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1.
Nature ; 580(7802): 235-238, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269345

RESUMO

The phylogenetic relationships between hominins of the Early Pleistocene epoch in Eurasia, such as Homo antecessor, and hominins that appear later in the fossil record during the Middle Pleistocene epoch, such as Homo sapiens, are highly debated1-5. For the oldest remains, the molecular study of these relationships is hindered by the degradation of ancient DNA. However, recent research has demonstrated that the analysis of ancient proteins can address this challenge6-8. Here we present the dental enamel proteomes of H. antecessor from Atapuerca (Spain)9,10 and Homo erectus from Dmanisi (Georgia)1, two key fossil assemblages that have a central role in models of Pleistocene hominin morphology, dispersal and divergence. We provide evidence that H. antecessor is a close sister lineage to subsequent Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins, including modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. This placement implies that the modern-like face of H. antecessor-that is, similar to that of modern humans-may have a considerably deep ancestry in the genus Homo, and that the cranial morphology of Neanderthals represents a derived form. By recovering AMELY-specific peptide sequences, we also conclude that the H. antecessor molar fragment from Atapuerca that we analysed belonged to a male individual. Finally, these H. antecessor and H. erectus fossils preserve evidence of enamel proteome phosphorylation and proteolytic digestion that occurred in vivo during tooth formation. Our results provide important insights into the evolutionary relationships between H. antecessor and other hominin groups, and pave the way for future studies using enamel proteomes to investigate hominin biology across the existence of the genus Homo.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/química , Esmalte Dentário/metabolismo , Fósseis , Hominidae , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Molar/química , Dente Molar/metabolismo , Homem de Neandertal , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosfoproteínas/química , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Proteoma/química , Espanha
2.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 159-165, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141871

RESUMO

Health systems provide health actions-activities to improve or maintain health. These actions take place in the context of and are influenced by political, cultural, social, and institutional factors. Demographic and socioeconomic makeup, including genetics and personal resources, affect the health status of individuals seeking care. Access to the health care system is required to obtain the care that maintains or improves health, but simple access is not enough; the system's capacities must be applied skillfully. Thus, quality means optimizing material inputs and practitioner skills to produce health. As the Institute of Medicine defines it, quality is "the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge." Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and low-income countries bear the highest burden. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Georgia is experiencing a health workforce shortage, particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater to the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015). The efficient use of the existing health workforce, including task shifting, is under consideration as a short-term stopgap measure. At the same time, deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. The results of the analysis confirmed the essential leadership and managerial competencies for public hospital managers in Georgia. These competencies include Policy development and implementation, strategy development and orientation; plan-making; human resource management; financial management; equipment and infrastructure management, information management, risk and disaster management, self-management; quality management; investigation, supervision, monitoring and evaluation, ethics and knowledge. There are necessary competencies. Managers have to fulfill their tasks effectively and use them as a basis to develop competency-based training for the current management taskforce and preparing future hospital managers. This kind of study was limited before starting short and long term (including Master program Health Management and Administration) educational programs in different regions of Georgia. Thus, it should be further studied to gain an overall and clear picture of leadership and managerial competencies for hospital public managers. Taking into account the labor market flows in Georgia, to train and inspire a new generation of Health Administration professionals in global network atmosphere, provide broad knowledge, skills and expertise that is needed to undertake leadership roles in addressing critical issues of Health Administration at the national and global level is an urgent need. For this purpose, the elaboration and implementation of student-centered and competence-oriented Georgian-USA Collaborative Master Program in Health Administration with our future activities will be a relevant approach.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Administração de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Competência Profissional
3.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 61-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141851

RESUMO

Until 2015, systematic statistical data on micronutrient deficiency was not available in Georgia, to provide developing national strategy. In the same year, the National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC) in collaboration with the USA CDC launched the project "Strengthening surveillance of micronutrient deficiency in Georgia". In 2015 we did choose sentinel surveillance approach. For setting nutrition surveillance system 8 sentinel sites (2 sites in each region/children and pregnant health facilities) in four regions of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kakheti, Achara, and Samegrelo) were selected, using the criteria of geographical, social, ethnical, urban/rural, and religion. Also, existing information about malnutrition and dietary habits from the above mentioned regions. The project protocols was approved by the Institutional review board (IRB) at the NCDC and by the Research Review Committee and Ethical review committee of the US CDC. As a result of surveillance system functioning (2016-2019) we reviled that, about 36% out of 1021 studied children U2 (12-23 months) were anemic, 74% of them were identified as iron deficient. Hemoglobin was tested among 963 pregnant women and about 21% of them were found anemic, 57% were iron deficient, and 28% tested positive for folate deficiency. Neural tube defects (NTDs) prevalence per 1000 live births registered in sentinel sites was high 3.7. Our results show that anemia and iron deficiency are prevalent among both pregnant women and children of the specified age group in Georgia. Additionally, folate deficiency was quite common during the1st trimester of pregnancy. Our findings will inform public health policy decision makers to take relevant decisions on required interventions, such as health education, distribution of relevant supplements, and food fortification.


Assuntos
Micronutrientes/deficiência , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Alimentos Fortificados , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/sangue , Gravidez , Prevalência
4.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 84-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141856

RESUMO

About 30-40% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-ß) develop neutralizing antibodies (NABs) to IFN-ß. NABs reduce bioavailability of IFN-ß, which leads to a decrease in the therapy effectiveness. The introduction of IFN-ß induce production of several proteins, which are used as markers of the therapy effectiveness. In this study, we assessed the prognostic significance of MS activity biomarkers in relation to the clinical data of MS patients treated with IFN-ß. The study involved 30 MS patients receiving IFN-ß. The average duration of therapy was 3.5 (3.4-5.3) years. The study showed the prevalence of NAbs formation in MS patients was 13% of cases, a year later - 30%. The level of viperin in patients without exacerbations during the observation period was lower than in patients with exacerbations. The study revealed the prognostic significance of viperin in relation to the frequency of exacerbations: viperin concentration above 0.2 ng / ml is a risk factor for exacerbation of MS. The results of this study suggest that viperin concentration in the serum could be used a prognostic marker in MS patients treated with interferons.


Assuntos
Interferon beta/farmacologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos/análise , Anticorpos/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Interferon beta/efeitos adversos , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 113-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141862

RESUMO

The purpose of the study is to determine the degree of decrease in the intellectual level of people under the age of 45 who have suffered from schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence in comparison with healthy individuals of the same age. 700 patients under the age of 45 years who had schizophrenia from 9 to 18 years old and underwent treatment at the Center for Mental Health and Prevention of Addiction (Tbilisi, Georgia) and 479 healthy people of the same age range were examined. In this work, the IQ intelligence coefficient was selected as the measured variable, which was determined both in the patient group and in the control group according to the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence method and its part concerning non-verbal intelligence was used. During statistical processing of control group data for comparison with a group of patients, the data of unrealistically low values and extremely high IQ values were withdrawn from consideration. For patients, a violation of the law of the normal distribution of the IQ coefficient was obtained. The degrading effect of schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence on IQ is very "significant" and is an explanation for the patients' IQ deviation fact from the normal distribution. The median IQ of the control group of healthy people is slightly more than 117, which can be explained by the influence of personal and contextual (modern social environment) factors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , República da Geórgia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Escalas de Wechsler
6.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 148-152, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141869

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the stable diagnostic traits and the biological activity of the stems and leaves of Daphne albowiana Woronow ex Pobed., a plant native to Georgia. Biological assays of the methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts show the plant to possess cytotoxic and antioxidant activities, but no noteworthy antibacterial or antifungal activities. All extracts show cytotoxic activity on A549 (lung carcinoma) cells. The following stable diagnostic characteristic were identified during the microstructural analysis: leaf surface glabrous, hypostomatic, dorsoventral; epidermal cells chaotic; curved with curved walls on both the upper and lower epidermis; stomata paracytic; well visible spherical crystals of inulin in leaf epidermis; leaf vascular bundles reverse-collateral; vascular system monocyclic, bilateral; wood diffuse-porous; xylem parenchyma is apotracheal, slightly diffuse; vessel walls are predominantly spirally thickened; collenchyma lamellar; radial rays in single rows, heterogeneous. The identified cytotoxic and antioxidant activity showcase this species to be of significant interest to the medicinal field. The identified anatomical peculiarities provide valuable information for the correct identification and standardization of the Daphne albowiana plant material.


Assuntos
Daphne/anatomia & histologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Daphne/química , República da Geórgia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
7.
Georgian Med News ; (298): 152-158, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141870

RESUMO

At all levels--from individual to national- Continuing medical education (CME,) competency-based continuing professional development (CPD) planning should incorporate objectively determined quality, program utilization, and other objective data as well as more subjectively determined needs as perceived by individual physicians. The study aims to conduct self-recognized/perceived needs assessment for CME/CPD among certified physicians working at TSMU University Clinics and TSMU affiliated clinics different regional cities of Georgia: Kutaisi, Batumi, Kareli; Provide quantitative and qualitative analysis of the completed questionnaires to identify discrepancies and find the differences between forecasts and actual data, recognize their causes and devlop recommendations for clinical skills development, new knowledge dissemination, and barrier avoidance. Medical Doctors were interviewed by specially designed on-line surveys in various regions of Georgia, including the capital. The answers provided by respondents indicate, that clinicians today are responsive to activities that are practice-relevant, efficient, effective, rewarding, and more personalized. Physicians prefer evidence-based, clinical CME topics that address a major aspect of their practice and that potentially provide an opportunity to learn new skills.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Médicos , Competência Profissional , Certificação , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(1): 73-77, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186595

RESUMO

Background and objective: A recent survey in Batumi, Georgia showed a low prevalence of asthma in children (1.8%). A potential explanation is underdiagnosis of asthma. To investigate this, we conducted a follow up to the survey with the objective of estimating the level of childhood asthma underdiagnosis and to describe factors related to it. Methods: Subjects included 437 survey participants who had a history of asthma-like symptoms and no diagnosis of asthma. All children underwent clinical examination (spirometry, skin prick tests, FeNO measurement) to identify new cases of asthma. The distribution of host and environmental factors was compared between the group with newly identified asthma and a group of 59 children with previously known asthma (diagnosed asthma). Results: Clinical investigation identified 107 cases of undiagnosed asthma. The corrected asthma prevalence estimate was 5.1% (95%CI: 4.4%-5.9%) suggesting that 65% of asthma cases were undiagnosed. Compared to children with diagnosed asthma, children with undiagnosed asthma were younger (8.2 ± 1.6 vs. 9.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.0005), had less frequent history of allergic disorders (38.3% vs. 64.4%; p = 0.001), and a lower prevalence of parental asthma (1.8% vs. 8.4%; p = 0.04). The groups did not differ in terms of environmental characteristics except for more exposure to passive smoking in the undiagnosed asthma group (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis confirmed results of simple analyses. Conclusion: In Batumi, 65% of children with asthma remain undiagnosed. Older age of a child, coexisting allergic disorders, and parental asthma seem to facilitate diagnosis. Implementation of current diagnostic guidelines should improve diagnostic accuracy of pediatric asthma in Batumi


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Asma/diagnóstico , Espirometria , Testes Cutâneos , Análise Multivariada , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Dados
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 30, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Georgia has one of the highest HCV prevalence in the world and launched the world's first national HCV elimination programs in 2015. Georgia set the ambitious target of diagnosing 90% of people living with HCV, treating 95% of those diagnosed and curing 95% of treated patients by 2020. We report outcomes of Sofosbuvir (SOF) based treatment regimens in patients with chronic HCV infection in Georgia. METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis, advanced liver fibrosis and severe extrahepatic manifestations were enrolled in the treatment program. Initial treatment consisted of SOF plus ribavirin (RBV) with or without pegylated interferon (INF). Sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV RNA at least 12 weeks after the end of treatment. SVR were calculated using both per-protocol and modified intent-to-treat (mITT) analysis. Results for patients who completed treatment through 31 October 2018 were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 7342 patients who initiated treatment with SOF-based regimens, 5079 patients were tested for SVR. Total SVR rate was 82.1% in per-protocol analysis and 74.5% in mITT analysis. The lowest response rate was observed among genotype 1 patients (69.5%), intermediate response rate was achieved in genotype 2 patients (81.4%), while the highest response rate was among genotype 3 patients (91.8%). Overall, SOF/RBV regimens achieved lower response rates than IFN/SOF/RBV regimen (72.1% vs 91.3%, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis being infected with HCV genotype 2 (RR =1.10, CI [1.05-1.15]) and genotype 3 (RR = 1.14, CI [1.11-1.18]) were associated with higher SVR. Patients with cirrhosis (RR = 0.95, CI [0.93-0.98]), receiving treatment regimens of SOF/RBV 12 weeks, SOF/RBV 20 weeks, SOF/RBV 24 weeks and SOF/RBV 48 weeks (RR = 0.85, CI [0.81-0.91]; RR = 0.86, CI [0.82-0.92]; RR = 0.88, CI [0.85-0.91] and RR = 0.92, CI [0.87-0.98], respectively) were less likely to achieve SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Georgia's real world experience resulted in high overall response rates given that most patients had severe liver damage. Our results provide clear evidence that SOF plus IFN and RBV for 12 weeks can be considered a treatment option for eligible patients with all three HCV genotypes. With introduction of next generation DAAs, significantly improved response rates are expected, paving the way for Georgia to achieve HCV elimination goals.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 500-508, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present study a metabolomics-based approach was used to discriminate among different hazelnut cultivars and to trace their geographical origins. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic and sterolic compounds. RESULTS: Compounds were identified against an in-house database using accurate monoisotopic mass and isotopic patterns. The screening approach was designed to discern 15 hazelnut cultivars and to discriminate among the geographical origins of six cultivars from the four main growing regions (Chile, Georgia, Italy, and Turkey). This approach allowed more than 1000 polyphenols and sterols to be annotated. The metabolomics data were elaborated with both unsupervised (hierarchical clustering) and supervised (orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis, OPLS-DA) statistics. These multivariate statistical tools allowed hazelnut samples to be discriminated, considering both 'cultivar type' and 'geographical origin'. Flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols - VIP scores 1.34-1.49), phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamics - VIP scores 1.35-1.55) together with cholesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol derivatives (VIP scores 1.34-1.49) were the best markers to discriminate samples according to geographical origin. CONCLUSIONS: This work illustrates the potential of untargeted profiling of phenolics and sterols based on UHPLC-ESI/QTOF mass spectrometry to discriminate hazelnut and support authenticity and origin. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Corylus/química , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Chile , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corylus/classificação , Corylus/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , República da Geórgia , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Nozes/classificação , Nozes/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Esteróis/química , Esteróis/metabolismo , Turquia
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(2): e244-e253, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Georgia has a high prevalence of hepatitis C, with 5·4% of adults chronically infected. On April 28, 2015, Georgia launched a national programme to eliminate hepatitis C by 2020 (90% reduction in prevalence) through scaled-up treatment and prevention interventions. We evaluated the interim effect of the programme and feasibility of achieving the elimination goal. METHODS: We developed a transmission model to capture the hepatitis C epidemic in Georgia, calibrated to data from biobehavioural surveys of people who inject drugs (PWID; 1998-2015) and a national survey (2015). We projected the effect of the administration of direct-acting antiviral treatments until Feb 28, 2019, and the effect of continuing current treatment rates until the end of 2020. Effect was estimated in terms of the relative decrease in hepatitis C incidence, prevalence, and mortality relative to 2015 and of the deaths and infections averted compared with a counterfactual of no treatment over the study period. We also estimated treatment rates needed to reach Georgia's elimination target. FINDINGS: From May 1, 2015, to Feb 28, 2019, 54 313 patients were treated, with approximately 1000 patients treated per month since mid 2017. Compared with 2015, our model projects that these treatments have reduced the prevalence of adult chronic hepatitis C by a median 37% (95% credible interval 30-44), the incidence of chronic hepatitis C by 37% (29-44), and chronic hepatitis C mortality by 14% (3-30) and have prevented 3516 (1842-6250) new infections and averted 252 (134-389) deaths related to chronic hepatitis C. Continuing treatment of 1000 patients per month is predicted to reduce prevalence by 51% (42-61) and incidence by 51% (40-62), by the end of 2020. To reach a 90% reduction by 2020, treatment rates must increase to 4144 (2963-5322) patients initiating treatment per month. INTERPRETATION: Georgia's hepatitis C elimination programme has achieved substantial treatment scale-up, which has reduced the burden of chronic hepatitis C. However, the country is unlikely to meet its 2020 elimination target unless treatment scales up considerably. FUNDING: CDC Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e319, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822310

RESUMO

A large-scale measles outbreak (11 495 reported cases, 60% aged ≥15 years) occurred in Georgia during 2013-2015. A nationwide, multistage, stratified cluster serosurvey for hepatitis B and C among persons aged ≥18 years conducted in Georgia in late 2015 provided an opportunity to assess measles and rubella (MR) susceptibility after the outbreak. Residual specimens from 3125 participants aged 18-50 years were tested for Immunoglobulin G antibodies against MR using ELISA. Nationwide, 6.3% (95% CI 4.9%-7.6%) of the surveyed population were seronegative for measles and 8.6% (95% CI 7.1%-10.1%) were seronegative for rubella. Measles susceptibility was highest among 18-24 year-olds (10.1%) and declined with age to 1.2% among 45-50 year-olds (P < 0.01). Susceptibility to rubella was highest among 25-29 year-olds (15.3%), followed by 18-24 year-olds (11.6%) and 30-34 year-olds (10.2%), and declined to <5% among persons aged ≥35 years (P < 0.001). The susceptibility profiles in the present serosurvey were consistent with the epidemiology of recent MR cases and the history of the immunization programme. Measles susceptibility levels >10% among 18-24 year-olds in Georgia revealed continued risk for outbreaks among young adults. High susceptibility to rubella among 18-34 year-olds indicates a continuing risk for congenital rubella cases.


Assuntos
Sarampo/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/sangue , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 42-47, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804197

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to study the current problems of non-carious dental lesions in residents of Penza, depending on the influence of production factors. In the structure of non-carious lesions, there is a large group of diseases (and injuries) of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, cement), which have their various clinical manifestations, the occurrence and development of which is not directly related to the microbial factor, unlike carious lesions. Such diseases are enamel and dentin hypoplasia, fluorosis, wedge-shaped defect, etc. All these diseases can be manifested by spotting, expressed to varying degrees on permanent and temporary teeth, which sometimes complicates the differential diagnosis with the initial stages and causes a significant aesthetic defect. Thus, the identification and treatment of non-carious lesions in practical dentistry is undoubtedly an urgent task. The team of authors conducted a dental examination of 350 patients from among adult residents of Penza and the Penza region aged from 20 to 60 years of the main professional groups of the region (working at enterprises of heavy and medium machinery, in the timber processing industry, engaged in agriculture). As a result of the study it was revealed that the Penza region is endemic for fluorosis, in connection with which there are high prevalence rates of fluorosis and hypoplasia of teeth. At the same time, respondents working in the machine-building and timber processing industries have a slightly lower prevalence, which is associated with large proportions of the foreign population (persons born and raised in other regions). At the same time, the influence of production factors on the incidence of different types of non-carious dental pathology in respondents working in the machine-building and timber processing industries of the Penza region was established. This mainly concerned non-carious diseases that occur after teething-pathological abrasion of teeth, wedge-shaped defect, multiple cracks of enamel.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Fluorose Dentária , Dente , Adulto , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/epidemiologia , Dentina , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 105-109, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804209

RESUMO

Georgia is among the countries with a very high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The recent availability of highly effective, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) capable of curing >90% of persons treated has made HCV elimination a possibility. All adult citizens infected with HCV are eligible to receive free DAAs through the Georgia National HCV Elimination Program (Program). From April 2015 to December 2018, 54,087 persons were enrolled in the Program throughout the country. However, more than 20,000 individuals are aware of their HCV antibody positive status but did not have HCV RNA testing, a necessary step to determine treatment needs. We hypothesized that a reason for hesitance to enroll in the Program may be a low level of trust of the Program. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Reproductive aged women were randomly selected from three maternity care centers during prenatal care. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic information, knowledge about HCV infection and trust in the Program. A total of 2185 women of reproductive age were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 28.5 (age range: 17-46) years. The majority of the study participants (76.4%) had a university degree. The vast majority of study participants (>95%) were married and 95.1% were Georgian ethnicity. Almost 90% of the participants were aware of their HCV infection status. Most women (85.3%) had heard of HCV elimination program in Georgia; 74.6% stated that they trust the Program. However, almost 10% of surveyed women stated they would refuse to get enrolled in the Program if their anti-HCV test result is positive. Trust in the Program was higher among women aged >25 years (80.7%) compared to younger women (68.4%) (p<0.0001). Level of education was also associated with trust to the program: more women with higher education level reported that they trust the Program (78.7%) compared to women with lower education level (68.5%) (p<0.0001). Trust in the Georgia National HCV Elimination Program is not sufficiently high among women of reproductive age in Georgia. Effective educational campaigns are needed to improve trust to the Program for this targeted group.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite C , Adolescente , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 109-114, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804210

RESUMO

Georgia is a country with high prevalence of hepatitis B. Based on a 2015 population serosurvey, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is 2.9% and prevalence of anti-HBc is 25.5% in general population. Hepatitis B vaccine has been included in the national immunization schedule of Georgia only since 2002. Thus, most reproductive aged women were not vaccinated during young childhood. Cross-sectional study was conducted in the capital of Georgia, Tbilisi. Reproductive aged women were randomly selected and then recruited from three maternity care centers during prenatal care. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on socio-demographic information, hepatitis B vaccination status and awareness of HBV infection status. A total of 2185 reproductive aged women were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 28.5 (age range 17-46) years. Most (76.4%) had a bachelor and/or master's degree. 20.0% of respondents never heard about HBV. Very few (3.3%) knew they were infected with HBV. We could not determine if women were chronically infected or were exposed and developed antibodies. HBV knowledge was limited: 57.5% were not aware of available HBV treatment; 51.6% didn't know HBV infection could be prevented (35.8% named HBV vaccination, 29.3% named condom use). Only 10% of study participants reported being vaccinated for HBV. Awareness of HBV infection was higher among women over age 25 (72.1%) compared to women aged 25 years or less (27.9%) (P<0.0001). Among women who reported having an HBV infection, 40.6% did not name vaccine as a prevention method and 38.2% did not have information about availability of HBV treatment (P<0.05). Based on our study results, knowledge about HBV infection and vaccination is very low among reproductive aged women in Georgia. Women's health centers can be a good place to reach reproductive aged women for counseling on HBV infection and promote vaccination against hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Vacinação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
17.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 118-123, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804212

RESUMO

Healthy nutrition helps to prevent development of chronic diseases and contributes to optimal functioning of the body. Dietary habits mainly are being established during the late adolescence and young adulthood. Aim - to study nutritional habits of the medical university students in Georgia. A questionnaire containing 73 questions was developed in English and Georgian. Sampling frame consisted of students of the 1st and 4th years of the Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU). Random cluster sampling was used and total number of participants was 427 (34.4% male and 65.6% female). Mean age 20.6±1.9. Cross-sectional study was performed. The survey was anonymous and self-administered. Principles of Declaration of Helsinki were followed. Data analysis was done in Stata 14.0. Majority of the respondents have 3-4 meals a day and have hot meals several times or once a day. 193 (45.20%) refuse drinking alcohol at all. 112 (26.23%) almost never eat breakfast. 196 (45.67%) of the students get up at nights to eat. 233 (54.57%) do not consume meals at regular times. 183 (42.86%) do snack between the meals. 326 (76.35%) read or watch TV while eating. 190 (44.5%) eat white bread once a day or few times a day; 102 (23.89%) never eat buckwheat, oats. 326 (76.35%) add sugar to tea or coffee; 231 (54.10%) add salt to the already cooked food. 97 (22.71%) never eat fish. 166 (39.11%) and 172 (40.28%) correspondingly eat red meat and white meat 1-3 times per month or once a week. Only 159 (37.24%) eat fruits once a day or few times a day. 61 (14.29%) and 69 (16.16%) never eat correspondingly raw and cooked vegetables. Our findings are more or less in line with available international data. We think that the situation is similar in the non-medical students and the youth, in general. It might be advisable to perform additional investigations in this direction.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Estudantes , Adolescente , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Zootaxa ; 4629(3): zootaxa.4629.3.5, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712510

RESUMO

The Evaniidae from the Russian fauna is reviewed. Three ensign or hatchet wasp genera and species occur only in the European part of Russia (West of Urals Mountains): Brachygaster minutus (Olivier, 1791), Evania dimidiata Spinola, 1838, and Prosevania fuscipes (Illiger, 1807). Species were also recorded in the following countries for the first time: B. minutus in Abkhazia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and in the numerous localities of the European part of Russia; Evania dimidiata in North Caucasus of Russia (Dagestan); Prosevania fuscipes in Abkhazia. A new species with distinct sexual dimorphism, Brachygaster gussakovskiji sp. nov., is described from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Azerbaijão , República da Geórgia , Cazaquistão , Quirguistão , Federação Russa , Tadjiquistão , Uzbequistão
19.
Zootaxa ; 4683(3): zootaxa.4683.3.6, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715920

RESUMO

Apterous viviparous females of Aphidura jimoi sp. nov. living on Dianthus sp. in East Georgia, are described and differences with the most similar species of the genus-A. naimanica Kadyrbekov, 2013, are presented. Additional data are provided for apterous viviparous females of A. pakistanensis Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante Remaudière, 2013, based on the first record from Georgia and the hitherto unknown alate viviparous females of this species are described. Updated identification keys for apterous females of all species currently included in the genus Aphidura, and for those feeding specifically on Dianthus spp. are provided.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Hemípteros , Animais , Feminino , República da Geórgia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.9, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716037

RESUMO

A new micropterous species, Leuctra khachapuri Ziak et Martynov, sp. nov., from the hippopus species-group is described and illustrated based on morphological features of males and females. The new species occurs in crenal waterbodies of the alpine zone of the Adjaro-Imeretian (Meskhetian) Mountain Range, the Lesser Caucasus.


Assuntos
Insetos , Animais , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Masculino
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