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1.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 1037-1050.e5, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882183

RESUMO

DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are dangerous lesions threatening genomic stability. Fidelity of DSB repair is best achieved by recombination with a homologous template sequence. In yeast, transcript RNA was shown to template DSB repair of DNA. However, molecular pathways of RNA-driven repair processes remain obscure. Utilizing assays of RNA-DNA recombination with and without an induced DSB in yeast DNA, we characterize three forms of RNA-mediated genomic modifications: RNA- and cDNA-templated DSB repair (R-TDR and c-TDR) using an RNA transcript or a DNA copy of the RNA transcript for DSB repair, respectively, and a new mechanism of RNA-templated DNA modification (R-TDM) induced by spontaneous or mutagen-induced breaks. While c-TDR requires reverse transcriptase, translesion DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) plays a major role in R-TDR, and it is essential for R-TDM. This study characterizes mechanisms of RNA-DNA recombination, uncovering a role of Pol ζ in transferring genetic information from transcript RNA to DNA.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , DNA/ultraestrutura , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/ultraestrutura , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/ultraestrutura , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4124, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807787

RESUMO

In response to DNA damage, a synthetic lethal relationship exists between the cell cycle checkpoint kinase MK2 and the tumor suppressor p53. Here, we describe the concept of augmented synthetic lethality (ASL): depletion of a third gene product enhances a pre-existing synthetic lethal combination. We show that loss of the DNA repair protein XPA markedly augments the synthetic lethality between MK2 and p53, enhancing anti-tumor responses alone and in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy. Delivery of siRNA-peptide nanoplexes co-targeting MK2 and XPA to pre-existing p53-deficient tumors in a highly aggressive, immunocompetent mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma improves long-term survival and cisplatin response beyond those of the synthetic lethal p53 mutant/MK2 combination alone. These findings establish a mechanism for co-targeting DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints in combination with repair of cisplatin-DNA lesions in vivo using RNAi nanocarriers, and motivate further exploration of ASL as a generalized strategy to improve cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/genética , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Nanomedicina/métodos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3811, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732914

RESUMO

Intratumoral genomic heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM) is a barrier to overcoming therapy resistance. Treatments that are effective independent of genotype are urgently needed. By correlating intracellular metabolite levels with radiation resistance across dozens of genomically-distinct models of GBM, we find that purine metabolites, especially guanylates, strongly correlate with radiation resistance. Inhibiting GTP synthesis radiosensitizes GBM cells and patient-derived neurospheres by impairing DNA repair. Likewise, administration of exogenous purine nucleosides protects sensitive GBM models from radiation by promoting DNA repair. Neither modulating pyrimidine metabolism nor purine salvage has similar effects. An FDA-approved inhibitor of GTP synthesis potentiates the effects of radiation in flank and orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models of GBM. High expression of the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo GTP synthesis is associated with shorter survival in GBM patients. These findings indicate that inhibiting purine synthesis may be a promising strategy to overcome therapy resistance in this genomically heterogeneous disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Guanosina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Nucleosídeos de Purina/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3907, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764578

RESUMO

Nucleic acids can fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures that can fine-tune biological processes. Proteins are required to recognize G4 structures and coordinate their function. Here we identify Zuo1 as a novel G4-binding protein in vitro and in vivo. In vivo in the absence of Zuo1 fewer G4 structures form, cell growth slows and cells become UV sensitive. Subsequent experiments reveal that these cellular changes are due to reduced levels of G4 structures. Zuo1 function at G4 structures results in the recruitment of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, which has a positive effect on genome stability. Cells lacking functional NER, as well as Zuo1, accumulate G4 structures, which become accessible to translesion synthesis. Our results suggest a model in which Zuo1 supports NER function and regulates the choice of the DNA repair pathway nearby G4 structures.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Quadruplex G , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Aptidão Genética , Genoma Fúngico , Instabilidade Genômica , Modelos Biológicos , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 564-574, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822602

RESUMO

KAT5 encodes an essential lysine acetyltransferase, previously called TIP60, which is involved in regulating gene expression, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, apoptosis, and cell proliferation; but it remains unclear whether variants in this gene cause a genetic disease. Here, we study three individuals with heterozygous de novo missense variants in KAT5 that affect normally invariant residues, with one at the chromodomain (p.Arg53His) and two at or near the acetyl-CoA binding site (p.Cys369Ser and p.Ser413Ala). All three individuals have cerebral malformations, seizures, global developmental delay or intellectual disability, and severe sleep disturbance. Progressive cerebellar atrophy was also noted. Histone acetylation assays with purified variant KAT5 demonstrated that the variants decrease or abolish the ability of the resulting NuA4/TIP60 multi-subunit complexes to acetylate the histone H4 tail in chromatin. Transcriptomic analysis in affected individual fibroblasts showed deregulation of multiple genes that control development. Moreover, there was also upregulated expression of PER1 (a key gene involved in circadian control) in agreement with sleep anomalies in all of the individuals. In conclusion, dominant missense KAT5 variants cause histone acetylation deficiency with transcriptional dysregulation of multiples genes, thereby leading to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with sleep disturbance, cerebellar atrophy, and facial dysmorphisms, and suggesting a recognizable syndrome.


Assuntos
Atrofia/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Lisina Acetiltransferase 5/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cerebelares/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética
6.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 881-901, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768408

RESUMO

Nucleosomes package genomic DNA into chromatin. By regulating DNA access for transcription, replication, DNA repair, and epigenetic modification, chromatin forms the nexus of most nuclear processes. In addition, dynamic organization of chromatin underlies both regulation of gene expression and evolution of chromosomes into individualized sister objects, which can segregate cleanly to different daughter cells at anaphase. This collaborative review shines a spotlight on technologies that will be crucial to interrogate key questions in chromatin and chromosome biology including state-of-the-art microscopy techniques, tools to physically manipulate chromatin, single-cell methods to measure chromatin accessibility, computational imaging with neural networks and analytical tools to interpret chromatin structure and dynamics. In addition, this review provides perspectives on how these tools can be applied to specific research fields such as genome stability and developmental biology and to test concepts such as phase separation of chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos/genética , DNA/genética , Nucleossomos/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Humanos
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19517-19527, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727901

RESUMO

Oxidative damage to DNA is a threat to the genomic integrity and coding accuracy of the chromosomes of all living organisms. Guanine is particularly susceptible to oxidation, and 8-oxo-dG (OG), when produced in situ or incorporated by DNA polymerases, is highly mutagenic due to mispairing with adenine. In many bacteria, defense against OG depends on MutT enzymes, which sanitize OG in the nucleotide pool, and the MutM/Y system, which counteracts OG in chromosomal DNA. In Escherichia coli, antibiotic lethality has been linked to oxidative stress and the downstream consequences of OG processing. However, in mycobacteria, the role of these systems in genomic integrity and antibiotic lethality is not understood, in part because mycobacteria encode four MutT enzymes and two MutMs, suggesting substantial redundancy. Here, we definitively probe the role of OG handling systems in mycobacteria. We find that, although MutT4 is the only MutT enzyme required for resistance to oxidative stress, this effect is not due to OG processing. We find that the dominant system that defends against OG-mediated mutagenesis is MutY/MutM1, and this system is dedicated to in situ chromosomal oxidation rather than correcting OG incorporated by accessory polymerases (DinB1/DinB2/DinB3/DnaE2). In addition, we uncover that mycobacteria resist antibiotic lethality through nucleotide sanitization by MutTs, and in the absence of this system, accessory DNA polymerases and MutY/M contribute to antibiotic-induced lethality. These results reveal a complex, multitiered system of OG handling in mycobacteria with roles in oxidative stress resistance, mutagenesis, and antibiotic lethality.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/genética , Mycobacterium/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Mutagênese , Mutação , Mycobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Oxirredução
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008828, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609721

RESUMO

Homologous recombination (HR) has an intimate relationship with genome replication, both during repair of DNA lesions that might prevent DNA synthesis and in tackling stalls to the replication fork. Recent studies led us to ask if HR might have a more central role in replicating the genome of Leishmania, a eukaryotic parasite. Conflicting evidence has emerged regarding whether or not HR genes are essential, and genome-wide mapping has provided evidence for an unorthodox organisation of DNA replication initiation sites, termed origins. To answer this question, we have employed a combined CRISPR/Cas9 and DiCre approach to rapidly generate and assess the effect of conditional ablation of RAD51 and three RAD51-related proteins in Leishmania major. Using this approach, we demonstrate that loss of any of these HR factors is not immediately lethal but in each case growth slows with time and leads to DNA damage and accumulation of cells with aberrant DNA content. Despite these similarities, we show that only loss of RAD51 or RAD51-3 impairs DNA synthesis and causes elevated levels of genome-wide mutation. Furthermore, we show that these two HR factors act in distinct ways, since ablation of RAD51, but not RAD51-3, has a profound effect on DNA replication, causing loss of initiation at the major origins and increased DNA synthesis at subtelomeres. Our work clarifies questions regarding the importance of HR to survival of Leishmania and reveals an unanticipated, central role for RAD51 in the programme of genome replication in a microbial eukaryote.


Assuntos
Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Leishmania major/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008924, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673314

RESUMO

Microsatellites are short tandem repeats, ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and represent ~2% of the human genome. Among them, trinucleotide repeats are responsible for more than two dozen neurological and developmental disorders. Targeting microsatellites with dedicated DNA endonucleases could become a viable option for patients affected with dramatic neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we used the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 to induce a double-strand break within the expanded CTG repeat involved in myotonic dystrophy type 1, integrated in a yeast chromosome. Repair of this double-strand break generated unexpected large chromosomal deletions around the repeat tract. These deletions depended on RAD50, RAD52, DNL4 and SAE2, and both non-homologous end-joining and single-strand annealing pathways were involved. Resection and repair of the double-strand break (DSB) were totally abolished in a rad50Δ strain, whereas they were impaired in a sae2Δ mutant, only on the DSB end containing most of the repeat tract. This observation demonstrates that Sae2 plays significant different roles in resecting a DSB end containing a repeated and structured sequence as compared to a non-repeated DSB end. In addition, we also discovered that gene conversion was less efficient when the DSB could be repaired using a homologous template, suggesting that the trinucleotide repeat may interfere with gene conversion too. Altogether, these data show that SpCas9 may not be the best choice when inducing a double-strand break at or near a microsatellite, especially in mammalian genomes that contain many more dispersed repeated elements than the yeast genome.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Recombinação Genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Fúngicos/genética , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/genética , DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Conversão Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Distrofia Miotônica/patologia , Proteína Rad52 de Recombinação e Reparo de DNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
10.
Gene ; 758: 144966, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687945

RESUMO

RAD21 (also known as KIAA0078, NXP1, HR21, Mcd1, Scc1, and hereafter called RAD21), an essential gene, encodes a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair protein that is evolutionarily conserved in all eukaryotes from budding yeast to humans. RAD21 protein is a structural component of the highly conserved cohesin complex consisting of RAD21, SMC1a, SMC3, and SCC3 [STAG1 (SA1) and STAG2 (SA2) in metazoans] proteins, involved in sister chromatid cohesion. This function is essential for proper chromosome segregation, post-replicative DNA repair, and prevention of inappropriate recombination between repetitive regions. In interphase, cohesin also functions in the control of gene expression by binding to numerous sites within the genome. In addition to playing roles in the normal cell cycle and DNA DSB repair, RAD21 is also linked to the apoptotic pathways. Germline heterozygous or homozygous missense mutations in RAD21 have been associated with human genetic disorders, including developmental diseases such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) called Mungan syndrome, respectively, and collectively termed as cohesinopathies. Somatic mutations and amplification of the RAD21 have also been widely reported in both human solid and hematopoietic tumors. Considering the role of RAD21 in a broad range of cellular processes that are hot spots in neoplasm, it is not surprising that the deregulation of RAD21 has been increasingly evident in human cancers. Herein, we review the biology of RAD21 and the cellular processes that this important protein regulates and discuss the significance of RAD21 deregulation in cancer and cohesinopathies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Apoptose/genética , Esôfago de Barrett/genética , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Meiose/genética , Neoplasias/patologia
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008933, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692737

RESUMO

Structure-specific endonucleases (SSEs) play key roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. SSEs must be tightly regulated to ensure genome stability but their regulatory mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the activities of two SSEs, Dna2 and Rad16 (ortholog of human XPF), are temporally controlled during the cell cycle by the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase. CRL4Cdt2 targets Pxd1, an inhibitor of Dna2 and an activator of Rad16, for degradation in S phase. The ubiquitination and degradation of Pxd1 is dependent on CRL4Cdt2, PCNA, and a PCNA-binding degron motif on Pxd1. CRL4Cdt2-mediated Pxd1 degradation prevents Pxd1 from interfering with the normal S-phase functions of Dna2. Moreover, Pxd1 degradation leads to a reduction of Rad16 nuclease activity in S phase, and restrains Rad16-mediated single-strand annealing, a hazardous pathway of repairing double-strand breaks. These results demonstrate a new role of the CRL4Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase in genome stability maintenance and shed new light on how SSE activities are regulated during the cell cycle.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Endonucleases Flap/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Fase S/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17019-17030, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611815

RESUMO

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger transient pausing of nearby transcription, an emerging ATM-dependent response that suppresses chromosomal instability. We screened a chemical library designed to target the human kinome for new activities that mediate gene silencing on DSB-flanking chromatin, and have uncovered the DYRK1B kinase as an early respondent to DNA damage. We showed that DYRK1B is swiftly and transiently recruited to laser-microirradiated sites, and that genetic inactivation of DYRK1B or its kinase activity attenuated DSB-induced gene silencing and led to compromised DNA repair. Notably, global transcription shutdown alleviated DNA repair defects associated with DYRK1B loss, suggesting that DYRK1B is strictly required for DSB repair on active chromatin. We also found that DYRK1B mediates transcription silencing in part via phosphorylating and enforcing DSB accumulation of the histone methyltransferase EHMT2. Together, our findings unveil the DYRK1B signaling network as a key branch of mammalian DNA damage response circuitries, and establish the DYRK1B-EHMT2 axis as an effector that coordinates DSB repair on transcribed chromatin.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Transcrição Genética/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Inativação Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
13.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658192

RESUMO

Mammalian cells are constantly exposed to chemicals, radiations, and naturally occurring metabolic by-products, which create specific types of DNA insults. Genotoxic agents can damage the DNA backbone, break it, or modify the chemical nature of individual bases. Following DNA insult, DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are activated and proteins involved in the repair are recruited. A plethora of factors are involved in sensing the type of damage and activating the appropriate repair response. Failure to correctly activate and recruit DDR factors can lead to genomic instability, which underlies many human pathologies including cancer. Studies of DDR proteins can provide insights into genotoxic drug response and cellular mechanisms of drug resistance. There are two major ways of visualizing proteins in vivo: direct observation, by tagging the protein of interest with a fluorescent protein and following it by live imaging, or indirect immunofluorescence on fixed samples. While visualization of fluorescently tagged proteins allows precise monitoring over time, direct tagging in N- or C-terminus can interfere with the protein localization or function. Observation of proteins in their unmodified, endogenous version is preferred. When DNA repair proteins are recruited to the DNA insult, their concentration increases locally and they form groups, or "foci", that can be visualized by indirect immunofluorescence using specific antibodies. Although detection of protein foci does not provide a definitive proof of direct interaction, co-localization of proteins in cells indicates that they regroup to the site of damage and can inform of the sequence of events required for complex formation. Careful analysis of foci spatial overlap in cells expressing wild type or mutant versions of a protein can provide precious clues on functional domains important for DNA repair function. Last, co-localization of proteins indicates possible direct interactions that can be verified by co-immunoprecipitation in cells, or direct pulldown using purified proteins.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Animais , Humanos
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8461-8473, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633759

RESUMO

DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) and Rev1 are essential for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage. We have used yeast DNA polymerases η, ζ and Rev1 to study translesion synthesis (TLS) past a nitrogen mustard-based interstrand crosslink (ICL) with an 8-atom linker between the crosslinked bases. The Rev1-Pol ζ complex was most efficient in complete bypass synthesis, by 2-3 fold, compared to Pol ζ alone or Pol η. Rev1 protein, but not its catalytic activity, was required for efficient TLS. A dCMP residue was faithfully inserted across the ICL-G by Pol η, Pol ζ, and Rev1-Pol ζ. Rev1-Pol ζ, and particularly Pol ζ alone showed a tendency to stall before the ICL, whereas Pol η stalled just after insertion across the ICL. The stalling of Pol η directly past the ICL is attributed to its autoinhibitory activity, caused by elongation of the short ICL-unhooked oligonucleotide (a six-mer in our study) by Pol η providing a barrier to further elongation of the correct primer. No stalling by Rev1-Pol ζ directly past the ICL was observed, suggesting that the proposed function of Pol ζ as an extender DNA polymerase is also required for ICL repair.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , DNA/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Estruturas Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Cromossômicas/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Compostos de Mostarda Nitrogenada/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8445-8460, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644157

RESUMO

DNA lesions or other barriers frequently compromise replisome progress. The SF2 helicase RecG is a key enzyme in the processing of postreplication gaps or regressed forks in Escherichia coli. A deletion of the recG gene renders cells highly sensitive to a range of DNA damaging agents. Here, we demonstrate that RecG function is at least partially complemented by another SF2 helicase, RadD. A ΔrecGΔradD double mutant exhibits an almost complete growth defect, even in the absence of stress. Suppressors appear quickly, primarily mutations that compromise priA helicase function or recA promoter mutations that reduce recA expression. Deletions of uup (encoding the UvrA-like ABC system Uup), recO, or recF also suppress the ΔrecGΔradD growth phenotype. RadD and RecG appear to avoid toxic situations in DNA metabolism, either resolving or preventing the appearance of DNA repair intermediates produced by RecA or RecA-independent template switching at stalled forks or postreplication gaps. Barriers to replisome progress that require intervention by RadD or RecG occur in virtually every replication cycle. The results highlight the importance of the RadD protein for general chromosome maintenance and repair. They also implicate Uup as a new modulator of RecG function.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Mutação/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
16.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8474-8489, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652040

RESUMO

Highly toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) readily trigger the DNA damage response (DDR) in cells, which delays cell cycle progression to ensure proper DSB repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mitotic S phase (20-30 min) is lengthened upon DNA damage. During meiosis, Spo11-induced DSB onset and repair lasts up to 5 h. We report that the NH2-terminal domain (NTD; residues 1-66) of Rad51 has dual functions for repairing DSBs during vegetative growth and meiosis. Firstly, Rad51-NTD exhibits autonomous expression-enhancing activity for high-level production of native Rad51 and when fused to exogenous ß-galactosidase in vivo. Secondly, Rad51-NTD is an S/T-Q cluster domain (SCD) harboring three putative Mec1/Tel1 target sites. Mec1/Tel1-dependent phosphorylation antagonizes the proteasomal degradation pathway, increasing the half-life of Rad51 from ∼30 min to ≥180 min. Our results evidence a direct link between homologous recombination and DDR modulated by Rad51 homeostasis.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Meiose/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteólise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , beta-Galactosidase/genética
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8490-8508, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687193

RESUMO

Several functions have been proposed for the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (pol IV). Although much research has focused on a potential role for pol IV in assisting pol III replisomes in the bypass of lesions, pol IV is rarely found at the replication fork in vivo. Pol IV is expressed at increased levels in E. coli cells exposed to exogenous DNA damaging agents, including many commonly used antibiotics. Here we present live-cell single-molecule microscopy measurements indicating that double-strand breaks induced by antibiotics strongly stimulate pol IV activity. Exposure to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim leads to the formation of double strand breaks in E. coli cells. RecA and pol IV foci increase after treatment and exhibit strong colocalization. The induction of the SOS response, the appearance of RecA foci, the appearance of pol IV foci and RecA-pol IV colocalization are all dependent on RecB function. The positioning of pol IV foci likely reflects a physical interaction with the RecA* nucleoprotein filaments that has been detected previously in vitro. Our observations provide an in vivo substantiation of a direct role for pol IV in double strand break repair in cells treated with double strand break-inducing antibiotics.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase beta/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Exodesoxirribonuclease V/ultraestrutura , Recombinases Rec A/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Polimerase beta/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/ultraestrutura , Exodesoxirribonuclease V/genética , Imagem Individual de Molécula
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): e88, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710620

RESUMO

DNA synthesis is a fundamental requirement for cell proliferation and DNA repair, but no single method can identify the location, direction and speed of replication forks with high resolution. Mammalian cells have the ability to incorporate thymidine analogs along with the natural A, T, G and C bases during DNA synthesis, which allows for labeling of replicating or repaired DNA. Here, we demonstrate the use of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION to detect 11 different thymidine analogs including CldU, BrdU, IdU as well as EdU alone or coupled to Biotin and other bulky adducts in synthetic DNA templates. We also show that the large adduct Biotin can be distinguished from the smaller analog IdU, which opens the possibility of using analog combinations to identify the location and direction of DNA synthesis. Furthermore, we detect IdU label on single DNA molecules in the genome of mouse pluripotent stem cells and using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated enrichment, determine replication rates using newly synthesized DNA strands in human mitochondrial DNA. We conclude that this novel method, termed Replipore sequencing, has the potential for on target examination of DNA replication in a wide range of biological contexts.


Assuntos
Bromodesoxiuridina/química , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Timidina/genética , Animais , Biotina/química , Biotina/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanoporos , Timidina/química
19.
Mutat Res ; 854-855: 503196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660820

RESUMO

DNA is exposed to the attack of several exogenous agents that modify its chemical structure, so cells must repair those changes in order to survive. Alkylating agents introduce methyl or ethyl groups in most of the cyclic or exocyclic nitrogen atoms of the ring and exocyclic oxygen available in DNA bases producing damage that can induce the SOS response in Escherichia coli and many other bacteria. Likewise, ultraviolet light produces mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers that arrest the progression of the replication fork and triggers such response. The need of some enzymes (such as RecO, ExoI and RecJ) in processing injuries produced by gamma radiation prior the induction of the SOS response has been reported before. In the present work, several repair-defective strains of E. coli were treated with methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C or ultraviolet light. Both survival and SOS induction (by means of the Chromotest) were tested. Our results indicate that the participation of these genes depends on the type of injury caused by a genotoxin on DNA.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Resposta SOS em Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta SOS em Genética/genética , Alquilantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/genética , Metanossulfonato de Etila/farmacologia , Metanossulfonato de Metila/farmacologia , Mitomicina/farmacologia , Dímeros de Pirimidina/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18608-18616, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690696

RESUMO

Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism that removes RNA polymerase (RNAP)-stalling DNA damage from the transcribed strand (TS) of active genes. TC-NER deficiency in humans is associated with the severe neurological disorder Cockayne syndrome. Initiation of TC-NER is mediated by specific factors such as the human Cockayne syndrome group B (CSB) protein or its yeast homolog Rad26. However, the genome-wide role of CSB/Rad26 in TC-NER, particularly in the context of the chromatin organization, is unclear. Here, we used single-nucleotide resolution UV damage mapping data to show that Rad26 and its ATPase activity is critical for TC-NER downstream of the first (+1) nucleosome in gene coding regions. However, TC-NER on the transcription start site (TSS)-proximal half of the +1 nucleosome is largely independent of Rad26, likely due to high occupancy of the transcription initiation/repair factor TFIIH in this nucleosome. Downstream of the +1 nucleosome, the combination of low TFIIH occupancy and high occupancy of the transcription elongation factor Spt4/Spt5 suppresses TC-NER in Rad26-deficient cells. We show that deletion of SPT4 significantly restores TC-NER across the genome in a rad26∆ mutant, particularly in the downstream nucleosomes. These data demonstrate that the requirement for Rad26 in TC-NER is modulated by the distribution of TFIIH and Spt4/Spt5 in transcribed chromatin and Rad26 mainly functions downstream of the +1 nucleosome to remove TC-NER suppression by Spt4/Spt5.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases , Reparo do DNA/genética , Nucleossomos/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , DNA Helicases , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Humanos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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