rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Additionally, endothelial cells from morphine-treated HIV-transgenic rats demonstrated increased expression of NOX2 and NOX4 proteins, inhibition of which ameliorated their increased survival upon serum starvation. In conclusion, this study describes NADPH oxidases as one of the main players in the oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction on the dual hit of HIV-viral protein(s) and opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Transgênicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/genética , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene tat do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/farmacologia
11.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(4): 509-512, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238633

RESUMO

The thymus is a vital organ for functional immune systems, and is the site of T cell development, which plays a central role in cellular immune defenses. Unlike other major organs, the thymus is highly dynamic in size and structure. It shrinks immediately upon bacterial infection, aging, pregnancy, mental stress, nutritional deficiency, and more. The reduction in size and function of the thymus during such biological events is called thymic involution or thymic atrophy; thymic involution is a particularly important issue because dysfunctional T cell immunity increases the risks of tumorigenesis and infectious diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying thymic involution remain obscure. Our recent study indicated that blood vessels are remodeled during thymic involution that occurs upon aging, estradiol-treatment, or nutritional deficiency. We also found that prostanoid synthesis is induced during thymic involution. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), aspirin or etodolac, at least partially inhibited thymic involution-induced remodeling of the blood vessels, suggesting that prostanoids are involved in blood vessel remodeling. Our results revealed the potential role of blood vessel remodeling during thymic involution, which can lead to biological stress-induced immunosenescence.


Assuntos
Vasos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/patologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 63(2): 160-171, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255665

RESUMO

Mutations in the gene encoding BMPR2 (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor) are the major cause of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Point mutations in the BMPR2 ligand-binding domain involving cysteine residues (such as C118W) are causative of PAH and predicted to cause protein misfolding. Using heterologous overexpression systems, we showed previously that these mutations lead to retention of BMPR2 in the endoplasmic reticulum but are partially rescued by chemical chaperones. Here, we sought to determine whether the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) restores BMPR2 signaling in primary cells and in a knockin mouse harboring a C118W mutation. First, we confirmed dysfunctional BMP signaling in dermal fibroblasts isolated from a family with PAH segregating the BMPR2 C118W mutation. After BMP4 treatment, the induction of downstream signaling targets (Smad1/5, ID1 [inhibitor of DNA binding 1], and ID2) was significantly reduced in C118W mutant cells. Treatment with 4PBA significantly rescued Smad1/5, ID1, and ID2 expression. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells isolated from the lungs of heterozygous mice harboring the Bmpr2 C118W mutation exhibited significantly increased proliferation. In the presence of 4PBA, hyperproliferation was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, in vivo, 4PBA treatment of Bmpr2 C118W mice partially rescued Bmpr2 expression, restored downstream signaling, and improved vascular remodeling. These findings demonstrate in primary cells and in a knockin mouse that the repurposed small-molecule chemical chaperone 4PBA might be a promising precision medicine approach to treat PAH in patients with specific subtypes of BMPR2 mutation involving cysteine substitutions in the ligand-binding domain.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo II/genética , Cisteína/genética , Mutação/genética , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/genética
13.
Life Sci ; 250: 117554, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental stress (MS) is related to endothelial dysfunction in overweight/obese men. It is believed that the pro-oxidant profile, associated with an imbalance in the vascular remodeling process, may contribute to deleterious effects of MS on endothelial function. However, it is unknown whether administration of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, can prevent oxidative and remodeling dysfunction during MS in these subjects. METHODS: Fourteen overweight/obese grade I men (27 ± 7 years; 29.7 ± 2.6 kg·m-2) underwent the Stroop Color Word Test for 5 min to induce MS after AA (3 g) or placebo (PL, 0.9% NaCl) intravenous infusions. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and the last minute of MS to measure nitrite concentration (chemiluminescence), protein carbonylation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity (colorimetric assays), superoxide dismutase (SOD; immunoenzymatic assay), activities of active/inactive (pro) forms of metalloproteinases-9 and -2 (MMP; zymography) and its respective tissue inhibitors concentration (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2; immunoenzymatic assays). RESULTS: At baseline, MMP-9 activity (p < 0.01), the MMP-9/proMMP-9 ratio (p = 0.02) and TIMP-1 concentration (p = 0.05) were reduced, whereas proMPP-9 activity was increased (p = 0.02) after AA compared to PL infusion. After PL infusion, MS increased protein carbonylation (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.01), and the MMP-9/proMMP-9 ratio (p = 0.04) when compared to baseline. AA infusion reduced protein carbonylation (p = 0.02), MMP-9 activity (p < 0.01), and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 ratio (p < 0.01), while SOD (p = 0.04 vs baseline), proMPP-9 (p < 0.01 vs PL), MMP-2 (p < 0.01 vs PL) and TIMP-2 (p = 0.02 vs baseline) remained elevated during MS. CONCLUSIONS: AA appears to minimize the oxidative imbalance and vascular remodeling induced by MS.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Luminescência , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Stroop , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1256-1274, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In view of our previous observations on differential expression of LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1) in human versus rodents, we asked the question whether LMCD1 plays a species-specific role in the development of vascular lesions. Approach and Results: A combination of genetic, molecular, cellular, and disease models were used to test species-specific role of LMCD1 in the pathogenesis of vascular lesions. Here, we report species-specific regulation of LMCD1 expression in mediating vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration during vascular wall remodeling in humans versus mice. Thrombin induced LMCD1 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells but not mouse aortic smooth muscle cells via activation of Par1 (protease-activated receptor 1)-Gαq/11 (Gα protein q/11)-PLCß3 (phospholipase Cß3)-NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 1) signaling. Furthermore, although LMCD1 mediates thrombin-induced proliferation and migration of both human aortic smooth muscle cells and mouse aortic smooth muscle cells via influencing E2F1 (E2F transcription factor 1)-mediated CDC6 (cell division cycle 6) expression and NFATc1-mediated IL (interleukin)-33 expression, respectively, in humans, it acts as an activator, and in mice, it acts as a repressor of these transcriptional factors. Interestingly, LMCD1 repressor activity was nullified by N-myristoyltransferase 2-mediated myristoylation in mouse. Besides, we found increased expression of LMCD1 in human stenotic arteries as compared to nonstenotic arteries. On the other hand, LMCD1 expression was decreased in neointimal lesions of mouse injured arteries as compared to noninjured arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these observations reveal that LMCD1 acts as an activator and repressor of E2F1 and NFATc1 in humans and mice, respectively, in the induction of CDC6 and IL-33 expression during development of vascular lesions. Based on these findings, LMCD could be a potential target for drug development against restenosis and atherosclerosis in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-33/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Ácido Mirístico/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade da Espécie , Trombina/farmacologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1220-1230, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) causes chronic inflammation and multiorgan damage. Less understood are the arterial complications, most evident by increased strokes among children. Proteolytic mechanisms, biomechanical consequences, and pharmaceutical inhibitory strategies were studied in a mouse model to provide a platform for mechanistic and intervention studies of large artery damage due to sickle cell disease. Approach and Results: Townes humanized transgenic mouse model of SCA was used to test the hypothesis that elastic lamina and structural damage in carotid arteries increased with age and was accelerated in mice homozygous for SCA (sickle cell anemia homozygous genotype [SS]) due to inflammatory signaling pathways activating proteolytic enzymes. Elastic lamina fragmentation observed by 1 month in SS mice compared with heterozygous littermate controls (sickle cell trait heterozygous genotype [AS]). Positive immunostaining for cathepsin K, a powerful collagenase and elastase, confirmed accelerated proteolytic activity in SS carotids. Larger cross-sectional areas were quantified by magnetic resonance angiography and increased arterial compliance in SS carotids were also measured. Inhibiting JNK (c-jun N-terminal kinase) signaling with SP600125 significantly reduced cathepsin K expression, elastin fragmentation, and carotid artery perimeters in SS mice. By 5 months of age, continued medial thinning and collagen degradation was mitigated by treatment of SS mice with JNK inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial remodeling due to SCA is mediated by JNK signaling, cathepsin proteolytic upregulation, and degradation of elastin and collagen. Demonstration in Townes mice establishes their utility for mechanistic studies of arterial vasculopathy, related complications, and therapeutic interventions for large artery damage due to SCA.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antracenos/farmacologia , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Anemia Falciforme/enzimologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Animais , Artérias Carótidas/enzimologia , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/enzimologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Catepsina K/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elastina/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(5): 513-527, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104886

RESUMO

An important link exists between hypertension and inflammation. Hypertensive patients present elevated circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17A (IL-17A). This cytokine participates in host defense, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory pathologies, and cardiovascular diseases, mainly through the regulation of proinflammatory factors. Emerging evidence also suggests that IL-17A could play a role in regulating blood pressure and end-organ damage. Here, our preclinical studies in a murine model of systemic IL-17A administration showed that increased levels of circulating IL-17A raised blood pressure induced inward remodeling of small mesenteric arteries (SMAs) and arterial stiffness. In IL-17A-infused mice, treatment with hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide diminished blood pressure elevation, without modifying mechanical and structural properties of SMA, suggesting a direct vascular effect of IL-17A. The mechanisms of IL-17A seem to involve an induction of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy and phenotype changes, in the absence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation. Accordingly, treatment with an IL-17A neutralizing antibody diminished SMA remodeling in a model of angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Moreover, in vitro studies in VSMCs reported here, provide further evidence of the direct effects of IL-17A on cell growth responses. Our experimental data suggest that IL-17A is a key mediator of vascular remodeling of the small arteries, which might contribute, at least in part, to blood pressure elevation.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-17/farmacologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-17/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
17.
Microvasc Res ; 130: 103988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resveratrol has shown benefit for pulmonary hypertension improvement. Our previous reports showed NR4A3/cyclin D1 pathway promoted pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation. This study tried to explore the mechanism underlying this process, focusing on the role of resveratrol in regulation of miRNA and NR4A3. METHODS: Rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT) to establish pulmonary hypertension (PH) models. Resveratrol was used to prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling. Primary rat PASMCs were cultured in vitro and stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) with or without resveratrol. Cells proliferation and expression of miR-638 as well as NR4A3 were evaluated. RESULTS: MCT resulted in significant pulmonary vascular remodeling and down-regulation of miR-638, which could be suppressed by resveratrol. Moreover, PDGF-induced PASMC proliferation and miR-638 down-regulation were both significantly prevented by resveratrol treatment in vitro. MiR-638 mimics markedly inhibited PASMC proliferation and percentage of PCNA-positive cells in vitro. But anti-miR-638 could markedly promote cells proliferation and percentage of PCNA-positive cells. The luciferase reporter assay showed that NR4A3 was a direct target of miR-638. The loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments indicated that NR4A3 promoted proliferation via cyclin D1 pathway. CONCLUSION: Our data indicated that resveratrol prevented MCT-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling via miR-638 regulating NR4A3/cyclin D1 pathway.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina D1/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 127: 106661, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oral anticoagulation prevents thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation. Factor Xa inhibitors, like edoxaban, are known to reduce inflammation and proliferation of smooth muscle cells, while vitamin K antagonism can cause vascular calcific damage. The influence of edoxaban compared to warfarin on vascular remodeling, atherosclerosis and arteriogenesis is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/-) mice were fed cholesterol-rich diet alone (control, co), with warfarin+vitamin K1 (warf) or with edoxaban (Edo) for 8 weeks. After 6 weeks, femoral artery ligation was performed. KEY RESULTS: There was no difference in hind-limb perfusion restoration between the three groups after 14 days (Co 0.36 ± 0.05 vs. Warf 0.39 ± 0.09 (p = .39), Co vs. Edo 0.51 ± 0.06 (p = .089), Warf vs. Edo (p = .83)) after ligation. Immuno-histologically, there was no difference in smooth muscle cell count in both hindlimbs between the three groups or in the amount of perivascular macrophages in collateral-bearing hindlimb tissue. Edoxaban showed the lowest amount of plaque tissue in the aortic sinus tissue (Co 74 ± 11% vs. Edo 62 ± 12% (p = .024), Co vs. Warf 69 ± 14% (p = .30), Edo vs. Warf (p = .14)) as well as the least amount of fibrosis (Co 3.1 ± 0.9% vs. Edo 1.7 ± 0.6% (p = .027), Co vs. Warf 4.1 ± 0.7% (p = .081), Edo vs. Warf (p < .001)). No difference in mRNA content of inflammatory cytokines in muscle tissue or spleen was detected between the three groups. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These data suggest that treatment with edoxaban unlike warfarin prevents vascular maladaptive remodeling, which may be clinically important.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Circulação Colateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Varfarina/farmacologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Membro Posterior , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE
20.
Cell Prolif ; 53(2): e12742, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia is an important risk factor for pulmonary arterial remodelling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is believed to be involved in this process. In the present report, we aimed to investigate the role of JAK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells during the course of PAH. METHODS: Smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific Jak2 deficient mice and their littermate controls were subjected to normobaric normoxic or hypoxic (10% O2 ) challenges for 28 days to monitor the development of PAH, respectively. To further elucidate the potential mechanisms whereby JAK2 influences pulmonary vascular remodelling, a selective JAK2 inhibitor was applied to pre-treat human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) for 1 hour followed by 24-hour hypoxic exposure. RESULTS: Mice with hypoxia-induced PAH were characterized by the altered JAK2/STAT3 activity in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Therefore, induction of Jak2 deficiency in SMCs protected mice from hypoxia-induced increase of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodelling. Particularly, loss of Jak2 significantly attenuated chronic hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation in the lungs. Similarly, blockade of JAK2 by its inhibitor, TG-101348, suppressed hypoxia-induced human PASMC proliferation. Upon hypoxia-induced activation, JAK2 phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which then bound to the CCNA2 promoter to transcribe cyclin A2 expression, thereby promoting PASMC proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies support that JAK2 could be a culprit contributing to the pulmonary vascular remodelling, and therefore, it could be a viable target for prevention and treatment of PAH in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Hipóxia/patologia , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia
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