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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 131-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181868

RESUMO

The authors have witnessed an increase in crisis, resulting in significant loss of life and impact on the economy of a given country in recent years. In spite of the efforts and measures of each country's government to reduce the impact of the crisis, this trend has not been avoided. This trend is observed at all levels-in municipalities, in the Czech Republic, but also the world. Extraordinary events or a crisis ordinarily have the so-called cascade effect that causes other extraordinary events. An example of this may be windstorm, resulting in a power outage. Significant power supply outages are observed in hospitals. Here, it is essential for acute care clients to have a regular intake of electrical energy to ensure their life functions. The introduction of this article refers to the authors, which describes the situation with the increasing number of emergencies. Second, there are described possible cascade effect of the crises. The third part of this article is focused on the flood risk affecting hospitals. The aim of this article is to carry out risk mapping for selected hospitals in the Czech Republic, specifically in the Zlín Region.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Emergências , Hospitais , Medição de Risco , República Tcheca , Inundações , Humanos , Vento
2.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 87(1): 62-67, 2020.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131974

RESUMO

Recently, there has been an apparent increase in terrorism-related incidents. The security experts believe that the risk of terrorist attacks cannot be fully ruled out in the Czech Republic either. For this reason, it is appropriate to obtain information from regions with more experience with terrorism and to learn from their mistakes. Based on the analysis of terrorist attacks in Madrid (2004), Israel (2001-2012) and Paris (2015) and our own experience gained during the humanitarian missions in Libya, Syria, Iraq and Ukraine, adequate recommendations for crisis management are presented. An integral part of the preparedness is also a regular training of activation of disaster management plan and simulation of reaction to a mass casualty incident. Key words: mass casualty incident, terrorist attack, disaster management plan.


Assuntos
Intervenção na Crise , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , República Tcheca , Humanos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19546, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent and represent leading causes of morbidity worldwide, including in Central Europe. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective method of secondary prevention, but utilization is low. Barriers to CR use in the Czech Republic are not well-characterized, and therefore we propose a protocol to translate and validate the cardiac rehabilitation barriers scale (CRBS). METHODS: In this multi-method study, we translated and cross-culturally validated the CRBS to Czech (CRBS-CZE) first through the following main steps: professional translation, reconciliation/harmonization, and cross-cultural adaptation, and piloting in 50 cardiac patients. A prospective study will be undertaken to psychometrically-validate the CRBS-CZE, where 300 to 600 cardiac inpatients eligible for phase II/outpatient CR will be recruited. Consenting participants will be informed about the CR program and their sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and the CRBS-CZE administered. Factor analysis will be performed with oblique rotation, factors will be extracted based on eigenvalues, the examination of the scree plot, and factor loadings. The internal reliability of the total scale and subscales will be assessed with Cronbach alpha. Overall CRBS scores will be compared by patient characteristics such as sex, socioeconomic indicators, risk factor burden, and travel time to investigate content validity. Their CR enrollment, adherence (% of 24 prescribed sessions attended), and completion will be tracked. The second administration of CRBS-CZE will be undertaken in patients at 3 weeks after enrollment. To test criterion validity, t tests and Pearson correlation (for adherence) will be used to determine the association of these utilization indicators with CRBS scores. RESULTS: The translated version was considered by 2 bilingual CR experts. Some revisions and example additions were made to the items. Upon piloting with patients, some further edits were made. No additional barriers were raised. DISCUSSION: Through this study, a reliable and valid means of assessing patient's CR barriers will be established. Results will be used to identify ways to help patients overcome barriers to CR utilization.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Psicometria , República Tcheca , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(1): 96-101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950845

RESUMO

Vaclav Trnka from Krovice (1739-1791, in Latin: Wenzel Trnka Krzowitz) was a remarkable physician whose life serves as an example in the history of medicine by connecting major capital cities of Central Europe. In view of current geographical layout, he was born and brought up in the Czech Republic, graduated from University of Vienna in Austria, and was appointed Professor of the Anatomy at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of University of Nagyszombat, presently Trnava in Slovak Republic. When the University moved to Buda and later to Pest (today Budapest, Hungary), he was the first educator to introduce anatomy as a medical subject to be taught in a Hungarian medical school. He also was elected the Dean of Faculty of Medicine three times and in 1786-1787 he acted as Rector of then the Royal University of Pest. During his life, he published twenty-seven monographs dealing with different areas of clinical medicine, such as malaria (intermittent fever), diabetes, and rickets. Based on these monographs we can proclaim that Václav Trnka was a co-founder of modern infectology, diabetology and ophthalmology in Central Europe. Nowadays, artificial intelligence and bioinformatics are inseparable parts of modern health care system which help the transformation of big data into valuable knowledge. In the 18th century, Professor Trnka owned more than 3,000 scientific books and had natural, innate intelligence and wisdom which made him a real "medical polymath". As a musician, Trnka also composed sixty-one canons, two of them long wrongly considered as Mozart's work. Despite the fact that Trnka is considered to be the founder of Hungarian anatomy education and a major medical figure of the eighteenth century Central Europe, no internationally acclaimed biographical record of his life or work has so far been published in English. Therefore, we would like to reintroduce Václav Trnka both as an anatomist and medical polymath, and to give an overview of the early days of anatomy teaching in present-day Slovakia and Hungary (Fig. 1, Ref. 27). Keywords: Trnka from Krovice, anatomist, medical polymath, history of medicine.


Assuntos
Anatomistas , Anatomistas/história , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Hungria , Eslováquia
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1545-1553, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909597

RESUMO

We studied photochemically induced precipitation of rare-earth elements (REEs) in water from a tributary to Plesné Lake and a tributary to Jirická Pond, Czech Republic. Both tributaries had high concentrations of dissolved organic matter (∼1.8 mmol C L-1). Filtered (0.2 µm) samples were exposed to artificial solar radiation of 350 W m-2 for 48 to 96 h, corresponding to 3 to 6 days of natural solar radiation in summer at the sampling locations. Experiments were performed with altered and unaltered pH ranging from 3.8 to 6.0. The formation of particulate REEs occurred in all exposed samples with the fastest formation observed at the original pH. The formation of particulate metals continued in irradiated samples after the end of irradiation, suggesting that photochemically induced reactions and/or continuing precipitation continue in darkness or in deeper water due to mixing. Results were compared with paleolimnological records in the Plesné Lake sediment. At pH 5.0, the photochemically induced sediment flux was 3509 nmol m-2 y-1 for Ce, corresponding to 42% of the REEs' annual sediment flux in recent sediment layers. Combining the formation rates obtained in the laboratory irradiation experiments and known 1 day incident solar radiation enabled the estimation of a possible REE sediment flux. For Plesné Lake, the photochemically induced formation of particulate REEs explained 10-44% of the REE concentrations in the upper sediment layers. Observed photochemically induced sequestration of REEs into sediments can explain a significant part of the REEs' history in the Holocene sediment.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Poluentes Químicos da Água , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos
6.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 761-771, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944904

RESUMO

Juglans regia L. (English walnut) trees with cankers and dieback symptoms were observed in two regions in the Czech Republic. Isolations were made from diseased branches. In total, 138 fungal isolates representing 10 fungal species were obtained from wood samples and identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular methods: Cadophora novi-eboraci, Cadophora spadicis, Cryptovalsa ampelina, Diaporthe eres, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella omnivora, Eutypa lata, Eutypella sp., Peroneutypa scoparia, and Phaeoacremonium sicilianum. Pathogenicity tests conducted under field conditions with all species using the mycelium-plug method indicated that Eutypa lata and Cadophora spp. were highly virulent to woody stems of walnut. This is the first study to detect and identify fungal trunk pathogens associated with diseased walnut trees in Europe.


Assuntos
Juglans , Vitis , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Doenças das Plantas
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 89, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902034

RESUMO

Soybeans, as legumes, belong among food items that contribute most to the dietary intake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). The consumption of soy-based foods may contribute significantly to Cd intake in vegetarians as probably the most frequent consumers of these foods. In this research, the weekly dietary intake of Cd from soy-based foods was investigated in 119 participants (including vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians) in the Czech Republic by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) with personal assistance and the measurement of body weight. Cd content in soy-based foods available on the market was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. Tofu, as the most frequently consumed food item in the vegetarian/vegan group, contributed most to the total dietary Cd intake. It contained 7.6 ± 0.1 µg Cd/kg, while the highest Cd content was observed in tempeh (18.1 ± 0.4 µg/kg). The highest mean dietary Cd intake per week from soy-based foods was 0.4 µg/kg b.w. and was found in the vegan group. The consumption of soy-based foods was the lowest in the non-vegetarian group as was the dietary intake of Cd, which was 0.04 µg/kg b.w. per week.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Peso Corporal , República Tcheca , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fabaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Verduras , Vegetarianos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 92, 2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902037

RESUMO

The aim of the study was monitoring of phthalic acid esters in agricultural soils of the Czech Republic over the period of 6 years, namely dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Monitoring took place in twelve regions of the Czech Republic. Soil samples were taken evenly from the top and bottom soil horizons using a zig-zag pattern. Soil samples were taken from arable land, permanent grassland, and hop field. Lyophilisation of the samples was done by ultrasound-assisted extraction using a mixture acetone-hexane (1:1). Phthalic acid esters were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Subsequently, the results were statistically compared by analysing the principal components (PCA) to determine the effect of individual factors on the content of phthalic acid esters in agricultural soil. Factors such as precipitation, distance from a pollution source, amount of pesticides, and amount of artificial and organic fertilizers were taken into account. If we compare the concentrations established in this study with the limits set out in the Methodological Instruction of the Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic based on RSLs (Regional Screening Levels) issued by the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), none of these values were exceeded.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , República Tcheca , Dibutilftalato/análise , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ésteres/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Estados Unidos
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104503, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if risk factors differ between ischemic stroke (IS) subtypes in Central and Eastern Europe. AIMS: We performed a community-based analysis of risk factors in patients admitted with IS over a 1 year period in Brno, the second largest city in the Czech Republic (CR). METHODS: Based on the National Register of Hospitalized Patients, all patients with IS admitted in Brno in 2011 were identified. Comprehensive discharge summaries from hospital admissions were collected and reviewed. IS subtype and relevant risk factors were ascertained for all patients. The age- and sex-adjusted association of risk factors with IS subtypes was determined. RESULTS: Overall, 682 patients with IS were admitted in 2011 to Brno hospitals. The distribution of IS subtypes was: 35% cardioembolism, 28% large-artery atherosclerosis, 23% small-artery occlusion, 7% stroke of undetermined etiology, 7% stroke of other determined etiology. Several of the risk factors showed high prevalence in the overall sample - e.g. hypertension (84%) and hyperlipidemia (61%). Cardioembolism as compared to other subtypes was positively associated with a history of myocardial infarction, cardiac failure, and atrial fibrillation. Small-artery occlusion was positively associated with history of dementia. No significant association was found between IS subtypes and history of IS, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, alcohol abuse or smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We found high frequency of stroke risk factors in all IS subtypes. These findings have implications for stroke prevention strategies in the CR and across Central Europe.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113468, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679880

RESUMO

The increasing content of platinum group metal particles emitted into the environment by car traffic is gradually attracting the attention of the scientific community. However, the methods for the determination of platinum group metals in environmental matrices are either costly or suffer from low sensitivity. To facilitate the use of less sensitive, but significantly cheaper, devices, the preconcentration of platinum group metals is employed. For platinum, a multitude of preconcentration approaches have been published. On the contrary, the preconcentration approaches for palladium are still rare. In this work, the development, optimization, and testing of a new approach is described; it is based on a preconcentration of palladium on octadecyl modified silica gel together with the complexing agent dimethylglyoxime, and it is then analyzed with the high-resolution continuum-source atomic absorption spectrometry. For comparison, a newly developed sorbent, QuadraSil™ TA, with a high affinity for platinum group metals was also tested. The preconcentraiton approach was tested on the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which served as a bioindicator of palladium emissions. The case study site was a mid-sized city in central Europe: Brno, Czech Republic. The dry "bag" monitoring technique was used to collect the palladium near roads with a large span of traffic density. The developed analytical approach confirmed an increasing concentration of palladium with increasing exposure time and intensity of the traffic. Consequently, a simple relationship between the amount of bioaccumulated palladium and traffic density was established.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Líquens/química , Paládio/análise , Cidades , República Tcheca , Paládio/química , Platina/análise , Sílica Gel , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
11.
Food Chem ; 310: 125784, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816534

RESUMO

Bioactive compounds demonstrating antioxidant activity were analyzed in berries and leaves of nine cultivars of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) of various ripening times. Total polyphenols were ranging between 0.70-3.62 g GAE.kg-1 (berries) and 1.88-3.72 g GAE.kg-1 (leaves). Leaves were significantly richer source of total flavonoids (14.40-49.44 mg RE.kg-1) in comparison with berries (0.55-4.11 mg RE.kg-1). Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection. The content of vitamin C was 0.98-3.65 g.kg-1 in berries and 22.81-46.32 g.kg-1 in leaves, vitamin E content was 6.98-29.91 g.kg-1 in berries and 71.54-153.99 g.kg-1 in leaves. Distribution of individual phenolic compounds varied, their total content in berries was considerably lower (76.1-205.2 mg.kg-1) than in leaves (1477.7-8709.0 mg.kg-1). Regarding antioxidant activity, Raisa and Slovan (berries) and Bojan and Maslicnaja (leaves) were evaluated as the best cultivars.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Vitamina E/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , República Tcheca , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/fisiologia , Hippophae/fisiologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Polifenóis/análise , Vitamina E/química
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 110: 104628, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate five polymorphisms in the SLC6A4 gene in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and healthy controls. DESIGN: Totally, 239 subjects were enrolled in this case-control study: 86 patients with RAS and 153 healthy individuals were genotyped for serotonin transporter length polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism, variable number tandem repeat (STin2) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs25531, rs3813034, rs1042173) in the SLC6A4 gene by polymerase chain reaction with/without restriction analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies in all studied polymorphisms between RAS patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05) were detected. However, the haplotype analysis detected a higher frequency of LA12 (HTTLPR, rs25531, STin2) haplotype in RAS patients in comparison with healthy controls (P < 0.05, OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.07-2.49). CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates a possible relationship between SLC6A4 and susceptibility to RAS in the Czech population.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Estomatite Aftosa , Estudos de Casos e Controles , República Tcheca , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recidiva , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/genética
13.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124852, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542585

RESUMO

This study presents four years ambient monitoring data of seventeen 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) designed by the US EPA at a background site in central Europe during 2011-2014. The concentrations expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQs) using the WHO2005-scheme for PCDD/Fs (0.2 fg m-3-61.1 fg m-3) were higher than for dl-PCBs (0.01 fg m-3-2.9 fg m-3), while the opposite was found in terms of mass concentrations. ΣPAHs ranged from 0.20 ng m-3 to 134 ng m-3. The mass concentration profile of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs was similar throughout the four years. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations were dominated by primary sources peaking in winter, while those of dl-PCBs were controlled by secondary sources characterized by a spring-summer peak. During 2011-2014, no significant decrease in the atmospheric levels of ΣPCDD/Fs was observed. On the other hand, the concentrations of Σdl-PCBs and ΣPAHs were decreasing, with halving times of 5.7 and 2.7 years, respectively. We estimated that 422 pg m-2 year-1-567 pg m-2 year-1 TEQ PCDD/Fs and 3.48 pg m-2 year-1-15.8 pg m-2 year-1 TEQ dl-PCBs were transferred from the air to the ground surfaces via dry particulate deposition during 2011-2014.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
Chemosphere ; 241: 125061, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877619

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria routinely release potentially harmful bioactive compounds into the aquatic environment. Several recent studies suggested a potential link between the teratogenicity of effects caused by cyanobacteria and production of retinoids. To investigate this relationship, we analysed the teratogenicity of field-collected cyanobacterial bloom samples by means of an in vivo zebrafish embryo test, an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and by the chemical analysis of retinoids. Extracts of biomass from cyanobacterial blooms with the dominance of Microcystis aeruginosa and Aphanizomenon klebahnii were collected from water bodies in the Czech Republic and showed significant retinoid-like activity in vitro, as well as high degrees of teratogenicity in vivo. Chemical analysis was then used to identify a set of retinoids in ng per gram of dry weight concentration range. Subsequent fractionation and bioassay-based characterization identified two fractions with significant in vitro retinoid-like activity. Moreover, in most of the retinoids eluted from these fractions, teratogenicity with malformations typical for retinoid signalling disruption was observed in zebrafish embryos after exposure to the total extracts and these in vitro effective fractions. The zebrafish embryo test proved to be a sensitive toxicity indicator of the biomass extracts, as the teratogenic effects occurred at even lower concentrations than those expected from the activity detected in vitro. In fact, teratogenicity with retinoid-like activity was detected at concentrations that are commonly found in biomasses and even in bulk water surrounding cyanobacterial blooms. Overall, these results provide evidence of a link between retinoid-like activity, teratogenicity and the retinoids produced by cyanobacterial water blooms in the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/patogenicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Retinoides/toxicidade , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Aphanizomenon/patogenicidade , Cianobactérias/química , República Tcheca , Genes Reporter , Microcystis/patogenicidade , Retinoides/biossíntese , Peixe-Zebra/genética
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 591-602, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859496

RESUMO

An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 36 phenolic compounds in paprika. The proposed method showed good method performance with limits of quantitation between 0.03 and 50 µg/L for 16 compounds and between 50 µg/L and 1 mg/L for 12 compounds. Good linearity (R2 > 0.995), run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (%RSD values < 12.3 and < 19.2%, respectively), and trueness (relative errors < 15.0%) were obtained. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 111 paprika samples from different production regions: Spain (La Vera PDO and Murcia PDO) and Czech Republic, each one including different flavor varieties (sweet, bittersweet, and spicy). Phenolic profiles and concentration levels showed to be good chemical descriptors to achieve paprika classification and authentication according to the production region by principal component analysis and partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis. In addition, perfect classification among flavor varieties for Murcia PDO and Czech Republic samples was also obtained.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , República Tcheca , Análise de Componente Principal , Espanha , Especiarias/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Zootaxa ; 4568(3): zootaxa.4568.3.12, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715853

RESUMO

Chrysoclista karsholti Sumpich, sp. n., is described from a single male collected in Turkey. This species most resembles C. germanica Sumpich Huemer, 2016, but differs in the colouration of the dorsum of the forewing and in the shape of the valva in the male genitalia. Differences in the DNA barcode region between these two species are rather low compared to differences between other species of the genus. Chrysoclista germanica, previously known only from the holotype, is recorded from the Czech Republic for the first time. An updated checklist of western Palaearctic Chrysoclista Stainton, 1854 is provided.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Animais , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Turquia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 777, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generic drugs and generic substitution belong to the tools by which healthcare costs may be reduced. However, low awareness and reluctance among healthcare professionals towards generic drugs may negatively affect the rational use of generic substitution. METHODS: The study aimed to analyze opinions and attitudes towards generic drugs and generic substitution among Czech physicians including their understanding of generic substitution legislative rules and the physicians´ previous experience in this field. Using random allocation, 1551 physicians practicing in the Czech Republic were asked to participate in the sociological representative survey conducted from November to December 2016, through face-to-face structured interviews comprising 19 items. Factor analysis as well as reliability analysis of items focused on legal rules in the context of physicians' awareness were applied with p-value of < 0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: Of a total of 1237 (79.8%) physicians (43.7% males; mean age 47.5 ± 11.6 years, 46.3% general practitioners) 24.8% considered generic drugs to be less safe, especially those with specialized qualification (p < 0.01). However, only 4.4% of the physicians noticed any drug-related problems, including adverse drug reactions associated with generic substitution. The majority of physicians felt neutrally about performing generic substitution in pharmacies, nor they expressed any opinion on characteristics of generics, even though a better understanding of the legislation and higher need of accordance of substituted drugs were associated with more positive attitudes towards generic substitution (p < 0.05). Physicians showed low knowledge score of legislative rules (mean 3.9 ± 1.6 from maximum 9), nevertheless they overestimated the law, as they considered some rules valid, even if the law does not require them. Cronbach alpha of all legislative rules that regulate generic substitution increased from 0.318 to 0.553 if two optional rules (physician consent and strength equivalence) would be taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: There is no sufficient awareness of generic drugs and generic substitution related issues among Czech physicians, although a deeper knowledge of legislation improves their perception about providing generic substitution.


Assuntos
Substituição de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Genéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , República Tcheca , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3349-3357, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729574

RESUMO

The genus Chloromyxum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) is defined as having ridged or smooth bivalvular myxospores containing four polar capsules, with/without caudal filaments. Currently containing more than 140 nominal species, this genus is reasonably speciose with myxospores of unique but heterogeneous morphology. Recent phylogenetic studies have demonstrated its polyphyletic nature. During our myxosporean survey of freshwater fish, a new coelozoic myxosporean species, Chloromyxum trilineatum n. sp., was detected in the gall bladder of the pale chub, Zacco platypus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), which originated from central Japan. Spores were subspherical, measuring 8.5-9.1 (8.8) µm in length, 7.6-8.2 (8.0) µm in width, and 6.8-7.8 (7.4) µm in thickness (n = 20). The valvular surface was smooth and three or four distinct ridges ran parallel to the suture line. Four almost equal polar capsules, 2.9-3.8 (3.3) µm in length and 1.6-2.4 (2.0) µm in width, assembled at the apical part of the spores. The partial nucleotide sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, 2014 bp in length, was closest to that of morphologically distinct Chloromyxum ellipticum, infecting the gall bladder of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in China with 96.99% (1673/1725) identity and three insertion/deletion (indel) sites, followed by Chloromyxum legeri, infecting the gall bladder of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Czech Republic with 89.97% (1803/2004) identity and 14 indel sites. Other myxosporean species, including Chloromyxum spp. from the gall bladder or urinary system of freshwater and marine fish, were phylogenetically distant from the present species.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , República Tcheca , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Japão , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
19.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(5): 324-329, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748106

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In the Czech Republic a systematic neonatal hip screening has been performed for many decades. Its aim is to prevent, by means of early treatment of hip dysplasia in the newborn period, the development of hip deformities leading to the onset of degenerative hip changes during the adulthood. The study aims to prove the effects of paediatric hip care based on the data analysis of the Czech National Register of Joint Replacement. MATERIAL AND METHODS The National Register of Joint Replacement comprises information on implantation of hip arthroplasties performed over the period of last 15 years, while the screening has been carried out for almost 60 years. An analysis of the patients' data from the register was conducted; the data was sorted by the diagnosis leading to surgery in individual age categories and individual years. The obtained data was correlated with the systems of newborn hip screening at the time when the treated generations of patients were born. RESULTS According to the National Register of Joint Replacement, in the period 2003-2017 a total of 174,515 primary hip joint replacements were performed, 345 total hip arthroplasties (0.19 %) were implanted for complete hip dislocation in dysplasia, 14,139 replacements (8.10%) were performed for postdysplastic hip degeneration. By comparing the periods 2005-2007 and 2015-2017 a decrease almost to a half of the number of implanted endoprostheses for hip dislocation was identified. Moreover, only 8 of 345 dislocated hips in the Register were managed by joint replacement in patients who were born during the systematic screening period. The percentage of endoprostheses implanted for postdysplastic degeneration decreased respectively; in 2005-2007 period 2,692 of 28,525 hip endoprotheses (9.44%) were implanted, whereas in 2015-2017 period 3,285 of 46,228 hips (7.11%) were operated on. This decline is statistically significant (p < 0.001, OR 1.34). DISCUSSION The efficiency and success rate of sonography resulted in Central Europe in such a rapid expansion of neonatal ultrasound hip screening that no comparative studies were carried out to confirm this concept (as is currently requested by evidencebased-medicine). This has later become the source of misunderstanding and subject to criticism primarily in the overseas literature. Those who focus on ultrasound screening feel that conducting prospective randomised studies on (non)treatment in ultrasound detected pathologies is ethically unacceptable today. When seeking another way of confirming the efficiency of universal screening, a detailed analysis of data from the hip joint replacement registry has proven successful. CONCLUSIONS A low number of arthroplasties implanted for hip dislocation in the Czech population is recorded in the National Register of Joint Replacement. This confirms the success of the existing system of neonatal hip screening; the results show that the treatment of hip dislocation in children is successful. The ongoing decline in the share of patients in the population treated by total hip replacement in postdysplastic degeneration has been confirmed. Data evolution will be subject to further research in the upcoming decades, with a positive effect of ultrasound monitoring of treatment to be foreseen. Key words: developmental dysplasia of the hip, screening, register of joint replacements.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
20.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(5): 330-333, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748107

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The pilot study deals with the current situation in proximal femoral fractures in culturally diverse regions, namely in Afghanistan (AFG) and in the Czech Republic (CZ). The study aimed to find out whether there are any differences in proximal femoral fractures in dependence on the selected criteria between the two culturally diverse areas. The study used the data of patients who underwent surgery for proximal femoral fracture at the Department of Orthopaedics of the 1 s t Medical Faculty of the Charles University and the Military University Hospital and at the Military Base Hospital Kabul. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included patients aged 21 years or older who sustained a proximal femoral fracture in the period from October 2013 to February 2014. For the period concerned, the evaluation comprised 44 patients with a proximal femoral fracture from the Military Base Hospital Kabul, of whom 25 women and 19 men, and a total of 71 patients with a proximal femoral fracture from the Department of Orthopaedics of the 1st Medical Faculty of the Charles University and the Military University Hospital, of whom 43 women and 28 men. Based on the medical documentation, the following evaluation parameters were selected: age, sex, type of fracture. The data was processed using descriptive statistics, one-way and multifactorial analysis (ANOVA) and the POST-HOC test (Fisher LSD test, confidence interval = 95%) RESULTS The mean age of all the patients who suffered a fracture of proximal femur in AFG (58 years) was considerably lower (p < 0.001) than in patients in CZ (81 years). Similarly, a significant difference (p <0.001) was identified in the age of men and women treated for a proximal femoral fracture in both the countries. In AFG there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002) between the age of men and women, where women sustaining fractures were younger (54 years) compared to men (63 years). In CZ no significant age difference was reported (83 years vs 78 years). In AFG, the observed fractures occurred generally in their 6th and 7th decade, whereas in CZ only in their 9th decade. The incidence of proximal femoral fractures in Afghan women is the highest in their 5th and 6th decade. Pertrochanteric fractures and intracapsular fractures prevailed in both countries. The lowest age in both types of the fracture was reported in Afghan women (52 years in femoral neck fracture, p <0.001, 54 years in trochanteric fracture, p = 0.039). DISCUSSION Significant differences between the patients in AFG and CZ concern several factors. Afghanistan is a country with the lowest average life expectancy. In the Afghan population a major Vitamin D deficiency was confirmed. This is related to the conservative dress code, especially in women, when the Vitamin D synthesis is suppressed. That can cause the occurrence of osteoporosis in women at a considerably younger age than in the population in the Czech Republic, which is subsequently accompanied by an increased incidence of proximal femoral fractures. Similar results, however, were also obtained in men. One of the risk factors of osteoporosis development is also low physical activity throughout the lifetime. This risk factor is significant primarily in female population in the Muslim world. Afghanistan also faces serious malnutrition. All of that is reflected in low life expectancy in the given country, incidence of osteoporosis and injuries in this region. There is reasonable evidence that the mortality in a causal relationship with proximal femoral fracture is substantially higher in this region than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS The results of the pilot study showed that there are significant differences in age and frequency of fractures in dependence on sex and country. The obtained results can be considered valuable since there are virtually no scientific or professional studies on osteoporosis and fractures in the given area that would help physicians get ready for significant differences. These results may become a source of valuable information not only for medical practitioners coming to Afghanistan to help as volunteers in the framework of developmental assistance from all over the world, but also for physicians from Europe, with respect to the wave of migrants coming from this area. Key words: proximal femur, fracture, gender, age, Afghanistan, Czech Republic.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/etiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais
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