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1.
Zootaxa ; 4789(2): zootaxa.4789.2.10, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056440

RESUMO

The Changeable Hawk-Eagle Nisaetus cirrhatus complex is represented by two taxa in mainland India: N. c. cirrhatus in the northern plains and peninsula and N. c. limnaeetus in the Himalayan foothills. Traditionally these taxa have been regarded as subspecies of one species, but recently they have been proposed to be different species. Here, we use an integrative taxonomic approach based on considerations of plumage, biometrics, genetics and vocalizations. Several plumage characters are significantly different between the two taxa, but crest length was the only one of 56 characters that was diagnostically different, with no overlap. About 30% of the birds had intermediate crest lengths, suggesting that they are hybrids or backcrosses, as also supported by the microsatellite results. PCAs of adult plumage show many intermediate individuals, irrespective of whether these birds were collected near a putative contact zone. There is restricted gene flow between the two taxa, presumably as a result of their largely allopatric distributions. On current knowledge, reproductive isolation appears to be weak at best, and we therefore recommend continuing to regard limnaeetus and cirrhatus as conspecific.


Assuntos
Águias , Falcões , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Índia , Repetições de Microssatélites
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180532, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901674

RESUMO

The restinga is a threatened Brazilian ecosystem and a highly heterogeneous environment. This work aimed to evaluate demographic and genetic aspects of Varronia curassavica and whether environmental heterogeneity can influence the studied population parameters. Three annual evaluations were carried out in an area of restinga in Florianópolis-SC, Brazil. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and the spatial distribution pattern was calculated by Ripley's K-function and correlated with environmental characteristics. To characterize diversity and genetic structure, eight microsatellite markers were used. This work demonstrated that variations in the distribution of individuals and genotypes can be related to specific environments. Dry lowlands were environments favorable to population development, and flooded lowland and mobile dunes were unfavorable. The fixation indices were distinct between environments, evidencing a tendency toward preferential crosses in favor of heterozygotes. We found absence of spatial genetic structure, indicating that genotypes are randomly distributed and that gene flow may be related to such genetic factors as the presence of autoincompatibility mechanisms. This diversity of environments contributed to the aggregate distribution and is relevant for the maintenance of demographic and genetic processes of the species in restingas, and this aspect should be considered for in situ conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Brasil , Demografia , Fluxo Gênico , Repetições de Microssatélites
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying stage II patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) at higher risk of progression is a clinical priority in order to optimize the advantages of adjuvant chemotherapy while avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Recently, the intensity and the quality of the host immune response in the tumor microenvironment have been reported to have an important role in tumorigenesis and an inverse association with tumor progression. This association is well established in microsatellite instable CRC. In this work, we aim to assess the usefulness of measures of T-cell infiltration as prognostic biomarkers in 640 stage II, CRC tumors, 582 of them confirmed microsatellite stable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured both the quantity and clonality index of T cells by means of T-cell receptor (TCR) immunosequencing in a discovery dataset (95 patients with colon cancer diagnosed at stage II and microsatellite stable, median age 67, 30% women) and replicated the results in 3 additional series of stage II patients from 2 countries. Series 1 and 2 were recruited in Barcelona, Spain and included 112 fresh frozen (FF, median age 69, 44% women) and 163 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE, median age 67, 39% women) samples, respectively. Series 3 included 270 FFPE samples from patients recruited in Haifa, Northern Israel, as part of a large case-control study of CRC (median age 73, 46% women). Median follow-up time was 81.1 months. Cox regression models were fitted to evaluate the prognostic value of T-cell abundance and Simpson clonality of TCR variants adjusting by sex, age, tumor location, and stage (IIA and IIB). In the discovery dataset, higher TCR abundance was associated with better prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] for ≥Q1 = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10-0.63, P = 0.003). A functional analysis of gene expression on these tumors revealed enrichment in pathways related to immune response. Higher values of clonality index (lower diversity) were not associated with worse disease-free survival, though the HR for ≥Q3 was 2.32 (95% CI 0.90-5.97, P = 0.08). These results were replicated in an independent FF dataset (TCR abundance: HR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.72, P = 0.007; clonality: HR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.38-7.94, P = 0.007). Also, the association with prognosis was tested in 2 independent FFPE datasets. The same association was observed with TCR abundance (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.93, P = 0.03 and HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1, P = 0.042, respectively, for each FFPE dataset). However, the clonality index was associated with prognosis only in the FFPE dataset from Israel (HR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.39-4.32, P = 0.002). Finally, a combined analysis combining all microsatellite stable (MSS) samples demonstrated a clear prognosis value both for TCR abundance (HR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.26-0.57, P = 1.3e-06) and the clonality index (HR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.44-3.15, P = 0.0002). These associations were also observed when variables were considered continuous in the models (HR per log2 of TCR abundance = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93, P = 0.0002; HR per log2 or clonality index = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.31, P = 0.016). LIMITATIONS: This is a retrospective study, and samples had been preserved with different methods. Validation series lack complete information about microsatellite instability (MSI) status and pathology assessment. The Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study had information about overall survival instead of progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: Results from this study demonstrate that tumor lymphocytes, assessed by TCR repertoire quantification based on a sequencing method, are an independent prognostic factor in microsatellite stable stage II CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
4.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 232-238, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118836

RESUMO

The genus Bryconcomprises fish species of significant socioeconomic and biological importance in Brazil. Despite that, the genetic knowledge about these species is scarce, especially regardingBrycon falcatus. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the transferability of heterologous microsatellite primers inB. falcatus for the first time. Heterologous primers obtained from B. opalinus, B. hilarii, B. insignis, B. orbignyanus, B. amazonicus, Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus lineatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, and Colossoma macropomum were evaluated. The primers that showed the best amplification patterns were applied to a sample of 22 individuals and the genetic parameters were calculated. Nine primers displayed satisfactory cross-amplification withB. falcatus: BoM5 (Brycon opalinus); Bh8, Bh13 and Bh16 (B. hilarii); Borg59 (B. orbignyanus); Bag22 (B. amazonicus); Par12 and Par80 (P. argenteus), and Cm1A8 (C. macropomum). The genetic parameters (number of alleles, effective alleles, allele richness, and expected and observed heterozygosity) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) confirmed the viability of these primers for population genetics analyses. Our study demonstrates the potential of transferability of microsatellite markers from related species and even different genera to B. falcatus, providing usefull tools for future population genetic studies in this species. (AU)


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Parâmetros/classificação , Genética Populacional
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008538, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease, that affects over 207 million people and causes over 200,000 deaths annually, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although many health measures have been carried out to limit parasite transmission, significant numbers of non-human primates such as Chlorocebus aethiops (Ch. aethiops) (vervet) and Papio anubis (baboon) are infected with S. mansoni, notably in Ethiopia, where they are expected to have potentially significant implications for transmission and control efforts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni isolates from human and non-human primates free-ranging in close proximity to villages in selected endemic areas of Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three transmission sites: Bochesa, Kime and Fincha. A total of 2,356 S. mansoni miracidia were directly isolated from fecal specimens of 104 hosts (i.e. 60 human hosts and 44 non-human primates). We performed DNA extraction and PCR amplification using fourteen microsatellite loci. RESULTS: At population scale we showed strong genetic structure between the three sample sites. At the definitive host scale, we observed that host factors can shape the genetic composition of parasite infra-populations. First, in male patients, we observed a positive link between parasite genetic diversity and the age of the patients. Second, we observed a difference in genetic diversity which was high in human males, medium in human females and low in non-human primates (NHPs). Finally, whatever the transmission site no genetic structure was observed between human and non-human primates, however, there appears to be little barriers, if any, host specificity of the S. mansoni populations with cross-host infections. CONCLUSION: Occurrence of infection of a single host with multiple S. mansoni strains and inter- and intra-host genetic variations was observed. Substantial genetic diversity and gene flow across the S. mansoni population occurred at each site and non-human primates likely play a role in local transmission and maintenance of infection. Therefore, public health and wildlife professionals should work together to improve disease control and elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças dos Primatas/parasitologia , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Papio , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Fatores Sexuais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0230404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866150

RESUMO

High-throughput SNP genotyping has become a precondition to move to higher precision and wider genome coverage genetic analysis of natural and breeding populations of non-model species. We developed a 44,318 annotated SNP catalog for Araucaria angustifolia, a grandiose subtropical conifer tree, one of the only two native Brazilian gymnosperms, critically endangered due to its valuable wood and seeds. Following transcriptome assembly and annotation, SNPs were discovered from RNA-seq and pooled RAD-seq data. From the SNP catalog, an Axiom® SNP array with 3,038 validated SNPs was developed and used to provide a comprehensive look at the genetic diversity and structure of 15 populations across the natural range of the species. RNA-seq was a far superior source of SNPs when compared to RAD-seq in terms of conversion rate to polymorphic markers on the array, likely due to the more efficient complexity reduction of the huge conifer genome. By matching microsatellite and SNP data on the same set of A. angustifolia individuals, we show that SNPs reflect more precisely the actual genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity and structure, challenging previous microsatellite-based assessments. Moreover, SNPs corroborated the known major north-south genetic cline, but allowed a more accurate attribution to regional versus among-population differentiation, indicating the potential to select ancestry-informative markers. The availability of a public, user-friendly 3K SNP array for A. angustifolia and a catalog of 44,318 SNPs predicted to provide ~29,000 informative SNPs across ~20,000 loci across the genome, will allow tackling still unsettled questions on its evolutionary history, toward a more comprehensive picture of the origin, past dynamics and future trend of the species' genetic resources. Additionally, but not less importantly, the SNP array described, unlocks the potential to adopt genomic prediction methods to accelerate the still very timid efforts of systematic tree breeding of A. angustifolia.


Assuntos
Araucaria/genética , Brasil , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Traqueófitas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Árvores/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4740, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958755

RESUMO

The immune system can recognize and attack cancer cells, especially those with a high load of mutation-induced neoantigens. Such neoantigens are abundant in DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient, microsatellite-unstable (MSI) cancers. MMR deficiency leads to insertion/deletion (indel) mutations at coding microsatellites (cMS) and to neoantigen-inducing translational frameshifts. Here, we develop a tool to quantify frameshift mutations in MSI colorectal and endometrial cancer. Our results show that frameshift mutation frequency is negatively correlated to the predicted immunogenicity of the resulting peptides, suggesting counterselection of cell clones with highly immunogenic frameshift peptides. This correlation is absent in tumors with Beta-2-microglobulin mutations, and HLA-A*02:01 status is related to cMS mutation patterns. Importantly, certain outlier mutations are common in MSI cancers despite being related to frameshift peptides with functionally confirmed immunogenicity, suggesting a possible driver role during MSI tumor evolution. Neoantigens resulting from shared mutations represent promising vaccine candidates for prevention of MSI cancers.


Assuntos
Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Vigilância Imunológica , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Taxa de Mutação , Seleção Genética , Microglobulina beta-2/genética
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876143

RESUMO

There are no guava cultivars resistant to the Meloidogyne enterolobii; for this reason, genetic breeding has been performed by introgressing genes into the current cultivars through interspecific hybridization. We used 33 microsatellite markers for the genetic-molecular characterization of segregating populations of Psidium resistant to M. enterolobii, aiming at selection within and between populations for generation advancement in the guava breeding program. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.60 to 2.09. Populations 1 (P. guineense × P. cattleyanum) and 5 (P. guajava × P. cattleyanum) obtained the greatest genetic diversity, which can be confirmed by the higher observed-heterozygosity values (0.422 and 0.312, respectively). Bayesian analysis showed that the populations were subdivided into three groups, agreeing with the number of groups observed by Nei's genetic distance. The population obtained from the P. guineense × P. cattleyanum cross differed from the others with a clear structuring, whereas the P. guajava × P. cattleyanum and P. cattleyanum × P. guineense populations were the most similar between each other. The SSR markers were efficient in discriminating the populations, and individual 80 may be employed in future crosses with guava, allowing generation advancement in the guava breeding program aimed at resistance to M. enterolobii.


Assuntos
Psidium , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cruzamento , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237546, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790795

RESUMO

Due to substantial population decline, the Korean orchid P. scolopendrifolia is considered endangered and highly threatened. Like many endangered species, it is vulnerable to biological and anthropogenic threats that can lead to the loss of genetic diversity and, ultimately, extinction. Therefore, the assessment of genetic diversity and population genetic structure is imperative for conservation. In this study, we newly developed 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Analyses of genetic diversity and population genetic structure that included 182 samples from 11 populations were conducted using microsatellite markers and four noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Our study revealed a relatively low level of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.529, He = 0.356), albeit harboring with private alleles based on microsatellite genotyping data, and high haplotype diversities based on chloroplast DNA sequences data. The results of STRUCTURE and PCoA based on microsatellite genotyping data showed population differentiations. An AMOVA based on chloroplast DNA sequence data further corroborated these conclusions, indicating about 70% of variations found among populations. Low genetic diversity and divergence among the population might have been caused by factors, such as asexual reproduction, demographic events (bottleneck and population expansion), geographic isolation, and low gene flow. The development and implication of conservation strategies and management of P. scolopendrifolia are proposed based on these results.


Assuntos
DNA de Cloroplastos/análise , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Orchidaceae/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Haplótipos , República da Coreia
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 96, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroplast genome sequence data is very useful in studying/addressing the phylogeny of plants at various taxonomic ranks. However, there are no empirical observations on the patterns, directions, and mutation rates, which are the key topics in chloroplast genome evolution. In this study, we used Calycanthaceae as a model to investigate the evolutionary patterns, directions and rates of both nucleotide substitutions and structural mutations at different taxonomic ranks. RESULTS: There were 2861 polymorphic nucleotide sites on the five chloroplast genomes, and 98% of polymorphic sites were biallelic. There was a single-nucleotide substitution bias in chloroplast genomes. A â†’ T or T â†’ A (2.84%) and G â†’ C or C â†’ G (3.65%) were found to occur significantly less frequently than the other four transversion mutation types. Synonymous mutations kept balanced pace with nonsynonymous mutations, whereas biased directions appeared between transition and transversion mutations and among transversion mutations. Of the structural mutations, indels and repeats had obvious directions, but microsatellites and inversions were non-directional. Structural mutations increased the single nucleotide mutations rates. The mutation rates per site per year were estimated to be 0.14-0.34 × 10- 9 for nucleotide substitution at different taxonomic ranks, 0.64 × 10- 11 for indels and 1.0 × 10- 11 for repeats. CONCLUSIONS: Our direct counts of chloroplast genome evolution events provide raw data for correctly modeling the evolution of sequence data for phylogenetic inferences.


Assuntos
Calycanthaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Mutação/genética , Nucleotídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Cloroplastos/genética , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Loci Gênicos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 173-185, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734417

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel and major QTL for the effective tiller number was identified on chromosomal arm 1BL and validated in two genetic backgrounds The effective tiller number (ETN) substantially influences plant architecture and the wheat yield improvement. In this study, we constructed a genetic map of the 2SY (20828/SY95-71) recombinant inbred line population based on the Wheat 55K array as well as the simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers. A comparison between the genetic and physical maps indicated the marker positions were consistent in the two maps. Additionally, we identified seven tillering-related quantitative trait locus (QTLs), including Qetn-sau-1B.1, which is a major QTL localized to a 6.17-cM interval flanked by markers AX-89635557 and AX-111544678 on chromosome 1BL. The Qetn-sau-1B.1 QTL was detected in eight environments and explained 12.12-55.71% of the phenotypic variance. Three genes associated with the ETN were detected in the physical interval of Qetn-sau-1B.1. We used a tightly linked KASP marker, KASP-AX-110129912, to further validate this QTL in two other populations with different genetic backgrounds. The results indicated that Qetn-sau-1B.1 significantly increased the ETN by up to 23.5%. The results of this study will be useful for the precise mapping and cloning of Qetn-sau-1B.1.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Bangladesh , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735595

RESUMO

Zingiber montanum (Z. montanum) and Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) are important medicinal and ornamental herbs in the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae. Chloroplast-derived markers are useful for species identification and phylogenetic studies, but further development is warranted for these two Zingiber species. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes of Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet, which had lengths of 164,464 bp and 163,589 bp, respectively. These genomes had typical quadripartite structures with a large single copy (LSC, 87,856-89,161 bp), a small single copy (SSC, 15,803-15,642 bp), and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb, 29,393-30,449 bp). We identified 111 unique genes in each chloroplast genome, including 79 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNAs and 4 rRNA genes. We analyzed the molecular structures, gene information, amino acid frequencies, codon usage patterns, RNA editing sites, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and long repeats from the two chloroplast genomes. A comparison of the Z. montanum and Z. zerumbet chloroplast genomes detected 489 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 172 insertions/deletions (indels). Thirteen highly divergent regions, including ycf1, rps19, rps18-rpl20, accD-psaI, psaC-ndhE, psbA-trnK-UUU, trnfM-CAU-rps14, trnE-UUC-trnT-UGU, ccsA-ndhD, psbC-trnS-UGA, start-psbA, petA-psbJ, and rbcL-accD, were identified and might be useful for future species identification and phylogeny in the genus Zingiber. Positive selection was observed for ATP synthase (atpA and atpB), RNA polymerase (rpoA), small subunit ribosomal protein (rps3) and other protein-coding genes (accD, clpP, ycf1, and ycf2) based on the Ka/Ks ratios. Additionally, chloroplast SNP-based phylogeny analyses found that Zingiber was a monophyletic sister branch to Kaempferia and that chloroplast SNPs could be used to identify Zingiber species. The genome resources in our study provide valuable information for the identification and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Zingiber and family Zingiberaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Zingiberaceae/genética , Códon/genética , Mutação INDEL , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Edição de RNA
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785243

RESUMO

Knowledge about population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities is important for the development of targeted management strategies for agricultural pest species. The apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae), is a pre-dispersal seed predator. Larvae feed on rowanberries (Sorbus aucuparia), and when rowanberry seed production is low (i.e., inter-masting), the moth switches from laying eggs in rowanberries to apples (Malus domestica), resulting in devastating losses in apple crops. Using genetic methods, we investigated if this small moth expresses any local genetic structure, or alternatively if gene flow may be high within the Scandinavian Peninsula (~850.000 km2, 55o - 69o N). Genetic diversity was found to be high (n = 669, mean He = 0.71). For three out of ten tetranucleotide STRs, we detected heterozygote deficiency caused by null alleles, but tests showed little impact on the overall results. Genetic differentiation between the 28 sampling locations was very low (average FST = 0.016, P < 0.000). Surprisingly, we found that all individuals could be assigned to one of two non-geographic genetic clusters, and that a third, geographic cluster was found to be associated with 30% of the sampling locations, with weak but significant signals of isolation-by-distance. Conclusively, our findings suggest wind-aided dispersal and spatial synchrony of both sexes of the apple fruit moth over large areas and across very different climatic zones. We speculate that the species may recently have had two separate genetic origins caused by a genetic bottleneck after inter-masting, followed by rapid dispersal and homogenization of the gene pool across the landscape. We suggest further investigations of spatial genetic similarities and differences of the apple fruit moth at larger geographical scales, through life-stages, across inter-masting, and during attacks by the parasitoid wasp (Microgaster politus).


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mariposas/genética , Oviposição/fisiologia , Animais , Frutas/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/parasitologia , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Mariposas/fisiologia , Oviposição/genética , Dispersão de Sementes/genética , Sorbus/genética , Sorbus/parasitologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785293

RESUMO

Hybrid performance during wheat breeding can be improved by analyzing genetic distance (GD) among wheat genotypes and determining its correlation with heterosis. This study evaluated the GD between 16 wheat genotypes by using 60 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to classify them according to their relationships and select those with greater genetic diversity, evaluate the correlation of the SSR marker distance with heterotic performance and specific combining ability (SCA) for heat stress tolerance, and identify traits that most influence grain yield (GY). Eight parental genotypes with greater genetic diversity and their 28 F1 hybrids generated using diallel crossing were evaluated for 12 measured traits in two seasons. The GD varied from 0.235 to 0.911 across the 16 genotypes. Cluster analysis based on the GD estimated using SSRs classified the genotypes into three major groups and six sub-groups, almost consistent with the results of principal coordinate analysis. The combined data indicated that five hybrids showed 20% greater yield than mid-parent or better-parent. Two hybrids (P2 × P4) and (P2 × P5), which showed the highest performance of days to heading (DH), grain filling duration (GFD), and GY, and had large genetic diversity among themselves (0.883 and 0.911, respectively), were deemed as promising heat-tolerant hybrids. They showed the best mid-parent heterosis and better-parent heterosis (BPH) for DH (-11.57 and -7.65%; -13.39 and -8.36%, respectively), GFD (12.74 and 12.17%; 12.09 and 10.59%, respectively), and GY (36.04 and 20.04%; 44.06 and 37.73%, respectively). Correlation between GD and each of BPH and SCA effects based on SSR markers was significantly positive for GFD, hundred kernel weight, number of kernels per spike, harvest index, GY, and grain filling rate and was significantly negative for DH. These correlations indicate that the performance of wheat hybrids with high GY and earliness could be predicted by determining the GD of the parents by using SSR markers. Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression and path coefficient) suggested that GFD, hundred kernel weight, days to maturity, and number of kernels per spike had the highest influence on GY.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/genética , Pão , Cruzamento , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Humanos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237765, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804960

RESUMO

The failure of the maternal immune system to recognize fetal antigens and vice versa due to MHC similarity between the foal and its dam might result in the lack of placental separation during parturition in mares. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of MHC similarity between a mare and a foal on the incidence of retained fetal membranes (RFM) in post-partum mares. DNA was sampled from 43 draft mares and their foals. Mares which failed to expel fetal membranes within three hours after foal expulsion were considered the RFM group (n = 14) and mares that expelled fetal membranes during the above period were the control group (n = 29). Nine MHC microsatellites of MHC I and MHC II were amplified for all mares and foals. MHC compatibility and MHC genetic similarity between mares and their foals was determined based on MHC microsatellites. The inbreeding coefficient was also calculated for all horses. The incidence of RFM in the studied population was 33%. Compatibility in MHC I and MHC II did not increase the risk of RFM in the studied population of draft mares (P>0.05). Differences in MHC similarity at the genetic level were not observed between mare-foal pairs in RFM and control group (P>0.05). We suspect that RFM in draft mares may not be associated with MHC similarity between a foal and its dam. Despite the above, draft horses could be genetically predisposed to the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Cavalos/imunologia , Endogamia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/genética , Incidência , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/imunologia , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Placenta Retida/imunologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
16.
Gene ; 763: 145048, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805312

RESUMO

Cross-contamination of cell lines is a highly relevant and pervasive problem. The analysis of short tandem repeats (STR) is a simple and commercially available technique to authenticate cell lines for more than two decades. At present, STR multiple amplification kits have been developed up to 21 loci while the current STR databases only provide 9-loci STR profiles. Here, we compared the advantages of 21-loci STR methodology using the same algorithm as 9-loci method. The 21-loci method reduced the uncertainty ratio for authentications by 97.5% relative to the 9-loci method and exclude effectively false positive. We show that the additional 12 loci helped to greatly reduce sample-site marker specificity arising from genetic isolation and the occurrence of null alleles, suggesting that inclusion of additional loci in these databases will ultimately improve the efficiency and accuracy of authentication of cell lines. Taken together, we demonstrate the utility of a 21-loci method in human cells, providing a novel marker panel for use as a valuable alternative to 9-loci analyses to minimize cell line authentication errors and reduce costs due to erroneous experiments.


Assuntos
Autenticação de Linhagem Celular/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem Celular , Autenticação de Linhagem Celular/normas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/normas
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804981

RESUMO

Dearth of genomic resources particularly, microsatellite markers in nutritionally and commercially important fruit crop, guava necessitate the development of the novel genomic SSR markers through the library enrichment techniques. Three types of 3' -biotinylated oligonucleotide probes [(CT)14, (GT)12, and (AAC)8] were used to develop microsatellite enriched libraries. A total of 153 transformed colonies were screened of which 111 positive colonies were subjected for Sanger sequencing. The clones having more than five motif repeats were selected for primer designing and a total of 38 novel genomic simple sequence repeats could be identified. The g-SSRs had the motif groups ranging from monomer to pentamer out of which dimer group occurred the most (89.47%). Out of 38 g-SSRs markers developed, 26 were found polymorphic, which showed substantial genetic diversity among the guava genotypes including wild species. The average number of alleles per locus, major allele frequency, gene diversity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content of 26 SSRs were 3.46, 0.56, 0.53, 0.29 and 0.46, respectively. The rate of cross-species transferability of the developed g-SSR loci varied from 38.46 to 80.77% among the studied wild Psidium species. Generation of N-J tree based on 26 SSRs grouped the 40 guava genotypes into six clades with two out-groups, the wild guava species showed genetic distinctness from cultivated genotypes. Furthermore, population structure analysis grouped the guava genotypes into three genetic groups, which were partly supported by PCoA and N-J tree. Further, AMOVA and PCoA deciphered high genetic diversity among the present set of guava genotypes including wild species. Thus, the developed novel g-SSRs were found efficient and informative for diversity and population structure analyses of the guava genotypes. These developed novel g-SSR loci would add to the new genomic resource in guava, which may be utilized in genomic-assisted guava breeding.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Psidium/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Biblioteca Genômica , Psidium/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18591-18599, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690681

RESUMO

Repeat associated non-AUG (RAN) translation is found in a growing number of microsatellite expansion diseases, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We show that RAN translation is highly regulated by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). In cells, structured CAG, CCUG, CAGG, and G4C2 expansion RNAs activate PKR, which leads to increased levels of multiple RAN proteins. Blocking PKR using PKR-K296R, the TAR RNA binding protein or PKR-KO cells, reduces RAN protein levels. p-PKR is elevated in C9orf72 ALS/FTD human and mouse brains, and inhibiting PKR in C9orf72 BAC transgenic mice using AAV-PKR-K296R or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug metformin, decreases RAN proteins, and improves behavior and pathology. In summary, targeting PKR, including by use of metformin, is a promising therapeutic approach for C9orf72 ALS/FTD and other expansion diseases.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72 , Metformina/farmacologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , eIF-2 Quinase , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730265

RESUMO

Mature sorghum herbage is known to contain several water-soluble secondary metabolites (allelochemicals). In this study, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with allelochemical characteristics in sorghum using linkage mapping and linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping. A sorghum diversity research set (SDRS) of 107 accessions was used in LD mapping whereas, F2:3 lines derived from a cross between Japanese and African landraces were used in linkage mapping. The QTLs were further confirmed by positional (targeted) association mapping with Q+K model. The inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts (WSE) was tested on germination and root length of lettuce seedlings in four concentrations (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). A Significant range of variations was observed among genotypes in both types of mapping populations (P < 0.05). A total of 181 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from antecedently reported map have been used for genotyping of SDRS. A genetic linkage map of 151 sorghum SSR markers was also developed on 134 F2 individuals. The total map length was 1359.3 cM, with an average distance of 8.2 cM between adjacent markers. LD mapping identified three QTLs for inhibition effect on germination and seven QTLs for root length of lettuce seedlings. Whereas, a total of six QTLs for inhibition of germination and ten QTLs for root length were detected in linkage mapping approach. The percent phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL ranged from 6.9% to 27.3% in SDRS and 9.9% to 35.6% in F2:3 lines. Regional association analysis identified four QTLs, three of them are common in other methods too. No QTL was identified in the region where major gene for sorgoleone (SOR1) has been cloned previously on chromosome 5.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sorghum/genética , Ligação Genética , Germinação/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/fisiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17903-17912, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661176

RESUMO

Accelerating declines of an increasing number of animal populations worldwide necessitate methods to reliably and efficiently estimate demographic parameters such as population density and trajectory. Standard methods for estimating demographic parameters from noninvasive genetic samples are inefficient because lower-quality samples cannot be used, and they assume individuals are identified without error. We introduce the genotype spatial partial identity model (gSPIM), which integrates a genetic classification model with a spatial population model to combine both spatial and genetic information, thus reducing genotype uncertainty and increasing the precision of demographic parameter estimates. We apply this model to data from a study of fishers (Pekania pennanti) in which 37% of hair samples were originally discarded because of uncertainty in individual identity. The gSPIM density estimate using all collected samples was 25% more precise than the original density estimate, and the model identified and corrected three errors in the original individual identity assignments. A simulation study demonstrated that our model increased the accuracy and precision of density estimates 63 and 42%, respectively, using three replicated assignments (e.g., PCRs for microsatellites) per genetic sample. Further, the simulations showed that the gSPIM model parameters are identifiable with only one replicated assignment per sample and that accuracy and precision are relatively insensitive to the number of replicated assignments for high-quality samples. Current genotyping protocols devote the majority of resources to replicating and confirming high-quality samples, but when using the gSPIM, genotyping protocols could be more efficient by devoting more resources to low-quality samples.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Genótipo , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Espacial , Algoritmos , Animais , Repetições de Microssatélites , Densidade Demográfica
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