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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 830, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can be performed using directly assisted and unassisted approaches in facilities or communities to reach different populations. The aim of this study was to compare the practicability and effectiveness of the two delivery approaches for HIVST, unassisted HIVST (UH) and directly assisted HIVST (DAH), in the field setting of Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: A randomized (1:1), non-blinded, non-inferiority trial using a blood-based and facility-based HIVST method was carried out in four facilities in Kisangani, the DRC, targeting populations at high risk for HIV infection. The primary outcome was the difference in the practicability of the HIV self-test between the two arms. Practicability was defined as successfully performing the test and correctly interpreting the result. Requests for assistance, positivity rate, linkage to care, and willingness to buy an HIV self-test kit constituted the secondary outcomes for HIVST effectiveness. The adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The rate of successfully performing the test was same (93.2%) in the UH and DAH arms. The rate of correctly interpreting the results was 86.9% in the UH arm versus 93.2% in the DAH arm, for a difference of - 6.3%. After the follow-up 72 h later, participants in the UH arm had a significantly lower chance of correctly interpreting the test results than those in the DAH arm (aRR: 0.60; P = 0.019). Although the positivity rate was 3.4% among the participants in the DAH arm and 1.7% among those in the UH arm, no significant differences were found between the two arms in the positivity rate, requests for assistance, and linkage to care. Willingness to buy an HIV self-test was higher in the UH arm than in the DAH arm (92.3% versus 74.1%; aRR: 4.20; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that UH is as practicable and effective as DAH among individuals at high risk for HIV infection in Kisangani, the DRC. However, additional support tools need to be assessed to improve the interpretation of the self-test results when using the UH approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201904546865585. Registered 03 April 2019 - Retrospectively registered, https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=6032.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 741, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a major global health challenge. Uvira, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), has had endemic cholera since the 1970's and has been implicated as a possible point of origin for national outbreaks. A previous study among this population, reported a case confirmation rate of 40% by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) among patients at the Uvira Cholera Treatment Centre (CTC). This study considers the prevalence and diversity of 15 enteric pathogens in suspected cholera cases seeking treatment at the Uvira CTC. METHODS: We used the Luminex xTAG® multiplex PCR to test for 15 enteric pathogens, including toxigenic strains of V. cholerae in rectal swabs preserved on Whatman FTA Elute cards. Results were interpreted on MAGPIX® and analyzed on the xTAG® Data Analysis Software. Prevalence of enteric pathogens were calculated and pathogen diversity was modelled with a Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 269 enrolled CTC patients, PCR detected the presence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in 38% (103/269) of the patients, which were considered to be cholera cases. These strains were detected as the sole pathogen in 36% (37/103) of these cases. Almost half (45%) of all study participants carried multiple enteric pathogens (two or more). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (36%) and Cryptosporidium (28%) were the other most common pathogens identified amongst all participants. No pathogen was detected in 16.4% of study participants. Mean number of pathogens was highest amongst boys and girls aged 1-15 years and lowest in women aged 16-81 years. Ninety-three percent of toxigenic V. cholerae strains detected by PCR were found in patients having tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by RDT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports previous results from DRC and other cholera endemic areas in sub-Sahara Africa with less than half of CTC admissions positive for cholera by PCR. More research is required to determine the causes of severe acute diarrhea in these low-resource, endemic areas to optimize treatment measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is part of the impact evaluation study entitled: "Impact Evaluation of Urban Water Supply Improvements on Cholera and Other Diarrheal Diseases in Uvira, Democratic Republic of Congo" registered on 10 October 2016 at clinicaltrials.gov Identification number: NCT02928341 .


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cólera/microbiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Prevalência , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066059

RESUMO

Background. Public markets were exempted from the restrictive regulations instituted to limit the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In the early stage of the pandemic, we assessed people's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on public markets towards COVID-19. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 16 to 29 April 2020 among sellers and customers frequenting the food sections of ten public markets in three large cities (Kolwezi, Likasi, and Lubumbashi) and one small town (Lwambo) of the former Katanga province. We administered a questionnaire on knowledge (about clinical characteristics, transmission and prevention) and on attitudes in relation to COVID-19. We also observed prevailing practices (hand-washing and mask-wearing). Results: Of the 347 included participants (83% women, 83% sellers), most had low socioeconomic status and a low level of education. Only 30% of participants had correct knowledge of COVID-19. The majority of the respondents (88%) showed no confidence in the government's ability to manage the upcoming pandemic crisis. Nearly all respondents (98%) were concerned about the associated increase in food insecurity. Preventive practices were rarely in place. Conclusion: For an effective implementation of measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Africa, appropriate health education programs to improve knowledge and attitudes are warranted among the population frequenting public markets.


Assuntos
Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008696, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970689

RESUMO

Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (g-HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse flies. 70% of cases in 2019 (604/863) occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The national programme for g-HAT elimination in DRC includes a large-scale deployment of Tiny Targets which attract and kill tsetse. This intervention is directed by vector-control specialists with small teams, moving in canoes, deploying Tiny Targets along riverbanks where tsetse concentrate. While the targets are deployed in communal areas, and the method is cheap and easy-to-use, local people have little involvement. This study aimed to evaluate if a community-led vector control programme was feasible in the context of DRC's g-HAT elimination programme. In 2017, a community-led intervention was implemented in three villages in the Kwilu province of DRC. This intervention was evaluated through an Action Research with qualitative data collected through 21 focus group discussions and 289 hours of observation. Also the geographical location and quality of each Tiny Targets were collected (total number deployed = 2429). This research revealed that community-based approach largely worked: people were motivated and proactive, showed a good application of the acquired knowledge resulting in an effective deployment of Tiny Targets. In addition, our study provided evidence that acceptability of the targets by the community can improve deployment quality by reducing target loss and damage. The approach was feasible in places where canoe-based teams could not reach. Against these advantages, a community-based approach was time-consuming and had to adapt to the seasonal and daily rhythms of the community. A community-based approach for tsetse control is technically feasible and recommended but limits to the speed and scale of the approach restraints its application as a standalone strategy in a large-scale national programme aiming to eliminate g-HAT in a short timeframe.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Animais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Projetos Piloto , Trypanosoma , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008406, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776919

RESUMO

We hypothesized that Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) that appeared along Lake Kivu in the African Rift in the seventies, might be controlled by volcano-tectonic activity, which, by increasing surface water and groundwater salinity and temperature, may partly rule the water characteristics of Lake Kivu and promote V. cholerae proliferation. Volcanic activity (assessed weekly by the SO2 flux of Nyiragongo volcano plume over the 2007-2012 period) is highly positively correlated with the water conductivity, salinity and temperature of the Kivu lake. Over the 2007-2012 period, these three parameters were highly positively correlated with the temporal dynamics of cholera cases in the Katana health zone that border the lake. Meteorological variables (air temperature and rainfall), and the other water characteristics (namely pH and dissolved oxygen concentration in lake water) were unrelated to cholera dynamics over the same period. Over the 2016-2018 period, we sampled weekly lake water salinity and conductivity, and twice a month vibrio occurrence in lake water and fish. The abundance of V. cholerae in the lake was positively correlated with lake salinity, temperature, and the number of cholera cases in the population of the Katana health zone. V. cholerae abundance in fishes was positively correlated with V. cholerae abundance in lake water, suggesting that their consumption directly contaminate humans. The activity of the volcano, by controlling the physico-chemical characteristics of Lake Kivu, is therefore a major determinant of the presence of the bacillus in the lake. SO2 fluxes in the volcano plume can be used as a tool to predict epidemic risks.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Erupções Vulcânicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Condutividade Elétrica , Peixes/microbiologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxigênio/análise , Ruanda , Salinidade , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Temperatura , Vibrio , Microbiologia da Água
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822392

RESUMO

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria since 2005 in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and a regular surveillance of the ACT efficacy is required to ensure the treatment effectiveness. Mutations in the propeller domain of the pfk13 gene were identified as molecular markers of artemisinin resistance (ART-R). This study investigated the pfk13-propeller gene polymorphism in clinical isolates of P. falciparum collected in the DRC. In 2017, ten geographical sites across DRC were selected for a cross-sectional study that was conducted first in Kinshasa from January to March, then in the nine other sites from September to December. Dried blood samples were collected from patients attending health centers for fever where diagnosis of Malaria was first made by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) available on site (SD Bioline malaria Ag Pf or CareStart Malaria Pf) or by thick blood smear and then confirmed by a P. falciparum real-time PCR assay. A pfk13-propeller segment containing a fragment that codes for amino acids at positions 427-595 was amplified by conventional PCR before sequencing. In total, 1070 patients were enrolled in the study. Real-time PCR performed confirmed the initial diagnosis of P. falciparum infection in 806 samples (75.3%; 95% CI: 72.6%- 77.9%). Of the 717 successfully sequenced P. falciparum isolates, 710 (99.0%; 95% CI: 97.9% - 99.6) were wild-type genotypes and 7 (1.0%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 2.1%) carried non-synonymous (NS) mutations in pfk13-propeller including 2 mutations (A578S and V534A) previously detected and 2 other (M472I and A569T) not yet detected in the DRC. Mutations associated with ART-R in Southeast Asia were not observed in DRC. However, the presence of other mutations in pfk13-propeller gene calls for further investigations to assess their implication in drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841291

RESUMO

The need for an efficacious vaccine against highly pathogenic filoviruses was reinforced by the devastating 2014-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) in Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia that resulted in over 28,000 cases and over 11,300 deaths. In addition, the 2018-2020 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo currently has over 3,400 cases and over 2,200 deaths. A fully licensed vaccine and at least one other investigational vaccine are being deployed to combat this EVD outbreak. To support vaccine development and pre-clinical/clinical testing a Filovirus Animal Nonclinical Group (FANG) human anti-EBOV GP IgG ELISA was developed to measure anti-EBOV GP IgG antibodies. This ELISA is currently being used in multiple laboratories. Reported here is a characterization of an interlaboratory statistical analysis of the human anti-EBOV GP IgG ELISA as part of a collaborative study between five participating laboratories. Each laboratory used similar method protocols and reagents to measure anti-EBOV GP IgG levels in human serum samples from a proficiency panel consisting of ten serum samples created by the differential dilution of a serum sample positive for anti-GP IgG antibodies (BMIZAIRE105) with negative serum (BMI529). The total assay variability (inter- and intra-assay variability) %CVs observed at each laboratory ranged from 12.2 to 30.6. Intermediate precision (inter-assay variability) for the laboratory runs ranged from 8.9 to 21.7%CV and repeatability (intra-assay variability) %CVs ranged from 7.2 to 23.7. The estimated slope for the relationship between log10(Target Concentration) and the log10(Observed Concentration) across all five laboratories was 0.95 with a 90% confidence interval of (0.93, 0.97). Equivalence test results showed that the 90% confidence interval for the ratios for the sample-specific mean concentrations at the five individual labs to the overall laboratory consensus value were within the equivalence bounds of 0.80 to 1.25 for each laboratory and test sample, except for six test samples from Lab D, two samples from Lab B1, and one sample from Lab B2. The mean laboratory concentrations for Lab D were less than those from the other laboratories by 20% on average across the serum samples. The evaluation of the proficiency panel at these laboratories provides a limited assessment of assay precision (intermediate precision, repeatability, and total assay variability), dilutional linearity, and accuracy. This evaluation suggests that the within-laboratory performance of the anti-EBOV GP IgG ELISA as implemented at the five laboratories is consistent with the intended use of the assay based on the acceptance criteria used by laboratories that have validated the assay. However, the assessment of between-laboratory performance revealed lower observed concentrations at Lab D and greater variability in assay results at Lab B1 relative to other laboratories.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Vacinas contra Ebola/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Laboratórios , Variações Dependentes do Observador
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) is a very serious form of tuberculosis that is burdened with a heavy mortality toll, especially before the advent of new TB drugs. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is among the countries most affected by this new epidemic. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the records of all patients with pre- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis hospitalized from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017 and monitored for at least 6 months to one year after the end of their treatment in Kinshasa; an individualized therapeutic regimen with bedaquiline for 20 months was built for each patient. The adverse effects were systematically monitored. RESULTS: Of the 40 laboratory-confirmed patients, 32 (80%) patients started treatment, including 29 preXRB and 3 XDR TB patients. In the eligible group, 3 patients (9.4%) had HIV-TB coinfections. The therapeutic success rate was 53.2%, and the mortality rate was 46.8% (15/32); there were no relapses, failures or losses to follow-up. All coinfected HIV-TB patients died during treatment. The cumulative patient survival rate was 62.5% at 3 months, 53.1% at 6 months and 53.1% at 20 months. The most common adverse events were vomiting, Skin rash, anemia and peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSION: The new anti-tuberculosis drugs are a real hope for the management of Drug Resistant tuberculosis patient and other new therapeutic combinations may improve favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Diarilquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarilquinolinas/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Exantema/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008616, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853202

RESUMO

Podoconiosis is a type of tropical lymphedema that causes massive swelling of the lower limbs. The disease is associated with both economic insecurity, due to long-term morbidity-related loss of productivity, and intense social stigma. The geographical distribution and burden of podoconiosis in Africa are uncertain. We applied statistical modelling to the most comprehensive database compiled to date to predict the environmental suitability of podoconiosis in the African continent. By combining climate and environmental data and overlaying population figures, we predicted the environmental suitability and human population at risk of podoconiosis in Africa. Environmental suitability for podoconiosis was predicted in 29 African countries. In the year 2020, the total population in areas suitable for podoconiosis is estimated at 114.5 million people, (95% uncertainty interval: 109.4-123.9) with 16.9 million in areas suitable for both lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Of the total 5,712 implementation units (typically second administrative-level units, such as districts) defined by the World Health Organization in Africa, 1,655 (29.0%) were found to be environmentally suitable for podoconiosis. The majority of implementation units with high environmental suitability are located in Angola (80, 4.8%), Cameroon (170, 10.3%), the DRC (244, 14.7%), Ethiopia (495, 29.9%), Kenya (217, 13.1%), Uganda (116, 7.0%) and Tanzania (112, 6.8%). Of the 1,655 environmentally suitable implementation units, 960 (58.0%) require more detailed community-level mapping. Our estimates provide key evidence of the population at risk and geographical extent of podoconiosis in Africa, which will help decision-makers to better plan more integrated intervention programmes.


Assuntos
Elefantíase/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Angola/epidemiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Previsões , Geografia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remains a serious public health concern in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about treatment outcomes of child inpatients in Intensive Therapeutic and Feeding Units. This study aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and identify factors associated with mortality among children treated at Saint Joseph Nutritional Center, South Kivu, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on medical records of 633 severely malnourished children followed as inpatients at Saint Joseph Nutritional Center from July 2017 to December 2018. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned and analyzed in SPSS version 25. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression model were fitted to identify factors associated with mortality. RESULTS: Among 633 patients admitted with SAM, 13.1% were lost to follow-up and 9.2% died while in hospital. Children with late referral to the health facility (> 14 days) after the onset of main external malnutrition signs had 2.03 times higher odds of death than those referred less than 14 days [AOR = 2.03 at 95%CI (1.12, 3.68)]. The odds of death was 1.91 times higher for children with MUAC < 115 mm than for those with MUAC ≥ 115 mm [AOR = 1.91 at 95% CI (1.05, 3.50)]. Children infected with HIV were 3.90 times more likely to die compared to their counterparts [AOR = 3.90 at 95% CI (2.80, 9.41)]. CONCLUSION: Particular emphasis should be placed on partnering with communities to improve information on malnutrition signs and on critical importance of early referral to the health system. While HIV incidence in DRC is still low (0.21%), its impact on mortality among severely malnourished children is increased due to the limited access to HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Nutricional , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 683-694, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are efficacious in controlled settings; data are scarce on the effectiveness utilizing health care delivery platforms. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of an infant young child feeding (IYCF)-SQ-LNS intervention on anemia and growth in children aged 6-18 mo in the Democratic Republic of Congo following a quasi-experimental effectiveness design. METHODS: An intervention health zone (HZ) received enhanced IYCF including improved counseling on IYCF during pregnancy until 12 mo after birth and daily use of SQ-LNS for infants 6-12 mo; the control HZ received the standard IYCF package. We analyzed data from 2995 children, collected in repeated cross-sectional surveys. We used adjusted difference-in-difference analyses to calculate changes in anemia, iron and vitamin A deficiencies, stunting, wasting, and underweight. RESULTS: Of mothers, 70.5% received SQ-LNS at least once in the intervention HZ, with 99.6% of their children consuming SQ-LNS at least once. The mean number of batches of SQ-LNS (28 sachets per batch, 6 batches total) received was 2.3 ± 0.8 (i.e., 64.4 ± 22.4 d of SQ-LNS). The enhanced program was associated with an 11.0% point (95% CI: -18.1, -3.8; P < 0.01) adjusted relative reduction in anemia prevalence and a mean +0.26-g/dL (95% CI: 0.04, 0.48; P = 0.02) increase in hemoglobin but no effect on anthropometry or iron or vitamin A deficiencies. At endline in the intervention HZ, children aged 8-13 mo who received ≥3 monthly SQ-LNS batch distributions had higher anthropometry z scores [length-for-age z score (LAZ): +0.40, P = 0.04; weight-for-age z score (WAZ): +0.37, P = 0.04] and hemoglobin (+0.65 g/dL, P = 0.007) and a lower adjusted prevalence difference of stunting (-16.7%, P = 0.03) compared with those who received none. CONCLUSIONS: The enhanced IYCF-SQ-LNS intervention using the existing health care delivery platform was associated with a reduction in prevalence of anemia and improvement in mean hemoglobin. At endline among the subpopulation receiving ≥3 mo of SQ-LNS, their LAZ, WAZ, and hemoglobin improved. Future research could explore contextual tools to maximize coverage and intake adherence in programs using SQ-LNS.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/química , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem
14.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(8): 704-709, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of ocular foreign bodies in our practice setting. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with retrospective data collection at the Sainte Ivonne ophthalmology center in Lubumbashi. We studied 98 medical records of patients seen from January through December 2016 for an ocular foreign body. The parameters used for this study were: age, gender, profession, circumstances of the injury, nature of the foreign body, complications, location, entry site, management and prognosis. RESULTS: The frequency of ocular foreign bodies was 2.4%. We saw predominantly young subjects; the mean age was 33.18±17.98 years. Males predominated, with a frequency of 78.57% of the cases, for a gender ratio of 3.7 men to women. The circumstances of the injuries were primarily work-related (36.46% of cases). The type of foreign body was most commonly wood (41.8% of cases). The FB was corneal in 81.7% of cases, conjunctival (bulbar and tarsal) in 13.3% of cases, and limbal in 5% of cases. Treatment consisted of either simple removal (86.61% of cases) or removal with suturing for deeper foreign bodies (13.27% of cases). The functional results obtained were encouraging; 90.82% of patients recovered well with preservation of visual acuity. The majority of the complications consisted of superficial punctate keratopathy in 27.53% of cases and corneal ulcer in 26.53% of cases. The results of our study are consistent with those in the literature in terms of the frequent corneal location of FB's. CONCLUSION: Ocular foreign bodies represent a situation of non-negligable severity and thus require proper early management in order to prevent progression to visual loss or blindness.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/epidemiologia , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/epidemiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/etiologia , Úlcera da Córnea/terapia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/etiologia , Infecções Oculares/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares/etiologia , Infecções Oculares/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 2, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595248

RESUMO

Over the past half century, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a low-income and post-conflict country, has experienced several Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks, with different fatality rates. The DRC is currently experiencing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using the PEN-3 cultural model, we assessed the socio-cultural factors affecting public trust in the government and its health agencies. Results of this analysis revealed the perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that impacted public trust in the government and its health agencies among the Congolese population. Future interventions designed to address the COVID-19 in the DRC should account for these socio-cultural factors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Confiança , Decepção , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008322, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole with integrated vector management as an option for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in areas of loiasis-endemic countries where it may not be safe to use diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin in MDA programs. However, the published evidence base to support this policy is thin, and uptake by national programs has been slow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) in two villages in the Bandundu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo with moderately high prevalences for LF and hookworm infections. MDA with albendazole was provided every six months from June 2014 to December 2017 with treatment coverages of the eligible population (all ≥ 2 year of age) that ranged between 56% and 88%. No adverse effects were reported during the trial. Evaluation at 48 months, (i.e. 6 months after the 8th round of MDA), showed that W. bancrofti microfilaremia (Mf) prevalence in the study communities had decreased between 2014 to 2018 from 12% to 0.9% (p<0.001). The prevalence of W. bancrofti antigenemia was also significantly reduced from 31.6% to 8.5% (p<0.001). MDA with albendazole also reduced hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection prevalences in the community from 58.6% to 21.2% (p<0.001), from 14.0% to 1.6% and 4.1% to 2.9%, respectively. Hookworm and Ascaris infection intensities were reduced by 93% (p = 0.02) and 57% (p = 0.03), respectively. In contrast, Trichuris infection intensity was not significantly reduced by MDA (p = 0.61) over this time period. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide strong evidence that semiannual MDA with albendazole alone is a safe and effective strategy for LF elimination in Central Africa. Community MDA also had a major impact on STH infections.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Criança , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Solo/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Trichuris/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Wuchereria bancrofti/efeitos dos fármacos , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0223393, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530922

RESUMO

Iron biofortified beans and carotenoid enriched cassava are proposed as a solution to combat iron and vitamin A deficiencies, respectively, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). To inform the need for biofortified foods, we conducted a survey in 2014 in two provinces of the DRC, South Kivu and Kongo Central. Unexpectedly, women of reproductive age (WRA; 15-49 y) and their children (6-59 m) had a low prevalence of biochemical iron and vitamin A deficiency, based on ferritin and retinol binding protein, respectively. To better understand the lack of biochemical deficiency of these nutrients, we examined the prevalence of inadequate intake for these and other select nutrients. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls among 744 mother-child dyads. Repeat recalls on a non-consecutive day were conducted with a subsample of the study population to account for intra-individual variation and estimate usual intake. In WRA, the prevalence of inadequate iron intakes were 33% and 29% in South Kivu and Kongo Central, respecitvely. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intakes among WRA was low in South Kivu (18%) and negligible in Kongo Central (1%). Iron inadequacy was highest in infants (6-11 m) at 82% and 64% in South Kivu and Kongo Central, respectively. Among older children (12-59 m) in both provinces, the prevalence of iron inadequacy was similar at ~20%. There was a high prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in women and children (i.e. 79-86% among WRA and 56-91% among children 6-59 m) consistent with our findings of a high prevalence of low serum zinc in the same sample. Dietary data here corroborate the low prevalence of biochemical vitamin A deficiency but not iron. However, any change to the supply of red palm oil (primary source of vitamin A) would dramatically reduce population vitamin A intakes, thus a carotenoid enriched cassava program may be beneficial as a safety net measure. Crops biofortified with zinc also appear warranted. We caution that our findings cannot be extrapolated to the entire Congo where diverse agro-ecological landscape exist or when political and environmental shocks occur which challenge food production.


Assuntos
Deficiências Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transporte Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 2, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528613

RESUMO

Over the past half century, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a low-income and post-conflict country, has experienced several Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks, with different fatality rates. The DRC is currently experiencing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using the PEN-3 cultural model, we assessed the socio-cultural factors affecting public trust in the government and its health agencies. Results of this analysis revealed the perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that impacted public trust in the government and its health agencies among the Congolese population. Future interventions designed to address the COVID-19 in the DRC should account for these socio-cultural factors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Confiança , Decepção , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mídias Sociais
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 597-602, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563272

RESUMO

As of June 11, 2020, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has reported 4,258 COVID-19 cases with 90 deaths. With other African countries, the DRC faces the challenge of striking a balance between easing public health lockdown measures to curtail the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and minimizing both economic hardships for large sectors of the population and negative impacts on health services for other infectious and noninfectious diseases. The DRC recently controlled its tenth Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, but COVID-19 and a new EVD outbreak beginning on June 1, 2020 in the northwest Équateur Province have added an additional burden to health services. Although the epidemiology and transmission of EVD and COVID-19 differ, leveraging the public health infrastructures and experiences from coordinating the EVD response to guide the public health response to COVID-19 is critical. Building on the DRC's 40 years of experience with 10 previous EVD outbreaks, we highlight the DRC's multi-sectoral public health approach to COVID-19, which includes community-based screening, testing, contact-tracing, risk communication, community engagement, and case management. We also highlight remaining challenges and discuss the way forward for achieving control of both COVID-19 and EVD in the DRC.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Administração de Caso , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
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