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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 227-230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592544

RESUMO

A total of 578 specimens of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eight the most significant and larger cyprinid aquaculture facilities in Macedonia (fish farms and cage culture systems) were examined for parasitological investigation. Protozoa Apiosoma piscicola was found in cage culture system on Globochica reservoir. In this fish farm, a total of 127 fish samples were examined for parasitological investigation, in which parasite infestation with A. piscicola was found on fins and gills in 79 specimens of common carp, in winter season. The prevalence of A. piscicola in common carp was 62.20%, while the mean intensity was 17.58. Our findings of A. piscicola in common carp (C. carpio) are first recorded in Macedonia. At the same time, common carp represent new host for A. piscicola in Macedonian waters.


Assuntos
Carpas , Infecções por Cilióforos/veterinária , Cilióforos , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Aquicultura , Carpas/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Infecções por Cilióforos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Maternal and neonatal infections can be prevented, but they are still common in low and middle-developed countries. There is a connection between childbirth on one hand and postpartum and newborn care on the other. Globally, several efforts are being made to improve quality of childbirth by providing initial assessment of procedures, risk prevention and continuous monitoring of childbirth process and possible complications. The World Health Organization has developed Checklists for Safe Delivery with procedures to be implemented as routine care, in order to promptly detect and manage complications related to childbirth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje, a maternity hospital in R. Macedonia from the tertiary level of the public health care system. In this study 300 obstetric and 307 neonatal histories from childbirths in February and March 2018 have been analyzed. The collected data refers to the care of the prepartum, intrapartum, early postpartum and early neonatal periods. RESULTS: An initial assessment at admission proved that 14.7% of pregnant women had existing infection, in 93% of them the body temperature was measured and in only 9.3% urine analysis was made, 10.3% of the women had arterial hypertension, and 66.5% of them with hypertension had a headache. In the continuous monitoring and prevention of potential risk, arterial tension was measured in 33% of all mothers. In all women the placenta quality was checked up, as well as vaginal bleeding, application of oxytocin and hemoglobin level before discharge. CONCLUSION: The quality and quantity of documented data in the maternity hospital medical histories is high. There were no standard protocols for assessment of pregnant women. Certain procedures are conducted in every woman during childbirth. Standardized procedures are needed to be applied during every childbirth.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/normas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção Puerperal/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Maternidades/normas , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecção Puerperal/epidemiologia , Infecção Puerperal/mortalidade , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 40(2): 119-131, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605590

RESUMO

Aleksandar J. Ignjatovski was born in the Smolensk Region, Russia, on 18.03.1875. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in St. Petersburg in 1899 where he started specialization in internal medicine and continued in Berlin, Heidelberg, Munich and Paris. In 1905 he was elected assistant professor in St. Petersburg, continued as an associate professor in Odessa in 1908 and a full-time professor in 1912 in Warsaw. During the October Revolution, he was the Head of the Internal Clinic in Rostov, and in 1920 he emigrated to Belgrade. In 1922 he was appointed full professor and Director of the First Internal Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, which he established, developed and managed until his retirement in 1946. In 1948 he moved to Skopje as a full professor and first Director of the Internal Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje. He studied the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and first proved it experimentally, and published a paper in 1908, indicating that it was associated with higher blood cholesterol level. He also dealt with immunobiology and infectious diseases, in particular tuberculosis and tetanus. Prof. A. Ignjatovski was an excellent clinician, teacher and scientist, who published over 80 papers. His most important textbooks are "Clinical Semiotics and Symptomatic Therapy", in two editions, in Russian (1919) and in Serbian (1929-37), and "The Basics of Internal Propedeutics" in three volumes, published in Skopje in 1952, 1954 and 1963. The work of Prof. A. Ignjatovski, as a leading clinician and a great teacher and scientist, is embedded in the development of internal medicine, and medicine in general, in Russia, Serbia and Macedonia. The bright memorial of the founder and first director of the Internal Medicine Clinic and the first Head of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje has been permanently incorporated in the history of medicine in R. Macedonia. Prof. A. Ignjatovski died on 18.08.1955.


Assuntos
Biologia/educação , História do Século XX , Medicina Interna/história , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alergia e Imunologia , Arteriosclerose , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605591

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and commonly used biochemical parameters as predictors for positive blood culture in patients with sepsis. The study included 313 patients aged ≥18 years with severe sepsis and septic shock consecutively admitted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia. The study took place from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2017. We recorded demographic variables, common laboratory tests, SIRS parameters, site of infection, comorbidities and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Blood cultures were positive in 65 (20.8%) patients with sepsis. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 35 (53.8%) patients. From the evaluated variables in this study, only the presence of four SIRS parameters was associated with bacteremia, finding that will help to predict bacteremia and initiate early appropriate therapy in septic patients.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/complicações , Sepse/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade
5.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 40(2): 135-140, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605596

RESUMO

The sad news about the death of Acad. Yucel Kanpolat (September 17, 2016), a famous scholar, a pioneer in the field of neurosurgery, and a friend of the Republic of Macedonia, saddened the members of the Editorial Board of the journal PRILOZI of the Department of Medical Sciences of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, of which he was a member, as well as the other members of the Academy. Yucel Kanpolat was an international figure, linking Turkey to almost every country in the world. Neurosurgery has lost a very special surgeon, scientist and humanitarian. During the visit to the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2011, we discussed the cooperation between the Turkish Academy of Sciences and the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, which he respected very much, as well as the role of the academies. He delivered a lecture on The Mission of Academia in the Age of Science, PRILOZI, MASA, XXXII, 2, p. 7-10 (2011), which we reprint in addition.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Neurocirurgiões/história , Neurocirurgia/história , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/educação , Idoso , Altruísmo , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
Trop Doct ; 49(3): 177-181, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060447

RESUMO

Our study assesses the influence of illness duration before establishing the diagnosis of brucellosis and initiating therapy on patients' main clinical characteristics and outcome in an endemic area. The medical files of 297 patients with brucellosis were retrospectively analysed. They were divided into four groups according to illness duration before initiating therapy: <10 days; 11-30 days; 31-90 days; and >90 days. There were significant differences in the occurrences of fever (P = 0.019), focal forms (P = 0.026), spondylitis (P = 0.034) and therapeutic failures (P = 0.006) between the groups. Duration of >30 days before treatment initiation is responsible for more serious clinical presentation and outcome, whereas illness duration of >90 days further worsens the clinical progression in human brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/terapia , Adulto , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 20(8): 674-677, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although patients prefer radial over femoral approach, some develop post-procedural arm pain after transradial procedures. This complication has been poorly defined in prior studies. We evaluated the extent of non-ischemic arm pain after transradial arterial access and identify variables that may be associated with this complication. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a 1706 patient database on patients who underwent transradial catheterization at three experienced radial centers. Arm pain was assessed by adult visual analogue scale (score > 4) defined as moderate to severe pain at the accessed forearm not related to hand ischemia and was evaluated at one day after the procedure. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of post-procedural arm pain. RESULTS: The overall incidence of post-procedural arm pain one day after a transradial procedure was 4.5%. Covariate associated with post-procedural arm pain were hemostasis compression >4 h (odds ratio (OR) = 29.47, p < 0.001), radial artery occlusion by Doppler evaluation (OR = 3.35, p < 0.001), radial artery diameter < 2.8 mm (OR = 2.66, p = 0.01), and multiple puncture attempts (OR = 2.31, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 in 20 patients undergoing transradial procedure have post-procedural arm pain one day after the procedure. Predictors of this complication relate to radial hemostasis, radial artery occlusion, radial artery diameter, and number of access attempts.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Dor/epidemiologia , Artéria Radial , Extremidade Superior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Punções , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 30(12): 461-464, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether use of different spasmolytic regimens (nitroglycerin or verapamil) administered soon after sheath insertion affects postprocedure radial artery occlusion (RAO) in patients who underwent transradial catheterization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial evaluating the use of 500 µg intra-arterial nitroglycerin just before sheath removal in 1706 patients undergoing transradial catheterization. Patients who received 200 µg or 300 µg nitroglycerin after sheath placement (group A; n = 688) were compared with patients who received 5 mg verapamil after sheath placement (group B; n = 1018). The primary endpoint was RAO diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound examination at 1 calendar day after the procedure. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of RAO. RAO occurred in 16.0% of group A and 5.4% of group B. After adjustment for potential confounders, neither the use of verapamil nor nitroglycerin was associated with RAO (odds ratio [OR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-3.02; P=.62). Radial artery compression >4 hours was the strongest predictor of RAO (OR, 5.41; 95% CI, 2.31-12.65; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the use of verapamil or nitroglycerin as a spasmolytic regimen was not associated with RAO. Given the strong association between duration of radial compression and RAO, further studies are needed to determine the interaction between vasodilator agents and compression protocols on RAO.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/tratamento farmacológico , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Nitroglicerina/administração & dosagem , Artéria Radial , Verapamil/administração & dosagem , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Vasodilatadores
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 35(5): 1208-1214, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study is to compare the growth and health-related physical fitness of normal, overweight/obese and stunted Macedonian children aged 6-14 years. METHODS: this cross-sectional study included 9,241 children of Macedonian nationality, from 19 primary schools from the central and east part of the Republic, out of which eight are in a rural setting and eleven are in urban environment. In order to carry out the objectives of the research, four anthropometric measurements, two derived anthropometric measurements, two measurements for assessing body composition and seven fitness tests were applied. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for socioeconomic status, residence status (urban or rural), sex, age and age squared. RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found in all anthropometric measurements, and measurements for assessing body composition among the groups of subjects classified as normal, stunted and overweight/obese (p < 0.000). Children who belong to the normal weight group achieve better results in all fitness tests (p < 0.001), except for the handgrip and bent arm hang tests. Overweight/obese children achieve better results in the handgrip fitness test compared to normal and stunted children. Stunted children achieve better results in the bent arm hang fitness test compared to normal and overweight/obese children. Intergroup differences were found in the sit and reach fitness test. CONCLUSION: when compared to normal weight children, both under- and over-nourished children performed poorer on some, but not all, health-related fitness tests.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
10.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 31(11): 1199-1206, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307896

RESUMO

Background The extent of the obesity epidemic among youth is an important public health statistic which provides an indication of the future burden of non-communicable diseases. Many developing countries, including Albania, do not have systematic and repeated monitoring systems in operation. Methods The Balkan Survey of Inactivity in Children study is a population-based cross-sectional survey including Albanian children living in the four Balkan nation-states of Albania, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia and Montenegro. In total, 19,850 children from 49 schools were approached. The LMS method was used to provide body mass index (BMI), height, weight and waist circumference reference centiles for boys and girls. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) age- and sex-specific BMI cut-points were applied to evaluate adiposity levels. Results A sample of 18,460 participants aged 6-16 years old was available for creation of the BMI for age and sex reference centiles. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity) in the full sample was 21% (95% CI: 20%-21%) according to IOTF cut-off points and 28% (95% CI: 28%-29%) at WHO cut-off points. Overweight/obesity levels where higher in boys than in girls irrespective of the cut-off points applied (p<0.001). Noticeable between-country differences were observed with a prevalence of overweight/obesity of 40% (95% CI: 38%-42%) in Montenegro but only 20% (95% CI: 19%-21%) in Kosovo (WHO cut-off points). Conclusions Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent in Albanian children and adolescents. The apparent sex and country differences may inform public health actions.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Albânia/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Montenegro/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 35(5): 1208-1214, sept.-oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-179928

RESUMO

Objective: the objective of this study is to compare the growth and health-related physical fitness of normal, overweight/obese and stunted Macedonian children aged 6-14 years. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 9,241 children of Macedonian nationality, from 19 primary schools from the central and east part of the Republic, out of which eight are in a rural setting and eleven are in urban environment. In order to carry out the objectives of the research, four anthropometric measurements, two derived anthropometric measurements, two measurements for assessing body composition and seven fitness tests were applied. Normal-not stunted, not owt/ob; stunted-not owt/ob; and owt/ob-not stunted were compared with multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for socioeconomic status, residence status (urban or rural), sex, age and age squared. Results: statistically significant differences were found in all anthropometric measurements, and measurements for assessing body composition among the groups of subjects classified as normal, stunted and overweight/obese (p ˂ 0.000). Children who belong to the normal weight group achieve better results in all fitness tests (p < 0.001), except for the handgrip and bent arm hang tests. Overweight/obese children achieve better results in the handgrip fitness test compared to normal and stunted children. Stunted children achieve better results in the bent arm hang fitness test compared to normal and overweight/obese children. Intergroup differences were found in the sit and reach fitness test. Conclusion: when compared to normal weight children, both under- and over-nourished children performed poorer on some, but not all, health-related fitness tests


Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es comparar el crecimiento y la aptitud física relacionada con la salud de los niños macedonios normales, con sobrepeso/obesos y atrofiados de 6-14 años. Métodos: este estudio transversal incluyó a 9.241 niños de nacionalidad macedonia, de 19 escuelas primarias de la zona central y de la parte este de la República, de las cuales ocho están en zonas rurales y once, en entornos urbanos. Para llevar a cabo los objetivos de la investigación, se aplicaron cuatro medidas antropométricas, dos medidas antropométricas derivadas, dos mediciones para evaluar la composición corporal y siete pruebas de aptitud física. Normal-no atrofiado, no owt/ob; retraso en el crecimiento-no owt/ob; y owt/ob-no retraso en el crecimiento se compararon con el análisis multivariado de la covarianza que controlaba el estado socioeconómico, el estado de residencia (urbano o rural), el sexo, la edad y la edad al cuadrado. Resultados: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en todas las medidas y mediciones antropométricas para evaluar la composición corporal entre los grupos de sujetos clasificados como normales, atrofiados y con sobrepeso/obesos (p ˂ 0,000). Los niños que pertenecen al grupo de peso normal obtienen mejores resultados en todas las pruebas de condición física (p < 0,001), a excepción de las pruebas de agarre y flexión del brazo doblado. Los niños con sobrepeso u obesidad obtienen mejores resultados en la prueba de aptitud de la empuñadura en comparación con los niños normales y con retraso en el crecimiento. Los niños con retraso en el crecimiento logran mejores resultados en la prueba de aptitud del brazo doblado en comparación con los niños normales y con sobrepeso/obesos. Las diferencias intergrupales se encontraron en la prueba de aptitud de sentarse y alcanzar. Conclusión: en comparación con los niños con peso normal, tanto los niños malnutridos como los desnutridos tuvieron peores resultados en algunas pruebas de condición física relacionadas con la salud, pero no en todas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Força da Mão , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
14.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(4): 341-353, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177865

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n = 1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n = 3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. Results: Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. Conclusions: The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 65(6): 1680-1688, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992738

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging viral disease that was detected for the first time in the Balkan Peninsula in Greece in 2015. In April 2016, there was a reoccurrence in Greece and the spread of the disease for the first time into Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro. The veterinary services of the countries responded with different strategies to control the disease, mostly based on mass vaccination campaigns and diverse stamping out approaches. During 2017, the epidemic was mostly controlled except for outbreaks reported in Albania, Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The study aims to quantify the cost of disease and control measures in three selected Balkan countries, that is, Albania, Bulgaria and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, which were differently affected by the disease, had different animal production structures and implemented different control strategies. The total cost for the three countries was 20.9 million Euro (EUR 20.9 m), mostly incurred in 2016 (EUR 16.6 m), when the disease was spreading throughout the Balkan region. In 2017 (data until October), the cost was EUR 4.0 m, mainly due to vaccination costs. Bulgaria was the country with the highest total cost at EUR 8.6 m, followed by the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (EUR 6.7 m) and Albania (EUR 5.3 m). According to our data, the average cost per affected herd in 2016 was EUR 869, EUR 6,994 and EUR 3,071 in Albania, Bulgaria and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, respectively. The cost per animal in the affected herds was EUR 539, 147 and 258, respectively. The results from this study are useful to understand the cost of LSD outbreaks in the region, which might contribute to improve the surveillance and control of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Análise Custo-Benefício , Surtos de Doenças/economia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doença Nodular Cutânea/economia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Humanos , Doença Nodular Cutânea/epidemiologia , Doença Nodular Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Doença Nodular Cutânea/virologia , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 46(4): 341-353, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Investigation of the geographic variation in asthma prevalence can improve our understanding of asthma etiology and management. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among adolescents living in two distinct international regions and to investigate reasons for observed differences. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 13-14 year olds was completed in Saskatoon, Canada (n=1200) and Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (n=3026), as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3 study. Surveys were self-completed by students following the ISAAC protocol. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate associations with reports of asthma and current wheeze. A mediation analysis was then completed. RESULTS: Asthma prevalence was much higher in Saskatoon than Skopje (21.3% vs. 1.7%) as was the prevalence of current wheeze (28.2% vs. 8.8%). Higher paracetamol (acetaminophen) use was a consistent risk factor for asthma and wheeze in both locations and showed dose-response relationships. In both countries, paracetamol use and physical activity mediated some of the association for both asthma and wheeze. In Saskatoon, among those with current wheeze, 42.6% reported ever having a diagnosis of asthma compared to 10.2% among Skopje adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the variation in risk factors between the two locations may explain some of the differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheeze between these two study sites. However, diagnostic labeling patterns should not be ruled out as another potential explanatory factor.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Med Arch ; 72(1): 26-30, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29416214

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a malignancy originating in the transformation zone of the cervix, most commonly in the squamous cells. It is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the third most common cause of female cancer death. Genital human papilloma viruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted and approximately 630 milion people worldwide are infected. More than 200 genotypes, subtypes and variants have been reported, 13-15 being oncogenic type, which could be responsible for cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cancer. Aim: Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this infection and to identify specific types of human papiloma virus in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Macedonian women. Material and methods: The study was conducted at the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skopje, Macedonia, in a period of four years. The study was performed on a cohort of 1895, 18 - 73 year old patients who during primary examination had already abnormal PAP smear test. Cervical cells were collected in the lithotomy gynecological position of the patient, using endocervical cytobrush and cotton-tipped swab, and both were placed in sterile test tube with phosphate buffered saline. Samples were stored at temperature of 2 - 8 °C and Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) genotyping was analyzed within 7 days by multiple Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. Results: The mean age of enrolled women was 40,8 years±10.36 SD(minimum of 18 and maximum 73 years. Among the patients, the presence of HPV by using PCR was detected in 40,68 % (769 patients) and was highly associated with cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HPV was highest (82,1%) in women aged 20-years or less and it decreased with age and was lowest (19,9%) among patients older than 50 years. The prevalence of oncogenic types of the virus was higher if the cytologic diagnosis is CIN 3/Carcinoma in situ (CIS). In these patients detection of high risk HPV was in 79,1% females with CIN 3 and 97,5 % in females with CIS. The lowest prevalence was detected in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (23,9%) and CIN 1-25 (6%). Results of HPV typing show that genotypes were found either single or multiple in both single and multiple infections. We have seen that HPV 16, 18 and 31 were the most common types detected among the patients from Macedonia. HPV 16 was present even in 52,1 % of women with CIS and in 41,2% in women with CIN 3. HPV type 31 ranked second in patients wit CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 but HPV 18 ranked second in patients with CIS with (12,8%). Surprisingly, patients with mixed infection had more low grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (LSIL) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) then CIS. Conclusion: Among Macedonian women, HPV 16, 31 and 18 were HPV types strongly associated with intraepithelial cervical lesions and cervical cancers. The prevalence of high risk HPV was highest in youngest women, but the risk was highest among patients with invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Surprisingly, patients with mixed infection had more LSIL and HSIL then CIS.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 168(3): 745-753, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29335924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to establish the spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations among the breast cancer (BC) patients from the Republic of Macedonia. METHODS: We used targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS), Sanger DNA sequencing, and multiplex ligation probe amplification analysis (MLPA) to search for point mutations and deletions/duplications involving BRCA1 and BRCA2-coding regions. RESULTS: We have analyzed a total of 313 BC patients, enriched for family history of cancer, early age of onset and bilateral and/or triple negative (TN) BC. A total of 26 pathogenic mutations were observed in 49 unrelated BC patients (49/313, 15.7%). BRCA2 mutations (27/49, 55.1%) were more common than BRCA1 mutations (22/49, 44.9%). We identified five novel point mutations, one in BRCA1 (c.4352_4356delA) and four in BRCA2 (c.151G>T, c.4707_4708delCA, c.7811_7814delTGTG, and c.9304_9305delG), as well as two novel deletions involving parts of the BRCA1 gene (c.81-?_593+?del and c.5470-?_5530+?del). The most common mutations were c.181T>G, c.5266dupC, and c.3700_3704del5 in BRCA1 and c.7879A>T, c.8317_8330del14 and c.5722_5723delCT in BRCA2 gene. Thus far, BRCA2 c.7879A>T and c.8317_8330del14 mutations have been described in several isolated cases; however, our study is the first one showing that they have a founder effect among Macedonian population. Nine recurrent mutations account for 65.3% of all of the detected mutations allowing for implementation of a fast first-step BRCA1/2 mutational screening strategy in our country. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive view of known and novel BRCA1/2 mutations in BC patients from the Republic of Macedonia and contributes to the global spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia
19.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 39(2-3): 113-120, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors can cause infection and other pathological conditions in mothers during childbirth. These risk factors and diseases/complications can be prevented or timely detected through the implementation of special protocols/procedures. The aim of this paper is to identify the implementation of procedures/measures for the prevention and detection of infections and risk factors for morbidity and mortality in four hospitals in the Republic of Macedonia, before and during childbirth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in four hospitals in R. Macedonia, in December 2016, on certain days according to the same principle of selection in all institutions. The questionnaire used contained relevant and specific questions related to the application of procedures and protocols at the maternity clinic at the time of admission to the birthplace and immediately prior to delivery. RESULTS: The study analyzes the performed procedures from 137 obstetric histories. Cardiotocograph was taken after the admission in a hospital in 86% of the mothers; a temperature was measured at only 47.5%, and arterial tension at 89.8%. Immediately before delivery, the color and odor of the vaginal discharge in 98.5% of the mothers was checked, urine was analyzed only in 8% of the mothers, and the analysis of the time of rupture of the mammalian sheaths in 98.6% of the mothers. CONCLUSION: The study showed that part of the analyzed procedures was not sufficiently implemented, and the percentage distribution varied between hospitals. There is a need for introduction of organized programs with standard procedures in maternity wards in order to protect against infections and other pathological conditions during childbirth.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Mães , Parto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cardiotocografia , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 39(2-3): 69-78, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864365

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by synovial tissue inflammation that leads to structural damage and disability. There are several treatment options available, which include glucocorticoids, DMARDs and biologics given alone as monotherapy or in a variety of combinations. Recent evidence has shown that early treatment is important in reducing the rate of progression of erosions and decreasing disability. The lack of adequate statistical data on number of patients that are eligible for first-line therapy/monotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis in Macedonia, triggered this epidemiological analyse describing eligible patients for first-line treatment/monotherapy distributed by gender, age and geographical allocation. The study was conducted by fulfilling a tailored questionnaire every two months in a period of six months (September 2017-February 2018) by including summarized data not related to personal data of patients nor specific drug information. The results have shown that a total of 115 patients in Macedonia are eligible for first-line therapy, whereby 54 (46%) patients were eligible for monotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. Precise determination of these data provides patients' determination by geographical allocation and proper selection of the best treatment option and optimized therapy for each patient, furthermore when subcutaneous formulation of tocilizumab is available as an effective clinically proven treatment option for RA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , República da Macedônia do Norte/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento
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