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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141801, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861950

RESUMO

Bisphenols are increasingly recognized as environmental pollutants with endocrine-disrupting potential. Nonetheless, the study of environmental occurrence and some endocrine-disrupting activities of some bisphenols came widely into focus of research only recently. The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine the predominant bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge and sediment and in Czech surface waters, and 2) characterize the binding of bisphenols to a transport protein transthyretin (TTR) and their (anti-)thyroid, (anti-)progestagenic, and (anti-)androgenic activities. High-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization or photoionization coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI/APPI-HRMS) and Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) in vitro reporter gene bioassays were used to detect the target compounds and to determine endocrine-disrupting activities, respectively. Bisphenol A (BPA), 4,4'-bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol E (BPE) were the most frequently found compounds in municipal sewage sludge. Furthermore, bisphenol TMC (BPTMC) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) frequently occurred in sediment and surface waters, respectively. BPA was the major contributor to Ʃ of bisphenols in Norwegian sewage sludge with exception of one sample where BPF predominated. We also monitored a few bisphenols in sediment but only BPTMC was found. BPA, BPAF and BPF were the dominant bisphenols in Czech surface waters. Some bisphenols have shown TTR binding potency (BPAF = BPF > BPA = BPE) and some have displayed the following endocrine-disrupting activities: anti-thyroid (BPAF), anti-progestagenic (BPTMC > BPA = BPAF), and anti-androgenic (BPAF > BPE > BPA > BPTMC > BPF > BPS). It is noteworthy that BPAF exhibited stronger or similarly potent endocrine-disrupting activities compared to BPA. Our results provide new insights into these less-studied endocrine-disrupting activities of environmentally relevant bisphenols and may be useful in prioritizing those compounds that deserve further attention in environmental monitoring and eco-toxicological research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Pré-Albumina , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , República Tcheca , Noruega , Fenóis , Pré-Albumina/genética
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141601, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871313

RESUMO

Temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of cladocerans in lakes could be caused by abiotic (wind, water currents) and biotic factors (reproduction, food resources, predation). Diel horizontal and vertical distribution of cladoceran assemblages was studied in two deep lakes (Milada and Most Lakes, Czech Republic) in early (June) and late (September) summer. The objective was to study diel vertical migration (DVM) and diel horizontal migration (DHM) of cladocerans under conditions of different macrophyte cover in littoral areas (rich in Milada Lake, poor in Most Lake) and fish assemblages (non-specialised planktivorous species in Milada Lake, and abundant planktivorous fish - maraena whitefish, Coregonus maraena - in open water habitats in Most Lake). Temporal variations in cladoceran assemblages were reported in both lakes in the two sampling periods. DVM was observed in the two lakes, performed by the most vulnerable species to fish predation (the larger Daphnia spp.), but with different patterns (direct and reverse) probably linked with the local fish community and other biotic and abiotic factors in each lake. Horizontal movements were only observed in Most Lake: D. longispina increase its abundance in open waters at night compared to the littoral points; while Ceriodaphnia spp. showed the inverse pattern. In both lakes, higher densities were often found at night in surface layers, producing a great "diurnal deficit": cladocerans remain undetected in some zones during the day (especially in the littoral areas) moving to surface layers at night.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Lagos , Animais , República Tcheca , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141794, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898800

RESUMO

Covering large parts of Europe, Norway spruce (Picea abies L Karst.) plays an important role in the adaptation strategy of forest services to future climate change. Although dendroecology can provide valuable information on the past relationships between tree growth and climate, most previous studies were biased towards species-specific distribution limits, where old individuals grow slowly under extreme conditions. In the present study, we investigated the growth variability and climate sensitivity of 2851 Norway spruce trees along longitudinal (E 12-26°), latitudinal (N 45-51°), and elevation (118-1591 m a.s.l.) gradients in central-eastern Europe. We reveal that summer weather significantly affects the radial growth of spruce trees, but the effects strongly vary along biogeographical gradients. Extreme summer heatwaves in 2000 and 2003 reduced the growth rates by 10-35%, most pronounced in the southern Carpathians. In contrast to the population in the Czech Republic, climate warming induced a synchronous decline in the growth rates across biogeographical gradients in the Carpathian arc. By demonstrating the increased vulnerability of Norway spruce under warmer climate conditions, we recommended that the forest services and conservation managers replace or admix monocultures of this species with more drought-resilient mixtures including fir, beech and other broadleaved species.


Assuntos
Picea , Mudança Climática , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Humanos , Noruega , Árvores
4.
Zootaxa ; 4790(1): zootaxa.4790.1.4, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055855

RESUMO

New records are provided for aquatic dance flies from Czech Republic, with new distribution records for 19 species in six different genera. Four species are newly recorded from Czech Republic: Dolichocephala ocellata (Costa, 1854), Kowarzia tenella (Wahlberg, 1844), Wiedemannia insularis Collin, 1927 and Wiedemannia wachtli (Mik, 1880). There are now 43 species of aquatic dance flies recorded from Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Lamiaceae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , República Tcheca
5.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 121-126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086853

RESUMO

AIM: Due to mandatory vaccination introduced in the Czech Republic since 1969, only few measles cases were reported annually until recently. However, a rapid increase of cases has been recorded in last two years. In contrast to the pre-vaccination era, in recent measles outbreaks, many cases have been reported among vaccinated adults. Health care workers (HCWs) are particularly at high risk of contact with measles. Therefore, to minimize transmission in health care settings, many hospitals evaluate measles immune status of their HCWs and offer free vaccination to those with too low anti-measles antibody levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in all HCWs of the Strakonice Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-measles IgG serum levels were measured using quantitative ELISA. RESULTS: Almost all HCWs born before 1969, when the mandatory vaccination started, showed high levels of IgG antibodies (93.5%). Contrarily, among previously vaccinated individuals, only 64.8% were seropositive. A high percentage of seronegative or borderline samples was observed even in the age groups who were previously vaccinated with two doses. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 25.4% of all HCWs of the Strakonice Hospital had too low anti-measles IgG levels, and most of them were immunized with one dose of MMR vaccine. Prioritized vaccination substantially decreased the number of staff at higher risk of measles acquisition and, at the same time, of those who would need to be quarantined after exposure.


Assuntos
Sarampo , República Tcheca , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 134-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086855

RESUMO

AIM: In order to improve the surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Streptococcal Infections implemented whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This article reports the first WGS data on S. pneumoniae isolates in the Czech Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five isolates of S. pneumoniae from IPD recovered in 2017-2019 were selected for WGS. These were serotypes 4, 8, 9V, 19A, and 22F, which were determined by the Quellung reaction in combination with endpoint multiplex PCR (mPCR). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is routinely used for more detailed analysis termed sequence typing. The selected isolates were analysed by WGS on the Illumina MiSeq platform. The sequences obtained were processed using the Velvet de novo Assembler software. The assembled genomes were uploaded into the PubMLST database, using the BIGSdb platform, and then scanned automatically and molecularly characterized. The isolates were compared at three resolution levels: seven MLST genes, 53 ribosomal genes (rMLST), and 1420 genes (all loci). The all loci scheme covers MLST genes, ribosomal genes, and core genome MLST genes (cgMLST). These are all currently defined genes of S. pneumoniae available in the PubMLST database. Distance matrices based on the number and variability of all loci analysed were generated automatically using the Genome Comparator tool. Phylogenetic networks were created and edited with the SplitsTree4 package, using the NeighborNet algorithm. The final graphics were edited with the Inkscape software. RESULTS: Based on an overall view of the phylogenetic networks, it can be concluded that the genetic lines within each of S. pneumoniae serotypes 4, 8, 9V, 19A, and 22F are highly unrelated, to the same extent as if the isolates were of different serotypes. S. pneumoniae isolates of the same serotype, whether or not of the same sequence type, can be described, based on the results, as a non-homogeneous group with a number of unrelated genetic clusters that share genes assigning them to a specific serotype. WGS has also shown its discriminatory power, allowing the assignment of isolates of the same serotype and sequence type to different genetic clusters. CONCLUSION: Of the methods used so far in the Czech Republic, WGS allows the most detailed characterization of S. pneumoniae isolates. It is highly desirable to integrate it in the molecular surveillance of IPD in the Czech Republic, similarly to other countries in Europe and in the world.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia
7.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(3): 142-147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086856

RESUMO

The occurence of Clogmia albipunctata (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) has been confirmed in the territory of the Czech Republic since 2011. Although it is a non-hematophagous species of tropical origin, it presents a human health risk associated mainly with the mechanical transmission of various pathogens. In addition, C. albipunctata is one of the insects that cause accidental myiasis. The aim of this summary is to provide a comprehensive view of Clogmia albipunctata and accidental myiasis related health issues. Two case reports are presented: one of drain fly larvae as a putative parasite and the other of the first passive transfer of drain fly larvae to the human body in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Miíase , Psychodidae , Animais , República Tcheca , Humanos , Larva
8.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 1(Ahead of print): 1-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086847

RESUMO

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children and uveitis is its most important extra-articular manifestation. Evidence-based recommendations are available only to a limited extent and therefore JIA associated uveitis management is mostly based on physicians experience. Consequently, treatment practices differ widely, both nationally and internationally. Therefore, an effort to optimize and publish recommendations for the care of children and young adults with rheumatic diseases was launched in 2012 as part of the international project SHARE (Single Hub and Access Point for Pediatric Rheumatology in Europe) to facilitate clinical practice for paediatricians and (paediatric) rheumatologists. The aim of this work was to translate published international SHARE recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA associated uveitis and to adapt them for use in the Czech and Slovak Republics. International recommendations were developed according to the standard methodology of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) by a group of nine experienced paediatric rheumatologists and three experts in ophthalmology. It was based on a systematic literature review and evaluated in the form of an online survey and subsequently discussed using a nominal group technique. Recommendations were accepted if > 80% agreement was reached (including all three ophthalmologists). A total of 22 SHARE recommendations were accepted: 3 on diagnosis, 5 on disease activity assessment, 12 on treatment and 2 on future recommendations. Translation of the original text was updated and modified with data specific to the czech and slovak health care systems and supplemented with a proposal for a protocol of ophthalmological dispensarization of paediatric JIA patients and a treatment algorithm for JIA associated uveitis. Conclusion: The aim of the SHARE initiative is to improve and standardize care for paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases across Europe. Therefore, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated uveitis have been formulated based on the evidence and agreement of leading European experts in this field.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil , Uveíte , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Criança , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Uveíte/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S06-S11, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluate situation in the field of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and working risk factors in the Czech Republic. METHODS: Analysis of selected data from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases during 2008-2018, description of criteria for recognition of occupational MSDs and risk factors associated with MSDs. RESULTS: 6,152 cases of 6 selected recognized occupational musculoskeletal diseases represent 47% of all recognized occupational diseases. The main proportion formed diseases of peripheral nerves in the extremities in terms of compressive neuropathies due to long-term and stereotyped overload, diseases of tendons, tendon capsules or insertions of muscles or joints in the extremities due to long-term and stereotyped overload and diseases of peripheral nerves in the upper extremities in terms of ischaemic and compressive neuropathies due to work with vibrating tools and devices. The authors discussed decreasing trend of the exposure time in three main diagnoses and association of the incidence of MSDs with the risky work related to overload of the musculoskeletal system of the upper extremities. CONCLUSIONS: Important factors for the prevention of MSDs are directly related to the technical provision of production, the organization of work and the regime of work and rest, the length of working hours and the setting of production standards, and generally to the work related stress.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S12-S16, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hands and forearms are one of the most common localisations of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among dental practitioners. The aim of this study was to objectively assess the local muscular load of hands and forearms of dental practitioners during various treatment procedures using the method of the integrated electromyography (iEMG). This method is used for health risk assessment and categorization of working operation within the official national methodology. METHODS: A total of 24 measurements were performed on 10 dental practitioners during 8 different dental treatments; mostly on those which are most frequent in clinical practice, i.e. endodontic treatment, tooth extraction, tooth restoration with filling and prosthetic treatment. The EMG Holter was used to detect the electromyographic potentials determining the local muscular load. RESULTS: All the muscle groups of the forearm were relatively evenly loaded at work. During the dynamic work activity, the average time-weighted value of maximum voluntary contraction (%MVC) was in the range from 1 to 30 %MVC for all evaluated muscle groups. The mean average time-weighted value of %MVC did not exceed 6% (a critical limit of the mean average time-weighted value of %MVC) in any of the evaluated muscle groups. The results of the frequency analysis showed that large (55-70 %MVC) and rarely the limits exceeding values (above 70 %MVC) were observed for individual muscle groups. These forces are related to performing tasks at inaccessible locations associated with non-physiological working positions. The differences in the mean forearm muscle load between the upper limbs were statistically significant in total (p < 0.001), for flexors (p = 0.017) and for extensors (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: In view of the results of this study, the work of dentists can be ranked in category 2 in terms of the local muscle load factor according to the currently valid legislation in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Papel Profissional , República Tcheca , Eletromiografia/métodos , Mãos , Humanos
11.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S22-S25, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking at the workplace has a negative impact both on employers' economic interests and employees' health. The aim of this study is to describe the current situation, mainly barriers in implementation and resources in the Czech Republic as an example of a Central European country. METHODS: We synthesised relevant review papers with our knowledge of the local situation based upon professional experience of both authors. RESULTS: Despite smoke-free laws, some EU workers are still exposed to passive smoking during working hours. The main barriers towards smoke-free workplace implementation are the lack of resources, perception of smoking as a norm, and exceptions for leading personalities and their smoking. Social support increases smoking cessation effectiveness. Low availability of local smoking cessation services is an overall problem in Central Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The working environment influences smoking habits. Smoking cessation support is cost-effective not only for the smoking employee but for employers as well. Smoking cessation resources should be available during the working day. No exceptions should be made as they serve as barriers to a smoke-free working environment.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S37-S42, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Asbestos-related diseases are still a current problem worldwide. What is their occurrence in the Czech Republic? The answer is the subject of this study, which aims to provide a general and regional overview of the situation over the last 20 years with a more detailed focus on mesothelioma, the development of which is highly associated with asbestos exposure and the issue of their recognition as an occupational disease. METHODS: In its retrospective reviews, the study is based on analyses of data from the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic and data from the Czech National Cancer Registry, which also interconnects. RESULTS: In the last 20 years, 512 new cases of occupational diseases from asbestos have been reported, namely 228 cases of pleural thickening, 133 mesotheliomas, 92 asbestoses, and 59 cases of lung cancer. In the last 5 years, mesotheliomas (n = 39) predominated among the reported diseases with a 45% proportion in the total number of 86 cases. The trend in their incidence, as the only one among asbestos-related diseases, is not declining. There was a significant difference in the overall incidence of mesothelioma in a general population and the incidence of occupational mesotheliomas. At the national level, occupational aetiology was acknowledged in only 11.3% of cases of mesothelioma on average. The highest proportion of occupational mesotheliomas and the highest incidence of all asbestos-related diseases were found in regions where the largest asbestos processing plants were located. CONCLUSION: The authors emphasize the importance of work history for the diagnostic process of asbestos-related diseases and also the need to perform follow-up examinations for their early detection.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Asbestos/toxicidade , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28 Suppl: S47-S52, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is to compare the current prevalence of selected risk factors in cardiovascular diseases in the Czech general population in a particular region with a selected population of Czech soldiers in a particular military unit. METHODS: Within medical preventive examinations, data from 684 civilians aged between 30-60 years were obtained (405 men and 279 women). Within compulsory medical preventive examinations, data from 659 soldiers from a particular military unit aged between 30-60 years were obtained (576 men and 83 women). Anthropometric parameters such as height and body weight were monitored and then used to calculate the values of Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. From biochemical parameters the following values were monitored: glycaemia, uric acid, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, and GGT. As for the demographic data, age and gender were processed. In the cohort of male soldiers a questionnaire was used to find the extent of cigarette smoking, frequency of using alcoholic drinks and performance of regular physical activities such as aerobic exercises. RESULTS: As for cardiovascular risk, assessed anthropometric parameters in monitored female age categories are statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) in women in the Army of the Czech Republic (ACR) compared to the female civilian population. Most of the biochemical parameters also display values that indicate the female military population is healthier than the civilian in these parameters. On the other hand, assessed anthropometric parameters in monitored male age categories are statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) in civilian men compared to the male military population. Most of the assessed biochemical parameters show statistically significant health-indicative values in the male civilian population as well. CONCLUSION: This work revealed differences in anthropometric and biochemical parameters between the examined civilian and military populations. As for cardiovascular risk, the main findings are significantly worse anthropometric and biochemical parameters in the selected male military cohort compared to the male civilian cohort.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 76(3): 111-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126806

RESUMO

AIM: Learn about the development and changes in foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and vascularity of retina in the surrounding zone, depending on the duration in young diabetic patients type 1 (T1DM). METHODS: As part of regular one-year examinations of young T1DM patients at the Eye Clinic of the University Hospital Královské Vinohrady in Prague (Czech Republic, EU) from January to December 2019, OCT angiography using the device Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering) was included. Forty patients aged 18 to 30 years were examined, median 21 years. T1DM was diagnosed in childhood and lasted for more than 10 years. At the same time, a control group of forty individuals of similar age, without metabolic and other general disease was examined, normal visual acuity and physiological fundoscopic finding were obligatory. The FAZ size was evaluated in both groups (using built-in function "Draw Region"), also its shape, density decrease and change in character of vascularity of the retina was assessed. RESULTS: In the control group, the FAZ area ranged from 0.06 to 0.4 mm², with an average of 0.253 ± 0.092 mm² and a median of 0.27 mm². It was not affected by a fundamental change in its round shape and the surrounding capillary netting was regular and reasonably dense. In T1DM patients, the FAZ area was in a wider range, from 0.05 to 0.64 mm², an average of 0.300 ± 0.132 mm², and a median of 0.31 mm². The difference in FAZ across-the-board evaluation was statistically significant (p = 0, 009). Diabetic preretinopathy (DpR) was defined by the irregularity of the capillary density up to the manifestation of non-perfusion, in 61% of cases the size of the FAZ was changed. In diabetic retinopathy (DR) there was always an irregularity of the FAZ shape with its enlargement, manifestation of non-perfusion, capillary dilatation and rare microaneurysms. CONCLUSION: Changes in FAZ size corresponded to the stage of T1DM on the fundoscopic finding of the eye depending on its duration. The initial increased amount of foveal capillaries, which resulted in decreased FAZ area, was followed by a gradual decrease in capillaries and increased FAZ area, consistent with the manifestations of DpR. It was accompanied by a change in capillary density in macula to eventual non-perfusion. On the contrary, the increase in the FAZ area and its irregularity accompanied by non-perfusion of the capillary net and microaneurysms corresponded to the development of DR already.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Retinopatia Diabética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , República Tcheca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiofluoresceinografia , Fóvea Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 76(3): 130-134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126809

RESUMO

The work deals with atypical conjunctival infection of Czech patient with Oestrus ovis larvae. Ophthalmomyiasis is infestation of mammalian eyes by the larvae or worms of some flies. The most common cause of human myiasis is the Sheep. Shepherds are infected in habitats, but human eye disease outside the areas of abundant hamsters is rare. We describe a case of eye disease in a middle-aged man from the Czech Republic who spent a summer holiday seven weeks before examination in the north of Greece. During the first examination he was completely treated and no further problems were reported. Ophthalmomyiasis externa should be considered as a possible infection of travelers to the southern endemic regions when returning with an acute causeless onset of a one-sided foreign body sensation in the eye.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias , Miíase , Animais , República Tcheca , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Larva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miíase/diagnóstico , Ovinos
16.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 1(Ahead of print): 1-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086849

RESUMO

The aim of intraocular melanoma therapy is to achieve local tumor control, reduce the risk of metastasis development, preserve the eyeball and possibly the visual function of the eye. The choice of therapeutic approach requires a comprehensive view and individual approach to each patient with uveal melanoma. Factors considered include local finding (location, tumor size and shape, tumor activity, central visual acuity, intraocular complications), age and the patients overall physical and psychological condition, as well as the patients wishes. The most widely used method of uveal melanoma treatment is radiotherapy. The effect of radiation is caused by the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, the effect of radiation on the cell is manifested by cell death (depletion), or by a cytogenetic information change (mutation). Brachytherapy uses scleral applicators with radionuclide - ruthenium (Ru-106) applicators dominate in Europe and iodine (I-125) applicators in the USA. In external radiotherapy, the source of ionizing radiation is outside the patients body. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are used. In the Czech Republic, treatment is carried out using Leksell gamma knife or CyberKnife, while proton therapy dominates in the world. The development of serious radiation complications (radiation retinopathy, neuropathy, neovascular glaucoma, toxic tumor syndrome, etc.) should be considered. Surgical therapy involves a variety of invasive procedures. Iridectomy is performed for iris melanoma. Anteriorly located choroidal melanomas and / or ciliary body melanomas can be resolved by transscleral resection (exoresection). For posterior choroidal melanomas, a combination of external tumor irradiation with pars plana vitrectomy is used. Enucleation is a method of choice in advanced tumors that cannot be effectively irradiated. Orbital exenteration is indicated in advanced tumors with extrabulbar spread or in relapsed tumor after previous enucleation.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Melanoma , Neoplasias Uveais , República Tcheca , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/terapia
17.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128018, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113642

RESUMO

Highly persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative per - and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represents a serious problem for the environment and their concentrations and fate remain largely unknown. The present study consists of a PFAS screening in sludges originating from 43 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the Czech Republic. To analyze an extended group of PFAS consisting of 32 PFAS, including GenX and other new replacements of older and restricted PFAS in sludge, a new method was optimized and validated using pressurized solvent extraction, followed by the SPE clean-up step to eliminate the observed matrix effects and LC-MS/MS. The results revealed high PFAS contamination of sewage sludge, reaching values from 5.6 to 963.2 ng g-1. The results showed that in the majority of the samples (about 60%), PFOS was the most abundant among the targeted PFAS, reaching 932.9 ng g-1. Approximately 20% of the analyzed samples contained more short-chain PFAS, suggesting the replacement of long-chain PFAS (especially restricted PFOA and PFOS). GenX was detected in 9 samples, confirming the trend in the use of new PFAS. The results revealed that significantly higher contamination was detected in the samples from large WWTPs (population equivalent > 50,000; p-value <0.05). Concerning the application of sludge in agriculture, our prediction using the respective PFAS bioconcentration factors, the observed concentrations, and the legislatively permitted management of biosolids in Czech Republic agriculture revealed that PFAS can cause serious contamination of cereals and vegetables (oat, celery shoots and lettuce leaves), as well as general secondary contamination of the environment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Propionatos/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biossólidos , Cromatografia Líquida , República Tcheca , Fertilizantes/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866175

RESUMO

Individuals reared in captivity are exposed to distinct selection pressures and evolutionary processes causing genetic and phenotypic divergence from wild populations. Consequently, restocking with farmed individuals may represent a considerable risk for the fitness of free-living populations. Supportive breeding on a massive scale has been established in many European countries to increase hunting opportunities for the most common duck species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). It has previously been shown that mallards from breeding facilities differ genetically from wild populations and there is some indication of morphological differences. Using a common-garden experiment, we tested for differences in growth parameters between free-living populations and individuals from breeding facilities during the first 20 days of post-hatching development, a critical phase for survival in free-living populations. In addition, we compared their immune function by assessing two haematological parameters, H/L ratio and immature erythrocyte frequency, and plasma complement activity. Our data show that farmed ducklings exhibit larger morphological parameters, a higher growth rates, and higher complement activity. In haematological parameters, we observed high dynamic changes in duckling ontogeny in relation to their morphological parameters. In conclusion, our data demonstrate pronounced phenotype divergence between farmed and wild mallard populations that can be genetically determined. We argue that this divergence can directly or indirectly affect fitness of farmed individuals introduced to the breeding population as well as fitness of farmed x wild hybrids.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , República Tcheca , Fazendas , Fenótipo
19.
Rozhl Chir ; 99(7): 293-298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972146

RESUMO

The paper provides clear definitions of the basic concepts of nosocomial pneumonias. Specifically, definitions and classifications of HAP and VAP, general treatment principles and specific recommended procedures for antibiotic therapy are given as applicable in the Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , República Tcheca , Humanos
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e173, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988427

RESUMO

AIMS: The United Nations warned of COVID-19-related mental health crisis; however, it is unknown whether there is an increase in the prevalence of mental disorders as existing studies lack a reliable baseline analysis or they did not use a diagnostic measure. We aimed to analyse trends in the prevalence of mental disorders prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data from repeated cross-sectional surveys on a representative sample of non-institutionalised Czech adults (18+ years) from both November 2017 (n = 3306; 54% females) and May 2020 (n = 3021; 52% females). We used Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) as the main screening instrument. We calculated descriptive statistics and compared the prevalence of current mood and anxiety disorders, suicide risk and alcohol-related disorders at baseline and right after the first peak of COVID-19 when related lockdown was still in place in CZ. In addition, using logistic regression, we assessed the association between COVID-19-related worries and the presence of mental disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence of those experiencing symptoms of at least one current mental disorder rose from a baseline of 20.02 (95% CI = 18.64; 21.39) in 2017 to 29.63 (95% CI = 27.9; 31.37) in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of both major depressive disorder (3.96, 95% CI = 3.28; 4.62 v. 11.77, 95% CI = 10.56; 12.99); and suicide risk (3.88, 95% CI = 3.21; 4.52 v. 11.88, 95% CI = 10.64; 13.07) tripled and current anxiety disorders almost doubled (7.79, 95% CI = 6.87; 8.7 v. 12.84, 95% CI = 11.6; 14.05). The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in 2020 was approximately the same as in 2017 (10.84, 95% CI = 9.78; 11.89 v. 9.88, 95% CI = 8.74; 10.98); however, there was a significant increase in weekly binge drinking behaviours (4.07% v. 6.39%). Strong worries about both, health or economic consequences of COVID-19, were associated with an increased odds of having a mental disorder (1.63, 95% CI = 1.4; 1.89 and 1.42, 95% CI = 1.23; 1.63 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence matching concerns that COVID-19-related mental health problems pose a major threat to populations, particularly considering the barriers in service provision posed during lockdown. This finding emphasises an urgent need to scale up mental health promotion and prevention globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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