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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 26(2): 149-151, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415743

RESUMO

Replication complexes of (+)RNA viruses of eukaryotes are associated with specialized membranous domains, termed replication organelles. How these structures develop is poorly understood. In a recent Cell paper, Laufman et al. (2019) reveal that enteroviruses recruit lipid droplets to support lipid synthesis required for the structural development of replication organelles.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Humanos , Gotículas Lipídicas , Lipídeos , Replicação Viral
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infections reported in recent epidemics have been linked to clinical complications that had never been associated with ZIKV before. Adaptive mutations could have contributed to the successful emergence of ZIKV as a global health threat to a nonimmune population. However, the causal relationships between the ZIKV genetic determinants, the pathogenesis and the rapid spread in Latin America and in the Caribbean remain widely unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterise three ZIKV isolates obtained from patient samples during the 2015/2016 Brazilian epidemics. METHODS: The ZIKV genomes of these strains were completely sequenced and in vitro infection kinetics experiments were carried out in cell lines and human primary cells. FINDINGS: Eight nonsynonymous substitutions throughout the viral genome of the three Brazilian isolates were identified. Infection kinetics experiments were carried out with mammalian cell lines A549, Huh7.5, Vero E6 and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mdDCs) and insect cells (Aag2, C6/36 and AP61) and suggest that some of these mutations might be associated with distinct viral fitness. The clinical isolates also presented differences in their infectivity rates when compared to the well-established ZIKV strains (MR766 and PE243), especially in their abilities to infect mammalian cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Genomic analysis of three recent ZIKV isolates revealed some nonsynonymous substitutions, which could have an impact on the viral fitness in mammalian and insect cells.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Replicação Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Animais , Brasil , Cercopithecus aethiops , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Cultura de Vírus
3.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 47, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455418

RESUMO

Rubella or German measles is an infection caused by rubella virus (RV). Infection of children and adults is usually characterized by a mild exanthematous febrile illness. However, RV is a major cause of birth defects and fetal death following infection in pregnant women. RV is a teratogen and is a major cause of public health concern as there are more than 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) estimated to occur every year. Several lines of evidence in the field of molecular biology of RV have provided deeper insights into the teratogenesis process. The damage to the growing fetus in infected mothers is multifactorial, arising from a combination of cellular damage, as well as its effect on the dividing cells. This review focuses on the findings in the molecular biology of RV, with special emphasis on the mitochondrial, cytoskeleton and the gene expression changes. Further, the review addresses in detail, the role of apoptosis in the teratogenesis process.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/fisiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Teratogênese , Apoptose/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/virologia , Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9241-9253, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369258

RESUMO

Antiviral compounds targeting viral replicative processes have been studied as an alternative for the control of begomoviruses. Previously, we have reported that the peptide AmPep1 has strong affinity binding to the replication origin sequence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). In this study, we describe the mechanism of action of this peptide as a novel alternative for control of plant-infecting DNA viruses. When AmPep1 was applied exogenously to tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with TYLCV, a decrease in the synthesis of the two viral DNA strands (CS and VS) was observed, with a consequent delay in the development of disease progress in treated plants. The chemical mechanism of action of AmPep1 was deduced using Raman spectroscopy and molecular modeling showing the formation of chemical interactions such as H bonds and electrostatic interactions and the formation of π-π interactions between both biomolecules contributing to tampering with the viral replication.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Begomovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , RNA Viral/química , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Begomovirus/química , Begomovirus/genética , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , RNA Viral/genética , Tabaco/virologia
5.
Yi Chuan ; 41(6): 494-508, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257198

RESUMO

Stress granule (SG) formation is a primary mechanism through which gene expression is rapidly modulated when the eukaryotic cells undergo cellular stresses (including heat shock, oxidative stress, starvation, viral infection). SGs have been proposed to affect mRNA translation and stability, as well as being linked to apoptosis and nuclear processes. Formation of SGs after viral infection result in blockade of viral protein synthesis and viral replication. Not surprisingly, viruses from diverse families have been found to modulate SG formation in infected cells by associating with important SG effector proteins. Here we provide a summary of the current understanding of the mechanism of SG formation, describe the current knowledge on viruses induce and/or modulate SGs in infected cells via phosphorylation of eIF2α, and regulation of SGs in virus systems. Further, we summarize recent progresses in understanding the relationship between viruses and stress granules in mammalian cells, and suggest that SG formation is an important aspect of the antiviral innate immune response.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Estresse Fisiológico , Replicação Viral , Vírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fosforilação
6.
Virol J ; 16(1): 87, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several potential NAI resistance sites have been found in human cases. However, the drug susceptibility and replication ability of HPAI H7N9 virus with such substitutions have not yet been studied. METHODS: Thirty-three HPAI H7N9 virus strains were isolated from human cases in China, and then sequences were analyzed to identify potential NAI resistance sites. Recombinant influenza viruses were generated to evaluate the effect of NA amino acid substitutions on NAI (oseltamivir or zanamivir) susceptibility and viral replication efficiency in MDCK cells. RESULTS: Four potential NAI resistance sites, R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y, were screened. All four substitutions conferred either reduced or highly reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir or zanamivir. 292 K not only highly reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir but also induced an increase in the IC50 of zanamivir. 119 V or 274Y conferred reduced susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir. Additionally, 246 T conferred reduced susceptibility to zanamivir. All tested NAI-resistant viruses were capable of replication in MDCK cells. The virus yields of rg006-NA292K were lower than those of rg006-NA292R at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h postinfection (P<0.05). Rg006-NA119V, rg006-NA246T or rg006-NA274Y showed comparable replication capacity to wild-type virus (except for rg006-NA274Y at 96 h, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 amino acid substitutions (R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y) in NA reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to NAIs. The NAI-resistant mutations in HPAI H7N9, in most cases, did not reduce the replication ability of the virus in mammalian cells. Special attention needs to be paid to these mutations, and the development of new anti-H7N9 drugs is of great importance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Zanamivir/farmacologia
7.
Virol J ; 16(1): 90, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBV) was first isolated over 40 years ago from a fruit bat in Australia. Normally, NBV does not cause human diseases, but recently several NBV strains have been associated with human respiratory tract infections, thus attracting clinical attention. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process in eukaryotic cells, degrades intracellular substrates, participates in multiple physiological processes, and maintains cellular homeostasis. In addition, autophagy is intimately involved in viral infection. METHODS: A new strain of NBV, isolated from a patient with a respiratory tract infection who returned to Japan from Bali, Indonesia, in 2007, was used in this study. NBV was rescued using a reverse genetics system involving cotransfection of BHK cells with 11 plasmids (pT7-L1 MB, pT7-L2 MB, pT7-L3 MB, pT7-M1 MB, pT7-M2 MB, pT7-M3 MB, pT7-S1 MB, pT7-S2 MB, pT7-S3 MB, pT7-S4 MB, and pcDNA3.1-T7), yielding NBV-MB. Recovered viruses were confirmed by immunofluorescence. The effect of NBV-MB on autophagy was evaluated by measuring the LC3-I/II proteins by immunoblot analysis after infection of BHK cells. Furthermore, after treatment with rapamycin (RAPA), 3-methyladenine (3-MA), chloroquine (CQ), or plasmid (GFP-LC3) transfection, the changes in expression of the LC3 gene and the amount of LC3-I/II protein were examined. In addition, variations in viral titer were assayed after treatment of BHK cells with drugs or after transfection with plasmids pCAGM3 and pCAGS3, which encode virus nonstructural proteins µNS and σNS, respectively. RESULTS: NBV-MB infection induced autophagy in host cells; however, the level of induction was dependent on viral replication. Induction of autophagy increased viral replication. By contrast, inhibiting autophagy suppressed NBV replication, albeit not significantly. The NBV-MB nonstructural protein µNS was involved in the induction of autophagy with viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: NBV-MB infection triggered autophagy. Also, the NBV nonstructural protein µNS may contribute to augmentation of autophagy upon viral infection.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Orthoreovirus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Linhagem Celular , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia , Genética Reversa , Carga Viral , Proteínas Virais/genética
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1140: 111-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317498

RESUMO

Replication and assembly of many viruses occur in viral factories which are specialized intracellular compartments formed during viral infection. For rabies virus, those viral factories are called Negri bodies (NBs). NBs are cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in which viral RNAs (mRNAs as well as genomic and antigenomic RNAs) are synthesized. NBs are spherical, they can fuse together, and can reversibly deform when encountering a physical barrier. All these characteristics are similar to those of eukaryotic membrane-less liquid organelles which contribute to the compartmentalization of the cell interior. Indeed, the liquid nature of NBs has been confirmed by FRAP experiments. The co-expression of rabies virus nucleoprotein N and phosphoprotein P is sufficient to induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions recapitulating NBs properties. Remarkably, P and N have features similar to those of cellular proteins involved in liquid organelles formation: N is an RNA-binding protein and P contains intrinsically disordered domains. An overview of the literature indicates that formation of liquid viral factories by phase separation is probably common among Mononegavirales. This allows specific recruitment and concentration of viral proteins. Finally, as virus-associated molecular patterns recognized by cellular sensors of RNA virus replication are probably essentially present in the viral factory, there should be a subtle interplay (which remains to be characterized) between those liquid structures and the cellular proteins which trigger the innate immune response.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão Viral , Vírus da Raiva , Corpos de Inclusão Viral/química , Corpos de Inclusão Viral/metabolismo , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 1-4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176393

RESUMO

Domestic ducks are considered as the interface between wild aquatic birds and terrestrial poultry and play an important role in the transmission and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, the infectivity of H9N2 AIVs in different domestic duck species has not been systematically evaluated. Here we investigated the infectivity of various genotypes of chicken H9N2 AIVs in Pekin duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), Mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) and Muscovy duck (Cairina Moschata) through intranasal inoculation. We found that Pekin ducks and Mallard ducks were generally resistant to chicken H9N2 virus infection, while Muscovy ducks were relatively susceptible to H9N2 AIVs. All the tested viruses were isolated from oropharynx, trachea and lung tissues of Muscovy ducks. Additionally, genotype 57 (G57) H9N2 AIVs, which was predominant in chickens since 2010, showed increased virus replication in this duck species, indicating an improved interspecies transmission ability of recent H9N2 viruses from chickens to ducks. Our results demonstrated the role of Muscovy ducks in the ecology of H9N2 AIVs. More attentions should be paid to this host during viral surveillances. Additionally, inactivated H9N2 vaccine may be unnecessarily used in Pekin and Mallard ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/fisiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Traqueia/virologia
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 140-146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176400

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV), and is characterized by respiratory diseases in piglet and reproductive disorders in sow. Identification of sustainable and effective measures to mitigate PRRSV transmission is a pressing problem. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of PRRSV plays a crucial role in inhibiting host innate immunity during PRRSV infection. In the current study, a new host-restricted factor, tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25), was identified as an inhibitor of PRRSV replication. Co-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the PRRSV N protein interferes with TRIM25-RIG-I interactions by competitively interacting with TRIM25. Furthermore, N protein inhibits the expression of TRIM25 and TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination to suppress interferon ß production. Furthermore, with increasing TRIM25 expression, the inhibitory effect of N protein on the ubiquitination of RIG-I diminished. These results indicate for the first time that TRIM25 inhibits PRRSV replication and that the N protein antagonizes the antiviral activity by interfering with TRIM25-mediated RIG-I ubiquitination. This not only provides a theoretical basis for the development of drugs to control PRRSV replication, but also better explains the mechanism through which the PRRSV N protein inhibits innate immune responses of the host.


Assuntos
Proteína DEAD-box 58/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Ubiquitinação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Ligação Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Suínos , Transfecção , Replicação Viral
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 147-153, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176401

RESUMO

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a typical neurotropic virus that can cause obvious nerve damage. Integrin α5ß1 is a transmembrane macromolecular that closely related to neurological function. We recently demonstrated that integrin α5ß1 plays a critical role in PHEV invasion in vitro. To determine the function and mechanism of integrin α5ß1 in virus proliferation in vivo, we established a mouse model of PHEV infection. Integrin α5ß1-FAK signaling pathway was activated in PHEV-infected mice by qPCR, Western blotting, and GST pull-down assays. Viral proliferation and integrin α5ß1-FAK signaling pathway were significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of ATN-161, an integrin α5ß1 inhibitor. Through a histological analysis, we found that ATN-161-treated mice only showed pathological changes in neuronal cytoplasmic swelling at 5 day post-infection. In summary, our results provide the first evidence that ATN-161 inhibits the proliferation of PHEV in mice and explores its underlying mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus 1/fisiologia , Integrina alfa5beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Replicação Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus 1/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Integrina alfa5beta1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 174-183, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176405

RESUMO

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and has led to significant consequences on the cattle industry worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulators that play critical roles in virus and host interaction. However, the roles of host miRNAs in BHV-1 infection remain largely unclear. In this study, a set of differentially expressed miRNAs by small RNA deep sequencing were analyzed in the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cells (MDBK) infected with BHV-1 after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post-infection compared to mock infection, and it was confirmed that bta-miR-2361 was significantly down-regulated. Moreover, bta-miR-2361 mimics transfection could inhibit BHV-1 replication. Combined with up-regulated genes from BHV-1-infected MDBK cells by deep RNA-sequencing and predicted by bioinformatics tools, early growth response 1 (EGR1) was putative target of bta-miR-2361. Furthermore, EGR1 was up-regulated during BHV-1 infection, and overexpression of EGR1 promoted BHV-1 replication whereas knockdown of EGR1 had the opposite effects. Subsequently, the target association between bta-miR-2361 and 3'UTR of EGR1 was further validated using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. In addition, overexpression of bta-miR-2361 resulted in decreased EGR1 mRNA and protein levels. Further mechanistic study showed that EGR1 stimulated BHV-1 UL46 promoter activity, but overexpression of bta-miR-2361 suppressed the production of UL46 gene. Collectively, this is the first study to reveal that bta-miR-2361 as a novel host factor regulates BHV-1 replication via directly targeting the EGR1 gene, which is a transcription factor that regulates viral UL46 gene of BHV-1. These results provide further insight into the study of BHV-1 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Virais/genética
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 21-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176408

RESUMO

Swine enteric coronavirus (CoV) is an important group of pathogens causing diarrhea in piglets. At least four kinds of swine enteric CoVs have been identified, including transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and the emerging HKU2-like porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV). The small intestines, particularly the jejunum and ileum, are the most common targets of these four CoVs in vivo, and co-infections by these CoVs are frequently observed in clinically infected pigs. This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of the porcine ileum epithelial cell line, IPI-2I, to different swine enteric CoVs. We found that IPI-2I cells are highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, and PEAV, as demonstrated by cytopathic effect and virus multiplication. However, only a small number of cells could be infected by PEDV, possibly due to the heterogeneity of IPI-2I cells. A homogeneous cell line, designated IPI-FX, obtained from IPI-2I cells by sub-cloning with limited serial dilutions, was found to be highly susceptible to PEDV. Furthermore, IPI-FX cells were also highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, as well as PEAV. Thus, this sub-cloned IPI-FX cell line is an ideal cell model to study the mechanisms of infection, particularly co-infections of swine enteric CoVs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/veterinária , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Intestino Delgado/citologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/patogenicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Replicação Viral
14.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 297, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host factors of influenza virus replication are often found in key topological positions within protein-protein interaction networks. This work explores how protein states can be manipulated through controllability analysis: the determination of the minimum manipulation needed to drive the cell system to any desired state. Here, we complete a two-part controllability analysis of two protein networks: a host network representing the healthy cell state and an influenza A virus-host network representing the infected cell state. In this context, controllability analyses aim to identify key regulating host factors of the infected cell's progression. This knowledge can be utilized in further biological analysis to understand disease dynamics and isolate proteins for study as drug target candidates. RESULTS: Both topological and controllability analyses provide evidence of wide-reaching network effects stemming from the addition of viral-host protein interactions. Virus interacting and driver host proteins are significant both topologically and in controllability, therefore playing important roles in cell behavior during infection. Functional analysis finds overlap of results with previous siRNA studies of host factors involved in influenza replication, NF-kB pathway and infection relevance, and roles as interferon regulating genes. 24 proteins are identified as holding regulatory roles specific to the infected cell by measures of topology, controllability, and functional role. These proteins are recommended for further study as potential antiviral drug targets. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal outbreaks of influenza A virus are a major cause of illness and death around the world each year with a constant threat of pandemic infection. This research aims to increase the efficiency of antiviral drug target discovery using existing protein-protein interaction data and network analysis methods. These results are beneficial to future studies of influenza virus, both experimental and computational, and provide evidence that the combination of topology and controllability analyses may be valuable for future efforts in drug target discovery.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 157: 143-151, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153462

RESUMO

Autophagy is a cell adaptive response that involves the process of microbial infections. Our previous study has indicated that Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection triggers the complete autophagic process in BmN-SWU1 cells, which is beneficial to the viral infection. Autophagy-related (ATG) protein ATG13, as part of the ULK complex (a serine-threonine kinase complex composed of ULK1, ULK2, ATG13, ATG101, and FIP200), is the most upstream component of the autophagy pathway, and how it affects virus infections will improve our understanding of the interaction between the virus and the host. This study has determined that the overexpression of the BmAtg13 gene promotes the expression of viral genes and increases viral production in BmN-SWU1 cells, whereas knocking down the BmAtg13 gene suppresses BmNPV replication. Moreover, the BmAtg13 overexpression transgenic line contributed to viral replication and increased mortality rate of BmNPV infection. In contrast, the BmAtg13 knockout transgenic line reduced viral replication 96 h post-infection. Furthermore, BmATG13 directly interacted with viral protein BRO-B, forming a protein complex. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that BmATG13 may be utilized by the BRO-B protein to promote BmNPV replication and proliferation, which, in turn, provides important insights into the mechanism that autophagy influences viral infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Nucleopolyhedrovirus/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética
16.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2231-2241, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177351

RESUMO

Viral persistence alters cellular antiviral activities. Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive free radical and a potent antiviral molecule, can inhibit replication of RNA and DNA viruses, but its production and effect during viral persistence are largely unknown. NO synthesis is stimulated in epithelial cells during acute infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and interferes with viral replication. In this study, we compared the levels of production of NO and expression of its regulatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS II) and arginase 1 (Arg-1), during acute and persistent RSV infection in a macrophage cell line to investigate their role in the control and maintenance of viral infection. We observed that NO and NOS II mRNA were induced at higher levels in acutely infected macrophages than in persistently infected macrophages, while the kinetics of NOS II protein expression were similar in both types of infected cultures, except that its disappearance was delayed during acute infection. Thus, NOS II was inducible and expressed at high levels during persistent infection, but production of NO was low relative to acute infection. This was not associated with a lack of enzymatic activity but instead was due to constitutive expression of the Arg-1 enzyme at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that arginase restricts availability of L-arginine as a substrate for NOS II to synthesize NO. This hypothesis was supported by showing that arginase enzymatic activity was inhibited in persistently RSV-infected cells by Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, increasing L-arginine availability in conditioned medium and producing increased levels of nitrites, concurrently with a significant reduction in virus genome replication, implying that Arg-1 overexpression contributes to the maintenance of the RSV genome in the host in persistent infection.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/fisiologia , Arginase/genética , Arginina/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/enzimologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/genética , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/genética , Replicação Viral
17.
Virol J ; 16(1): 73, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellular degradation mechanism, the UPS affects a variety of biological processes and participates in viral propagation. MAIN BODY: During hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the UPS is shown to act as a double-edged sword in viral pathogenesis. On the one hand, the UPS acts as a host defense mechanism to selectively recognize HBV proteins as well as special cellular proteins that favor the viral life cycle and induces their ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation to limit HBV infection. On the other hand, the HBV has evolved to subvert the UPS function for its own advantage. Moreover, in the infected hepatocytes, certain cellular proteins that are dependent on the UPS are involved in abnormal biological processes which are mediated by HBV. CONCLUSION: The molecular interaction of HBV with the UPS to modulate viral propagation and pathogenesis is summarized in the review. Considering the important role of the UPS in HBV infection, a better understanding of the HBV-UPS interaction could provide novel insight into the mechanisms that are involved in viral replication and pathogenesis and help to develop potential treatment strategies targeting the UPS.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Hepatite B/patologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ubiquitinação
18.
Virol J ; 16(1): 77, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza B virus is a main causative pathogen of annual influenza epidemics, however, research on influenza B virus in general lags behind that on influenza A viruses, one of the important reasons is studies on influenza B viruses in animal models are limited. Here we investigated the tree shrew as a potential model for influenza B virus studies. METHODS: Tree shrews and ferrets were inoculated with either a Yamagata or Victoria lineage influenza B virus. Symptoms including nasal discharge and weight loss were observed. Nasal wash and respiratory tissues were collected at 2, 4 and 6 days post inoculation (DPI). Viral titers were measured in nasal washes and tissues were used for pathological examination and extraction of mRNA for measurement of cytokine expression. RESULTS: Clinical signs and pathological changes were also evident in the respiratory tracts of tree shrews and ferrets. Although nasal symptoms including sneezing and rhinorrhea were evident in ferrets infected with influenza B virus, tree shrews showed no significant respiratory symptoms, only milder nasal secretions appeared. Weight loss was observed in tree shrews but not ferrets. V0215 and Y12 replicated in all three animal (ferrets, tree shrews and mice) models with peak titers evident on 2DPI. There were no significant differences in peak viral titers in ferrets and tree shrews inoculated with Y12 at 2 and 4DPI, but viral titers were detected at 6DPI in tree shrews. Tree shrews infected with influenza B virus showed similar seroconversion and respiratory tract pathology to ferrets. Elevated levels of cytokines were detected in the tissues isolated from the respiratory tract after infection with either V0215 or Y12 compared to the levels in the uninfected control in both animals. Overall, the tree shrew was sensitive to infection and disease by influenza B virus. CONCLUSION: The tree shrew to be a promising model for influenza B virus research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Tupaiidae/virologia , Animais , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Vírus da Influenza B/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nariz/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Árvores , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
19.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 50, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227007

RESUMO

Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), Genus Betanodavirus, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neuropathological disease that causes fish mortalities worldwide. The NNV genome is composed of two single-stranded RNA molecules, RNA1 and RNA2, encoding the RNA polymerase and the coat protein, respectively. Betanodaviruses are classified into four genotypes: red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV), barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus (BFNNV) and tiger puffer nervous necrosis virus (TPNNV). In Southern Europe the presence of RGNNV, SJNNV and their natural reassortants (in both RNA1/RNA2 forms: RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV) has been reported. Pathology caused by these genotypes is closely linked to water temperature and the RNA1 segment encoding amino acids 1-445 has been postulated to regulate viral adaptation to temperature. Reassortants isolated from sole (RGNNV/SJNNV) show 6 substitutions in this region when compared with the RGNNV genotype (positions 41, 48, 218, 223, 238 and 289). We have demonstrated that change of these positions to those present in the RGNNV genotype cause low and delayed replication in vitro when compared with that of the wild type strain at 25 and 30 °C. The experimental infections confirmed the impact of the mutations on viral replication because at 25 °C the viral load and the mortality were significantly lower in fish infected with the mutant than in those challenged with the non-mutated virus. It was not possible to challenge fish at 30 °C because of the scarce tolerance of sole to this temperature.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Linguados/virologia , Temperatura Alta , Mutação/genética , Nodaviridae/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Nodaviridae/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
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