Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.228
Filtrar
1.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(2): 225-229, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063685

RESUMO

In response to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an online laboratory surveillance system was established to monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) testing capacities and results. SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR testing data were collected from 97 clinical laboratories, including 84 medical institutions and 13 independent clinical laboratories in Korea. We assessed the testing capacities to utilize SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR based on surveillance data obtained from February 7th to June 4th, 2020 and evaluated positive result characteristics according to the reagents used and sample types. A total of 1,890,319 SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR testing were performed, 2.3% of which were positive. Strong correlations were observed between the envelope (E) gene and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)/nucleocapsid (N) genes threshold cycle (Ct) values for each reagent. No statistically significant differences in gene Ct values were observed between the paired upper and lower respiratory tract samples, except in the N gene for nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples. Our study showed that clinical laboratories in Korea have rapidly expanded their testing capacities in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, with a peak daily capacity of 34,193 tests. Rapid expansion in testing capacity is a critical component of the national response to the ongoing pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , República da Coreia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028002

RESUMO

This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three were experts in online physical education and active in the Korea Council School Physical Education Promotion, and three were recommended teachers making efforts to improve the online classes offered by the Korea Ministry of Education. A qualitative case study method employing phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze the data was used. The difficulties of operating middle and high school online physical education classes for the first time included (1) the monotony of the classes within their limited environmental conditions and limited educational content that did not adequately convey the value of physical education, (2) trial-and-error methods applied nationwide, resulting from a lack of expertise in operating online physical education classes, and (3) very limited evaluation guidelines proposed by the Korea Ministry of Education, which made systematic evaluation with online methods impossible. To address the identified problems and facilitate the efficient operation of online physical education classes, changes in strategic learning methods are needed to understand online physical education characteristics and thereby better communicate the value of physical education. It is also necessary to cultivate teaching expertise through sharing online physical education classes, where collaboration among physical education teachers is central. In addition, evaluation processes should be less formal to encourage active student participation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5009, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024121

RESUMO

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zootaxa ; 4858(2): zootaxa.4858.2.2, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056229

RESUMO

Two new species, Cleantiella ampliscutula sp. nov. and Pentias pluriarticulatus sp. nov., are reported from Korean waters with keys to all known species of the genera Cleantiella and Pentias. Cleantiella ampliscutula sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characteristics: the body is relatively small; pereonite 1 is expanded anterolaterally; coxal plates 2-7 are triangular; the pleon has three partial sutures; the pleotelson is widening posteriorly on the lateral margin; the flagellum of the antenna is single-articled; and the maxillipedal palps are four-articled. Pentias pluriarticulatus sp. nov. can be distinguishable from its congeners by the following characteristics: the lateral margins of the body are parallel; the anterior margin of the cephalon is slightly concave and has a small median notch; the coxal plates are invisible dorsally on pereonites 2-4, but visible on pereonites 5-7; the pleon has three partial sutures; the flagellum of the antenna is composed of nine articles; and the distal ends of the uropodal endopods are sinuous.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Estruturas Animais , Animais , República da Coreia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4763(2): zootaxa.4763.2.9, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056871

RESUMO

South Korean Alloplasta species were examined in this study. Prior to this study, only A. longipetiolaris of this genus was previously known from South Korea. Four species are new records, A. kuslitzky, A. nigripes, A. maruyamana and A. subgrisea, and A. brevipetiolaris sp. nov. is described as new to science. Furthermore males of two species, A. kuslitzky and A. subgrisea, are described for the first time. An illustrated identification key is provided for the Alloplasta species known from South Korea.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Masculino , República da Coreia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.5, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056895

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Microlysias Stebbing, 1918 belonging to the family Tryphosidae Lowry Stoddard, 1997 were collected from shallow Korean waters. The two new species are described as Microlysias rectangulatus and M. triangulus. The new species M. rectangulatus sp. nov. is similar to M. xenokeras, M. soela, and Orchomenella japonica. However, the new species can be distinguished from these species by having a subrectangular peduncular article 5 of antenna 2 and an elongated article 1 of the mandibular palp, nearly equal to palp article 3. M. triangulus sp. nov. is similar to M. xenokeras and M. soela. However, this species is characterized by the triangular shaped peduncular article 5 of antenna 2 and the slender propodus of gnathopod 1. These species are illustrated and compared to related species.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , República da Coreia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4860(2): zootaxa.4860.2.2, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056161

RESUMO

A complete taxonomic assessment of the inquiline fauna (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini, Ceroptresini) reared from cynipid oak galls collected in South Korea is conducted for the first time. Previously, six species were known from this country (Ceroptres kovalevi Belizin, 1973; Synergus chinensis Melika, Ács Bechtold, 2004; Synergus japonicus Walker, 1874; Ufo koreanus Melika, Pujade-Villar Choi, 2007; and presumably, Saphonecrus chaodongzhui Melika, Ács Bechtold, 2004 and Ufo cerroneuroteri Tang Melika, 2012). The study of new material reared from cynipid galls collected from oaks (Quercus spp.) from various locations throughout South Korea has increased the total number of inquiline species known from this country to 14, of which seven are new country records (Saphonecrus shirakashii (Shinji, 1940); Sa. symbioticus Melika Schwéger, 2015; Synergus abei Melika Schwéger, 2015; S. belizinellus Schwéger Melika 2015; S. formosanus Schwéger Melika, 2015; S. ishikarii Melika Schwéger, 2015; and S. symbioticus Schwéger Melika, 2015), and one is a new species: Synergus minutus Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar, sp. nov. The new species is formally described and illustrated. New biological and distribution data are provided for both the newly recorded species and the other reared species. The Korean fauna is compared with that from other countries within the Eastern Palearctic and the Oriental regions.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Quercus , Animais , República da Coreia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4795(1): zootaxa.4795.1.1, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056692

RESUMO

Rice is the staple food crop for approximately half the world's population, but some common and abundant taxa inhabiting rice fields, such as ostracods, are poorly studied. For many ostracod species only brief, initial descriptions are available, hindering reliable identifications, and so their ecological roles in rice fields remain obscure. This study partially addresses this problem by assessing the taxonomic validity of six species of Cyprinotinae ostracods reported from rice fields in Japan and South Korea: Cyprinotus  uenoi Brehm, 1936, Hemicypris megalops Sars, 1903, Hemicypris ovata Sars, 1903, Hemicypris vulgaris Okubo, 1990, Heterocypris rotundata (Bronstein, 1928), and Hemicypris kawagaensis Okubo, 2004 nomen nudum. Type material of C. uenoi was not designated and Brehm's ostracod collection is missing, but Japanese and Korean records of C. uenoi differ significantly from Brehm's original description. The Japanese and Korean species is described and named herein as Cyprinotus cassidula sp. nov. Japanese specimens reported to be Hemicypris megalops are probably misidentified, but details of the carapace of Hemicypris megalops are obscure due to poor preservation of type material. Examination of topotype material of Hemicypris posterotruncata Bate, 1970, a sub-fossil from near Lake Turkana in Kenya, demonstrates that this species is extant in Asian rice fields. Investigation of type material of Hemicypris kliei (Lindroth, 1953) has revealed that it is not a senior synonym of Hemicypris posterotruncata, contrary to previous studies. Size and morphological data indicates that Hemicypris vulgaris is a large form of Hemicypris posterotruncata and the two species are treated as synonyms herein. Examination of paralectotypes of Hemicypris ovata indicates that it is very similar to Hemicypris posterotruncata, especially the larger morphotypes, but as these two species can be distinguished by morphological features they are both retained as separate species. However, Japanese records of Hemicypris ovata are considered misidentifications of the larger forms of Hemicypris posterotruncata. Hemicypris kawagaensis, which has only been reported once from East Asia, is herein regarded as a junior synonym of Hemicypris barbadensis Broodbakker, 1983, and is likely an alien species in Asia. Asian specimens previously identified as Heterocypris rotundata show sufficient differences to European specimens to determine that they are not conspecific. This species is described as Heterocypris savatenalintonae sp. nov. Taxonomic descriptions of Hemicypris ovata, Hemicypris posterotruncata, Hemicypris megalops, Hemicypris kliei, Heterocypris savatenalintonae sp. nov., and Cyprinotus cassidula sp. nov. are presented. Finally, it is noted that past redescriptions of Cyprinotus cingalensis Brady, 1886, the type species of the genus and the subfamily Cyprinotinae Bronstein 1947, are based partly on other species.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Animais , Japão , República da Coreia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4838(2): zootaxa.4838.2.5, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056824

RESUMO

During the re-examination of some specimens in the Siphonaptera collection of J.-C. Beaucournu, we noticed unidentified Rhadinopsylla specimens. After the detailed comparison, they were identified as Rhadinopsylla alphabetica Jameson Sakaguti. These specimens of R. alphabetica were collected from Grey Red-backed Vole, Myodes rufocanus (Sundevall), in Ryanggang province of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. alphabetica in the DPRK. Our specimens of R. alphabetica have some minor differences from Alaskan and Japanese populations. To draw attention to these differences we also provide detailed drawings of R. alphabetica specimens in the present study. The information on the flea fauna of the Korean peninsula is very fragmentary and articles on fleas of the Korean peninsula have been published in different languages. Therefore, it is very difficult to find accessible and updated flea list of the Korean peninsula for the scientific community. Based on the published and accessible literature, we provide a list of 45 flea taxa from the Korean peninsula.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Sifonápteros , Animais , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , República da Coreia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4838(2): zootaxa.4838.2.10, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056829

RESUMO

This work is intended to expose nomenclatural issues and provide partial solutions involving Korean insects of the order Hemiptera. The 16 species described by Cheong (2015) and Yoon et al. (2015) are insufficient in zoological nomenclature. The unavailable name Harpocera josifovi Kim Jung, sp. nov. is validated. The new replacement name Aphis rhamnus Lee, Lee Kim, nom. nov., is proposed for Aphis rhamnicola Lee, Lee Kim, 2015 nec Aphis rhamnicola Mamontova, 1953. These actions will provide fundamental information to avoid potential mistakes and guide future discussions.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Heterópteros , Animais , República da Coreia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4772(2): zootaxa.4772.2.2, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055612

RESUMO

A taxonomic study on bdelloid rotifers collected from various terrestrial habitats at five different locations in Korea resulted in eight new Korean records and two new species-level taxa, Philodina clypeata  n. sp. and P. verrucosa  n. sp. Among the eight new Korean records, two species- and three subspecies-level taxa are new to Asia as well. These new Korean records also include seven rare species/subspecies-level taxa with poorly known distributions. Habrotrocha gracilis quadridens Schulte and Macrotrachela zickendrahti seda Donner were rediscovered in Korea 64 and 53 years, respectively, after the original descriptions. Habrotrocha ligula aligula Burger, Macrotrachela insulana Donner, M. petulans Milne, M. pinnigera (Murray), and Philodina parvicalcar De Koning have been reported from two to three countries only including their type localities before the present study. In addition, a partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mtCOX1) for P. verrucosa  n. sp. as well as a taxonomic key for the Philodina species recorded from Korea to date are also provided here.


Assuntos
Rotíferos , Animais , Ecossistema , Genes Mitocondriais , República da Coreia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4819(3): zootaxa.4819.3.9, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056098

RESUMO

One new leafhopper species, L. dangjinensis sp. nov. is described, and L. hebeiensis Cai, Liang Wang, 1992 is reported from Korea for the first time. Descriptions, photographs, illustrations and biological information of the new species are provided. A key to the Korean Limassolla species is also given. Limassolla macrobipunctata Hossain, Kwon, Suh Kwon, 2019 is synonymised with L. ishiharai Dworakowska, 1972.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , República da Coreia
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2950-2953, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018625

RESUMO

Accurate and robust classification of Motor Imagery (MI) from Electroencephalography (EEG) signals is among the most challenging tasks in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) field. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a novel, neuro-physiologically inspired convolutional neural network (CNN) named Filter-Bank Convolutional Network (FBCNet) for MI classification. Capturing neurophysiological signatures of MI, FBCNet first creates a multi-view representation of the data by bandpass-filtering the EEG into multiple frequency bands. Next, spatially discriminative patterns for each view are learned using a CNN layer. Finally, the temporal information is aggregated using a new variance layer and a fully connected layer classifies the resultant features into MI classes. We evaluate the performance of FBCNet on a publicly available dataset from Korea University for classification of left vs right hand MI in a subject-specific 10-fold cross-validation setting. Results show that FBCNet achieves more than 6.7% higher accuracy compared to other state-of-the-art deep learning architectures while requiring less than 1% of the learning parameters. We explain the higher classification accuracy achieved by FBCNet using feature visualization where we show the superiority of FBCNet in learning interpretable and highly generalizable discriminative features. We provide the source code of FBCNet for reproducibility of results.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22514, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019453

RESUMO

Despite the controversy surrounding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) safety, global consumption has been rapidly increasing. We investigated the relationship between e-cigarette use and mental health conditions in adults of various ages.We conducted a secondary data analysis of adults aged 19 to 80 who participated in the first year of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016). The total number of participants was 5469, including 3398 non-smokers, 1700 smokers who had never used e-cigarettes, and 371 smokers who had previously used e-cigarettes, selected based on self-report questionnaires. Mental health factors including stress status, depressive mood, suicide plan, and suicide attempt were assessed by self-reported questionnaire. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive mood, with a cut-off value of 10. The relationship between e-cigarette use and stress status with depressive mood were analyzed with adjustment for potential confounders.Both male and female smokers who previously used e-cigarettes showed higher levels of stress than non-smokers or smokers who had never used e-cigarettes. The average PHQ-9 score was higher among previous e-cigarette-using smokers relative to non-smokers and smokers who had never used e-cigarettes, regardless of gender. The number of participants with depressive mood was significantly higher in the group of smokers who previously used e-cigarettes. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, there was a significantly higher odds ratio for higher stress in male smokers who had previously used e-cigarettes and for depressive mood in female smokers who had previously used e-cigarettes, compared with non-smokers.This study analyzed the association between adult e-cigarette use and mental health conditions, including stress and depressive mood, and showed that e-cigarette use was significantly related to both conditions in men and women.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zootaxa ; 4802(3): zootaxa.4802.3.8, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056048

RESUMO

Lipsothrix jiri Podenas, sp. nov. from South Korea is described and illustrated. It is the second species of Lipsothrix Loew, 1873 recorded so far from the Korean Peninsula. The new species has dark brown dorsal and yellow ventral surface of the body and abundant macrotrichiae in apical wing cells. Elevation range, period of activity, habitat information and a distribution map are presented.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Nematóceros , República da Coreia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has swept the world like a gigantic tsunami, turning social and economic activities upside down. METHODS: This paper presents some of the innovative response strategies implemented by the public health system, healthcare facilities, and government in South Korea, which has been hailed as the model country for its success in containing COVID-19. Korea reinvented its public health infrastructure with a sense of urgency. RESULTS: Korea's success rests on its readiness, with the capacity for massive testing and obtaining prompt test results, effective contact tracing based on its world-leading mobile technologies, timely provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) to first responders, effective treatment of infected patients, and invoking citizens' community and civic conscience for the shared goal of defeating the pandemic. The lessons learned from Korea's response in countering the onslaught of COVID-19 provide unique implications for public healthcare administrators and operations management practitioners. CONCLUSION: Since many epidemic experts warn of a second wave of COVID-19, the lessons learned from the first wave will be a valuable resource for responding to the resurgence of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Difusão de Inovações , Governo , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4845(2): zootaxa.4845.2.9, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056777

RESUMO

Nabangana gen. nov. is described and illustrated from Korea. The new genus and its type species Nabangana koreana sp. nov. represents the first record of the tortricid tribe Chlidanotini from Korea.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , República da Coreia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066581

RESUMO

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred all over the world between 2019 and 2020. The first case of COVID-19 was reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Since then, there have been more than 21 million incidences and 761 thousand casualties worldwide as of 16 August 2020. One of the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 is that its symptoms and fatality rates vary with the ages of the infected individuals. This study aims at assessing the impact of social distancing on the reduction of COVID-19 infected cases by constructing a mathematical model and using epidemiological data of incidences in Korea. We developed an age-structured mathematical model for describing the age-dependent dynamics of the spread of COVID-19 in Korea. We estimated the model parameters and computed the reproduction number using the actual epidemiological data reported from 1 February to 15 June 2020. We then divided the data into seven distinct periods depending on the intensity of social distancing implemented by the Korean government. By using a contact matrix to describe the contact patterns between ages, we investigated the potential effect of social distancing under various scenarios. We discovered that when the intensity of social distancing is reduced, the number of COVID-19 cases increases; the number of incidences among the age groups of people 60 and above increases significantly more than that of the age groups below the age of 60. This significant increase among the elderly groups poses a severe threat to public health because the incidence of severe cases and fatality rates of the elderly group are much higher than those of the younger groups. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain strict social distancing rules to reduce infected cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1527, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous reporting (SR) of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from patients can be considered as a valuable activity providing both objective and subjective data. However, improving the rate of under-reporting has been a major challenge to ensure successful operation of the SR system. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and intent to report ADRs and explore the factors contributing to consumers' reporting intent in South Korea. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaire was collected from a sex-, age-, and regionally stratified nationwide convenience sample of consumers using a commercial panel in December 2018. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore the factors contributing to the intent to report ADRs by consumers. RESULTS: A total of 1000 respondents were enrolled in the survey; 50.9% were males and the mean age was 44.4 (standard deviation, 13.3) years. While less than 15% of the respondents were aware of the SR system and even fewer (3.4%) had actual experience of SR, however, 59.2% expressed their intent to report ADRs. The positive attitude (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.972, p < 0.001), awareness of the SR system (aOR 2.102, p < 0.01), self-efficacy for SR (aOR 1.956, p < 0.001), and experiences related to ADR counselling with healthcare professionals (OR 2.318, p < 0.001) are the significant factors contributing to reporting intent. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study highlight the need for increasing the awareness of the SR system among consumers and empowering them to report ADRs by themselves, which would ultimately improve the drug-safety environment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intenção , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 321, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After experiencing a sharp growth in COVID-19 cases early in the pandemic, South Korea rapidly controlled transmission while implementing less stringent national social distancing measures than countries in Europe and the USA. This has led to substantial interest in their "test, trace, isolate" strategy. However, it is important to understand the epidemiological peculiarities of South Korea's outbreak and characterise their response before attempting to emulate these measures elsewhere. METHODS: We systematically extracted numbers of suspected cases tested, PCR-confirmed cases, deaths, isolated confirmed cases, and numbers of confirmed cases with an identified epidemiological link from publicly available data. We estimated the time-varying reproduction number, Rt, using an established Bayesian framework, and reviewed the package of interventions implemented by South Korea using our extracted data, plus published literature and government sources. RESULTS: We estimated that after the initial rapid growth in cases, Rt dropped below one in early April before increasing to a maximum of 1.94 (95%CrI, 1.64-2.27) in May following outbreaks in Seoul Metropolitan Region. By mid-June, Rt was back below one where it remained until the end of our study (July 13th). Despite less stringent "lockdown" measures, strong social distancing measures were implemented in high-incidence areas and studies measured a considerable national decrease in movement in late February. Testing the capacity was swiftly increased, and protocols were in place to isolate suspected and confirmed cases quickly; however, we could not estimate the delay to isolation using our data. Accounting for just 10% of cases, individual case-based contact tracing picked up a relatively minor proportion of total cases, with cluster investigations accounting for 66%. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst early adoption of testing and contact tracing is likely to be important for South Korea's successful outbreak control, other factors including regional implementation of strong social distancing measures likely also contributed. The high volume of testing and the low number of deaths suggest that South Korea experienced a small epidemic relative to other countries. Caution is needed in attempting to replicate the South Korean response in populations with larger more geographically widespread epidemics where finding, testing, and isolating cases that are linked to clusters may be more difficult.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Quarentena/tendências , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA