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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003377

RESUMO

The world is currently experiencing the worst health pandemic since the Spanish flu in 1918-the COVID-19 pandemic-caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This pandemic is the world's third wake-up call this century. In 2003 and 2012, the world experienced two major coronavirus outbreaks, SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East Respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), causing major respiratory tract infections. At present, there is neither a vaccine nor a cure for COVID-19. The severe COVID-19 symptoms of hyperinflammation, catastrophic damage to the vascular endothelium, thrombotic complications, septic shock, brain damage, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and acute neurological and psychiatric complications are unprecedented. Many COVID-19 deaths result from the aftermath of hyperinflammatory complications, also referred to as the "cytokine storm syndrome", endotheliitus and blood clotting, all with the potential to cause multiorgan dysfunction. The sphingolipid rheostat plays integral roles in viral replication, activation/modulation of the immune response, and importantly in maintaining vasculature integrity, with sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) and its cognate receptors (SIPRs: G-protein-coupled receptors) being key factors in vascular protection against endotheliitus. Hence, modulation of sphingosine kinase (SphK), S1P, and the S1P receptor pathway may provide significant beneficial effects towards counteracting the life-threatening, acute, and chronic complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review provides a comprehensive overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease, prospective vaccines, and current treatments. We then discuss the evidence supporting the targeting of SphK/S1P and S1P receptors in the repertoire of COVID-19 therapies to control viral replication and alleviate the known and emerging acute and chronic symptoms of COVID-19. Three clinical trials using FDA-approved sphingolipid-based drugs being repurposed and evaluated to help in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms are discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Esfingolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Esfingosina-1-Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pandemias , Esfingosina/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4938, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009401

RESUMO

Antiviral strategies to inhibit Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and the pathogenic consequences of COVID-19 are urgently required. Here, we demonstrate that the NRF2 antioxidant gene expression pathway is suppressed in biopsies obtained from COVID-19 patients. Further, we uncover that NRF2 agonists 4-octyl-itaconate (4-OI) and the clinically approved dimethyl fumarate (DMF) induce a cellular antiviral program that potently inhibits replication of SARS-CoV2 across cell lines. The inhibitory effect of 4-OI and DMF extends to the replication of several other pathogenic viruses including Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and-2, Vaccinia virus, and Zika virus through a type I interferon (IFN)-independent mechanism. In addition, 4-OI and DMF limit host inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV2 infection associated with airway COVID-19 pathology. In conclusion, NRF2 agonists 4-OI and DMF induce a distinct IFN-independent antiviral program that is broadly effective in limiting virus replication and in suppressing the pro-inflammatory responses of human pathogenic viruses, including SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Dimetilo/agonistas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinatos/agonistas , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Succinatos/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011739

Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Bufanolídeos/química , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos Cardíacos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/química , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Digoxina/química , Digoxina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/genética , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4682, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943628

RESUMO

The ongoing Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emphasized the urgent need for antiviral therapeutics. The viral RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a promising target with polymerase inhibitors successfully used for the treatment of several viral diseases. We demonstrate here that Favipiravir predominantly exerts an antiviral effect through lethal mutagenesis. The SARS-CoV RdRp complex is at least 10-fold more active than any other viral RdRp known. It possesses both unusually high nucleotide incorporation rates and high-error rates allowing facile insertion of Favipiravir into viral RNA, provoking C-to-U and G-to-A transitions in the already low cytosine content SARS-CoV-2 genome. The coronavirus RdRp complex represents an Achilles heel for SARS-CoV, supporting nucleoside analogues as promising candidates for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Amidas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazinas/farmacocinética , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878932

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions within just a few months, causing severe respiratory disease and mortality. Assays to monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth in vitro depend on time-consuming and costly RNA extraction steps, hampering progress in basic research and drug development efforts. Here, we developed a simplified quantitative real-time PCR assay that bypasses viral RNA extraction steps and can monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth from a small amount of cell culture supernatants. In addition, we show that this approach is easily adaptable to numerous other RNA and DNA viruses. Using this assay, we screened the activities of a number of compounds that were predicted to alter SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication as well as HIV-1-specific drugs in a proof-of-concept study. We found that E64D (inhibitor of endosomal proteases cathepsin B and L) and apilimod (endosomal trafficking inhibitor) potently decreased the amount of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in cell culture supernatants with minimal cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, we found that the macropinocytosis inhibitor ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA) similarly decreased SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in supernatants, suggesting that entry may additionally be mediated by an alternative pathway. HIV-1-specific inhibitors nevirapine (a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI]), amprenavir (a protease inhibitor), and allosteric integrase inhibitor 2 (ALLINI-2) modestly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication, albeit the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were much higher than that required for HIV-1. Taking the data together, this simplified assay will expedite basic SARS-CoV-2 research, be amenable to mid-throughput screening assays (i.e., drug, CRISPR, small interfering RNA [siRNA], etc.), and be applicable to a broad number of RNA and DNA viruses.IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is continuing to cause immense respiratory disease and social and economic disruptions. Conventional assays that monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth in cell culture rely on costly and time-consuming RNA extraction procedures, hampering progress in basic SARS-CoV-2 research and development of effective therapeutics. Here, we developed a simple quantitative real-time PCR assay to monitor SARS-CoV-2 growth in cell culture supernatants that does not necessitate RNA extraction and that is as accurate and sensitive as existing methods. In a proof-of-concept screen, we found that E64D, apilimod, EIPA, and remdesivir can substantially impede SARS-Cov-2 replication, providing novel insight into viral entry and replication mechanisms. In addition, we show that this approach is easily adaptable to numerous other RNA and DNA viruses. This simplified assay will undoubtedly expedite basic SARS-CoV-2 and virology research and be amenable to use in drug screening platforms to identify therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947927

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease with severe acute respiratory syndrome, has now become a worldwide pandemic. Despite the respiratory complication, COVID-19 is also associated with significant multiple organ dysfunction, including severe cardiac impairment. Emerging evidence reveals a direct interplay between COVID-19 and dire cardiovascular complications, including myocardial injury, heart failure, heart attack, myocarditis, arrhythmias as well as blood clots, which are accompanied with elevated risk and adverse outcome among infected patients, even sudden death. The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms of myocardial impairment include invasion of SARS-CoV-2 virus via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 to cardiovascular cells/tissue, which leads to endothelial inflammation and dysfunction, de-stabilization of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, stent thrombosis, cardiac stress due to diminish oxygen supply and cardiac muscle damage, and myocardial infarction. Several promising therapeutics are under investigation to the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients with high risk of cardiovascular impairment, nevertheless to date, none have shown proven clinical efficacy. In this comprehensive review, we aimed to highlight the current integrated therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 and we summarized the potential therapeutic options, currently under clinical trials, with their mechanisms of action and associated adverse cardiac events in highly infectious COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5909-5917, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication may cause life-threatening complications after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of the study was to characterize CMV events, and the outcome of letermovir (LTV) CMV prophylaxis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of patients treated with an allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2020, we determined plasma CMV events, as well as associated risk factors. RESULTS: We identified 423 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT between 2010 and 2020. CMV DNAemia was found in 130/423 (30.7%) of patients. CMV reactivation rate was significantly higher in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease, HLA mismatch, and CMV IgG seropositivity of donors and recipients. Among 42 patients receiving LTV prophylaxis those, 5 (11.9%) showed CMV DNAemia under LTV versus 87/353 (24.6%) in a control group. CONCLUSION: Despite the development of better approaches with weekly monitoring and early treatment initiation, CMV reactivations play an important role after allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008660, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866199

RESUMO

Aedes mosquitoes can transmit dengue and several other severe vector-borne viral diseases, thereby influencing millions of people worldwide. Insects primarily control and clear the viral infections via their innate immune systems. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both evolutionarily conserved components of the innate immune systems. In this study, we investigated the role of MAPKs in Aedes mosquitoes following DENV infection by using genetic and pharmacological approaches. We demonstrated that knockdown of ERK, but not of JNK or p38, significantly enhances the viral replication in Aedes mosquito cells. The Ras/ERK signaling is activated in both the cells and midguts of Aedes mosquitoes following DENV infection, and thus plays a role in restricting the viral infection, as both genetic and pharmacological activation of the Ras/ERK pathway significantly decreases the viral titers. In contrast, inhibition of the Ras/ERK pathway enhances DENV infection. In addition, we identified a signaling crosstalk between the Ras/ERK pathway and DENV-induced AMPs in which defensin C participates in restricting DENV infection in Aedes mosquitoes. Our results reveal that the Ras/ERK signaling pathway couples AMPs to mediate the resistance of Aedes mosquitoes to DENV infection, which provides a new insight into understanding the crosstalk between MAPKs and AMPs in the innate immunity of mosquito vectors during the viral infection.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Digestório/virologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Imunidade Inata , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4417, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887884

RESUMO

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on March 11 by WHO, due to its great threat to global public health. The coronavirus main protease (Mpro, also called 3CLpro) is essential for processing and maturation of the viral polyprotein, therefore recognized as an attractive drug target. Here we show that a clinically approved anti-HCV drug, Boceprevir, and a pre-clinical inhibitor against feline infectious peritonitis (corona) virus (FIPV), GC376, both efficaciously inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells by targeting Mpro. Moreover, combined application of GC376 with Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue that inhibits viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), results in sterilizing additive effect. Further structural analysis reveals binding of both inhibitors to the catalytically active side of SARS-CoV-2 protease Mpro as main mechanism of inhibition. Our findings may provide critical information for the optimization and design of more potent inhibitors against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínio Catalítico , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Prolina/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Células Vero , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008773, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881988

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype I (GI) replicates more efficiently than genotype III (GIII) in birds, and this difference is considered to be one of the reasons for the JEV genotype shift. In this study, we utilized duck embryo fibroblasts and domestic ducklings as in vitro and in vivo models of a JEV amplifying avian host to identify the viral determinants of the differing replication efficiency between the GI and GIII strains in birds. GI strains induced significantly lower levels of interferon (IFN)-α and ß production than GIII strains, an effect orrelated with the enhanced replication efficiency of GI strains over GIII strains. By using a series of chimeric viruses with exchange of viral structural and non-structural (NS) proteins, we identified NS5 as the viral determinant of the differences in IFN-α and ß induction and replication efficiency between the GI and III strains. NS5 inhibited IFN-α and ß production induced by poly(I:C) stimulation and harbored 11 amino acid variations, of which the NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations were identified to co-contribute to the differences in IFN-α and ß induction and replication efficiency between the strains. The NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations resulted in alterations in the number of hydrogen bonds formed with neighboring residues, which were associated with the different ability of the GI and GIII strains to inhibit IFN-α and ß production. Our findings indicated that the NS5-V372A and NS5-H386Y variations enabled GI strains to inhibit IFN-α and ß production more efficiently than GIII strains for antagonism of the IFN-I mediated antiviral response, thereby leading to the replication and host adaption advantages of GI strains over GIII strains in birds. These findings provide new insight into the molecular basis of the JEV genotype shift.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Mutação , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Patos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica , Suínos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2245-2255, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975484

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Related Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health emergency. As only very limited therapeutic options are clinically available, there is an urgent need for the rapid development of safe, effective, and globally available pharmaceuticals that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry and ameliorate COVID-19 severity. In this study, we explored the use of small compounds acting on the homeostasis of the endolysosomal host-pathogen interface, to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection. We find that fluoxetine, a widely used antidepressant and a functional inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMA), efficiently inhibited the entry and propagation of SARS-CoV-2 in the cell culture model without cytotoxic effects and also exerted potent antiviral activity against two currently circulating influenza A virus subtypes, an effect which was also observed upon treatment with the FIASMAs amiodarone and imipramine. Mechanistically, fluoxetine induced both impaired endolysosomal acidification and the accumulation of cholesterol within the endosomes. As the FIASMA group consists of a large number of small compounds that are well-tolerated and widely used for a broad range of clinical applications, exploring these licensed pharmaceuticals may offer a variety of promising antivirals for host-directed therapy to counteract enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Endossomos/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Esfingomielina Fosfodiesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913009

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a recently emerged respiratory coronavirus that has infected >23 million people worldwide with >800,000 deaths. Few COVID-19 therapeutics are available, and the basis for severe infections is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of type I (ß), II (γ), and III (λ1) interferons (IFNs), potent immune cytokines that are normally produced during infection and that upregulate IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) effectors to limit virus replication. IFNs are already in clinical trials to treat COVID-19. However, recent studies highlight the potential for IFNs to enhance expression of host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), suggesting that IFN therapy or natural coinfections could exacerbate COVID-19 by upregulating this critical virus entry receptor. Using a cell line model, we found that beta interferon (IFN-ß) strongly upregulated expression of canonical antiviral ISGs, as well as ACE2 at the mRNA and cell surface protein levels. Strikingly, IFN-λ1 upregulated antiviral ISGs, but ACE2 mRNA was only marginally elevated and did not lead to detectably increased ACE2 protein at the cell surface. IFN-γ induced the weakest ISG response but clearly enhanced surface expression of ACE2. Importantly, all IFN types inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in a dose-dependent manner, and IFN-ß and IFN-λ1 exhibited potent antiviral activity in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Our data imply that type-specific mechanisms or kinetics shape IFN-enhanced ACE2 transcript and cell surface levels but that the antiviral action of IFNs against SARS-CoV-2 counterbalances any proviral effects of ACE2 induction. These insights should aid in evaluating the benefits of specific IFNs, particularly IFN-λ, as repurposed therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Repurposing existing, clinically approved, antiviral drugs as COVID-19 therapeutics is a rapid way to help combat the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Interferons (IFNs) usually form part of the body's natural innate immune defenses against viruses, and they have been used with partial success to treat previous new viral threats, such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. Nevertheless, IFNs can have undesirable side effects, and recent reports indicate that IFNs upregulate the expression of host ACE2 (a critical entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2), raising the possibility that IFN treatments could exacerbate COVID-19. Here, we studied the antiviral- and ACE2-inducing properties of different IFN types in both a human lung cell line model and primary human bronchial epithelial cells. We observed differences between IFNs with respect to their induction of antiviral genes and abilities to enhance the cell surface expression of ACE2. Nevertheless, all the IFNs limited SARS-CoV-2 replication, suggesting that their antiviral actions can counterbalance increased ACE2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interferons/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon Tipo I/efeitos adversos , Interferon gama/efeitos adversos , Interferons/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/virologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Forsythia/química , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877642

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Células CACO-2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(17): 9182-9187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965012

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has underlined that unknown viral infections, which jump from animals to humans, can be extremely dangerous. In case of new viruses as SARS-CoV2, available drugs can fail to contrast the virus aggressiveness leading patients to death. Long time is necessary to create a vaccine, but immediate solutions are necessary to stop the mortality COVID-19 related. We have learned that the immune-system is the key to reduce the severity of COVID-19 and, through its modulation, it has been possible saving people's life. In this short communication, we discuss the use of nutraceuticals to modulate and stimulate the immune answer for reducing the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. The nutraceuticals are safe and can be administered to all ages. In addition, combination of natural anti-viral elements and immune-stimulating molecules already successfully tested against others upper-respiratory tract infections-could be efficient against SARS-CoV2. We believe that these natural molecules could really be a valid ally against COVID-19, especially in this moment in which a SARS-CoV2 vaccine is still not available.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Sci Adv ; 6(35): eaba7910, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923629

RESUMO

Targeting a universal host protein exploited by most viruses would be a game-changing strategy that offers broad-spectrum solution and rapid pandemic control including the current COVID-19. Here, we found a common YxxØ-motif of multiple viruses that exploits host AP2M1 for intracellular trafficking. A library chemical, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA), was identified to interrupt AP2M1-virus interaction and exhibit potent antiviral efficacy against a number of viruses in vitro and in vivo, including the influenza A viruses (IAVs), Zika virus (ZIKV), human immunodeficiency virus, and coronaviruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. YxxØ mutation, AP2M1 depletion, or disruption by ACA causes incorrect localization of viral proteins, which is exemplified by the failure of nuclear import of IAV nucleoprotein and diminished endoplasmic reticulum localization of ZIKV-NS3 and enterovirus-A71-2C proteins, thereby suppressing viral replication. Our study reveals an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of protein-protein interaction between host and virus that can serve as a broad-spectrum antiviral target.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Cães , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/patologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/patologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Ligação Proteica/genética , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Viral/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
20.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 723-739, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754890

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC50 of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Crotonatos/farmacologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Leflunomida/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/biossíntese , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Toluidinas/farmacologia , Ubiquinona/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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