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1.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3019-3026, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598843

RESUMO

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a chemical compound that used is as a carrier in gene therapy/delivery. Some studies have investigated the microbicidal potential and antiviral activity (prophylactic or therapeutic) of PEI and its derivatives. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of branched polyethyleneimine (bPEI) on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Infected cells were treated with bPEI for 36 hours, and the concentration of the viral protein P24 (as a virus replication marker) was determined in cell culture supernatants. This study indicated that bPEI increased HIV replication and decreased the viability of infected cells through cytotoxicity. The toxicity of bPEI its association with and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis) have been reported in several studies. To investigate bPEI-induced cytotoxicity, we examined apoptosis and autophagy in cells treated with bPEI, and a significant increase in HIV viral load, the P24 antigen level, autophagy, and necrosis observed. Thus, treatment with bPEI leads to cytotoxicity and higher HIV virus yield.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoimina/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/genética , HIV/fisiologia , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/genética , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polietilenoimina/química , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596347

RESUMO

Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide and associated with significant mortality. To prevent or delay the deleterious effects of chronic infection by the hepatitis B virus, patients should be carefully followed, and antiviral therapy indicated according to specific recommendations. Currently, available drugs inhibit viral replication and slow or stop the progression of inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. However, the drugs for oral use in the treatment of hepatitis B, jointly referred to as nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, are indicated for prolonged use and have potential side effects. The reduction in bone mineral density was associated with the use of tenofovir, already evaluated in patients infected with HIV because the drug is also part of the therapeutic arsenal for this viral infection. There are few studies on the effects of tenofovir in patients with mono hepatitis B. Therefore, this literature review proposes to examine how hepatitis B acts in the body and the mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs (especially tenofovir) can affect bone metabolism.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900391, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479201

RESUMO

A series of novel 2-oxoimidazolidine derivatives were synthesized and their antiviral activities against BK human polyomavirus type 1 (BKPyV) were evaluated in vitro. Bioassays showed that the synthesized compounds 1-{[(4E)-5-(dichloromethylidene)-2-oxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene]sulfamoyl}piperidine-4-carboxylic acid (5) and N-Cyclobutyl-N'-[(4E)-5-(dichloromethylidene)-2-oxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene]sulfuric diamide (4) exhibited moderate activities against BKPyV (EC50 =5.4 and 5.5 µm, respectively) that are comparable to the standard drug Cidofovir. Compound 5 exhibited the same cytotoxicity in HFF cells and selectivity index (SI50 ) as Cidofovir. The selectivity index of compound 4 is three times less than that of Cidofovir due to the higher toxicity of this compound. Hence, these compounds may be taken as lead compound for further development of novel ant-BKPyV agents.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus BK/efeitos dos fármacos , Cidofovir/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Imidazolidinas/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cidofovir/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Imidazolidinas/síntese química , Imidazolidinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Phytochemistry ; 167: 112101, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473556

RESUMO

In an effort to identify inhibitors of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication, a systematic study of 594 extracts of plant species originating from the French Guiana plateau region was performed in a virus-cell-based assay for CHIKV assay. The extract obtained from the stem bark of Sagotia racemosa was selected for its potent antiviral activity. Using a classical bioassay-guided procedure, three undescribed degraded diterpenoids, i.e. trigohowilols C and D and trigoflavidol D, as well as trigoxyphin K, stictic acid, hyperhomosekikaic acid and five known flavonoids were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic data analysis. Although trigohowilols C and D were isolated from the most active fraction they didn't show any antiviral activity. By using the Feature-Based Molecular Networking (FBMN) and Network Annotation Propagation (NAP) workflows, it has been shown that the strong anti-CHIKV activity found for this fraction might be due to the presence of analogues of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), one of the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication identified to date.


Assuntos
Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Ésteres de Forbol/química , Antivirais/química , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Informática , Fenantrenos/química , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 261-269, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507191

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) exists in two main biotypes: cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp). Although some studies were done on the effect of interferon alpha (IFN-α) on BVDV, the effect of exogenous IFN against BVDV biotypes remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the comparative effect of exogenous human IFN-α (HuIFN-α) on different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. The results showed that exogenous HuIFN-α greatly inhibited the growth of different BVDV biotypes and genotypes. However, HuINF-α has a significant inhibitory effect on cp biotype compared to ncp one without significant variation between different genotypes. The effect of HuIFN-α on BVDV reached the maximum level at early stages of infection (0-20 h post infection) and increased in a dose-dependent manner (10-500 U/ml). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the effect of exogenous HuIFN-α on RNA synthesis of both BVDV biotypes. HuIFN-α reduced RNA production of cp by 4 logs compared to only 2 logs for ncp strains. Additionally, the antiviral effect of IFN-α against both BVDV biotypes seems to be independent of the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation as assayed by direct analysis of in vivo phosphorylation of eIF2-α and by 2-aminopurine (2-AP) treatment. Collectively, these results indicated that the exogenous HuIFN-α treatment has an inhibitory effect not only on cp BVDV biotype but also on the ncp BVDV. The antiviral effect of exogenous HuIFN-α was biotype, time, dose but not genotype dependent. PKR has no role in the inhibitory effect suggesting that other IFN-antiviral pathways were involved. Keywords: BVDV biotypes; HuIFN-α; RNA synthesis; PKR-independent.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Interferon-alfa , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/virologia , Bovinos , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/farmacologia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 278-285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507193

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the most widely-spread flavivirus infections with no effective antiviral drugs available. Peptide inhibitors have been considered as one of the best drug candidates due to their high specificity, selectivity in their interactions and minimum side effects. In this study, we employed computational studies using YASARA, HADDOCK server and PyMOL software to generate short and linear peptides based on a reference peptide, CP5-46A, to block DENV NS2B-NS3 protease. The inhibition potencies of the peptides were evaluated using in-house DENV2 serine protease and fluorogenic peptide substrates. In vitro analyses were performed to determine the peptides cytotoxicity and the inhibitory effects against DENV2 replication in WRL-68 cells. Our computational analyses revealed that the docking energy of AYA3, a 16 amino acid (aa) (-81.2 ± 10.6 kcal/mol) and AYA9, a 15 aa peptide (-83.8 ± 6.8 kcal/mol) to DENV NS2B-NS3 protease were much lower than the reference peptide (46 aa; -70.9 ± 7.8 kcal/mol) and the standard protease inhibitor, aprotinin (58 aa; -48.2 ± 10.6 kcal/mol). Both peptides showed significant inhibition against DENV2 NS2B-NS3 protease activity with IC50 values of 24 µM and 23 µM, respectively. AYA3 and AYA9 peptides also demonstrated approximately 68% and 83% of viral plaque reduction without significantly affecting cell viability at 50 µM concentration. In short, we generated short linear peptides with lower cytotoxic effect and substantial antiviral activities against DENV2. Further studies are required to investigate the inhibitory effects of these peptides in vivo. Keywords: peptide inhibitors; dengue virus; NS2B-NS3 protease; plaque reduction.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Vírus da Dengue , Peptídeos , Inibidores de Proteases , Replicação Viral , Antivirais/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional , Vírus da Dengue/enzimologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9241-9253, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369258

RESUMO

Antiviral compounds targeting viral replicative processes have been studied as an alternative for the control of begomoviruses. Previously, we have reported that the peptide AmPep1 has strong affinity binding to the replication origin sequence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). In this study, we describe the mechanism of action of this peptide as a novel alternative for control of plant-infecting DNA viruses. When AmPep1 was applied exogenously to tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with TYLCV, a decrease in the synthesis of the two viral DNA strands (CS and VS) was observed, with a consequent delay in the development of disease progress in treated plants. The chemical mechanism of action of AmPep1 was deduced using Raman spectroscopy and molecular modeling showing the formation of chemical interactions such as H bonds and electrostatic interactions and the formation of π-π interactions between both biomolecules contributing to tampering with the viral replication.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Begomovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , RNA Viral/química , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Begomovirus/química , Begomovirus/genética , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , RNA Viral/genética , Tabaco/virologia
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1230-1239, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370111

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been widely used in China for treatment of various diseases. This study investigated the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts (SBE) against Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Hela cells and primary myocardial cells were infected with CVB3 and treated with SBE (50-800 µg/ml) and ribavirin (200 µM) for 48 h and then determined by CCK8 assay. Real-time PCR and western blotting assays were performed. In vivo, a myocarditis model was induced in male BALB/c mice by injecting CVB3 suspension intraperitoneally for three times, followed by treatment with SBE (400 and 200 mg/kg) and ribavirin (100 mg/kg) for 28 days. SBE ameliorated the cytotoxicity of CVB3 in Hela cells, especially at 400 µg/ml (39.93% vs 65.67%, p < 0.05) without influencing cell growth and also significantly reduced CVB3 replication in primary myocardial cells. The levels of AKT, ERK, and p38 were increased after CVB3 infection. SBE could downregulate the expressions of AKT and p38. In vivo, the mortality rate from CVB3 reached to 66.67%, while 10.00% and 23.33% of this came after 400 and 200 mg/kg SBE treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). The CVB3 replication was obviously reduced after SBE administration from day 5. Similarly, the levels of AKT, ERK, and p38 mRNAs and proteins were increased, and SBE suppressed the expression of AKT and p38. Our study indicates that SBE is a promising potent antiviral agent against CVB3-induced myocarditis by inhibition of virus replication via depressing AKT and p38 expressions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterovirus/patogenicidade , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miocardite/patologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2691-2698, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428916

RESUMO

Aleutian mink disease virus is one of the greatest threats to modern mink farming. The disease reduces fecundity and causes high mortality among kits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of methisoprinol in counteracting the effects of Aleutian disease, both by inhibiting replication of the virus and by mitigating the harmful effects of the disease on the fecundity and weight of infected animals. The study included 300 individuals with confirmed infection, divided according to antibody titres into three experimental groups, which received a 20% methisoprinol solution, and three control groups, which did not receive the immunostimulant. In the mink from the experimental groups, the number of copies of the genetic material of the virus in the spleens and lymph nodes was one order of magnitude lower than in the case of the control groups. Mink receiving the supplement also showed higher fecundity (on average 5.83 in the experimental groups and 4.83 in the control groups), and the weight of their offspring before slaughter was over 200 g higher. Given the lack of effective methods for immunoprophylaxis and treatment, methisoprinol supplementation can be an effective means of counteracting the effects of AMDV on persistently infected farms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inosina Pranobex/farmacologia , Doença Aleutiana do Vison/mortalidade , Vírus da Doença Aleutiana do Vison/genética , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Linfonodos/virologia , Vison/virologia , Baço/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Virol J ; 16(1): 87, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several potential NAI resistance sites have been found in human cases. However, the drug susceptibility and replication ability of HPAI H7N9 virus with such substitutions have not yet been studied. METHODS: Thirty-three HPAI H7N9 virus strains were isolated from human cases in China, and then sequences were analyzed to identify potential NAI resistance sites. Recombinant influenza viruses were generated to evaluate the effect of NA amino acid substitutions on NAI (oseltamivir or zanamivir) susceptibility and viral replication efficiency in MDCK cells. RESULTS: Four potential NAI resistance sites, R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y, were screened. All four substitutions conferred either reduced or highly reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir or zanamivir. 292 K not only highly reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir but also induced an increase in the IC50 of zanamivir. 119 V or 274Y conferred reduced susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to oseltamivir. Additionally, 246 T conferred reduced susceptibility to zanamivir. All tested NAI-resistant viruses were capable of replication in MDCK cells. The virus yields of rg006-NA292K were lower than those of rg006-NA292R at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h postinfection (P<0.05). Rg006-NA119V, rg006-NA246T or rg006-NA274Y showed comparable replication capacity to wild-type virus (except for rg006-NA274Y at 96 h, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All 4 amino acid substitutions (R292 K, E119V, A246T or H274Y) in NA reduced the susceptibility of HPAI H7N9 to NAIs. The NAI-resistant mutations in HPAI H7N9, in most cases, did not reduce the replication ability of the virus in mammalian cells. Special attention needs to be paid to these mutations, and the development of new anti-H7N9 drugs is of great importance.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Cães , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Zanamivir/farmacologia
11.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(10): 651-658, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315893

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human virus which infects almost all humans during their lifetime and following the acute phase, persists for the remainder of the life of the individual. EBV infects B lymphocytes leading to their immortalisation, with persistence of the EBV genome as an episome. In the latent phase, EBV is prevented from reactivating through efficient cytotoxic cellular immunity. EBV reactivates (lytic phase) under conditions of psychological stress with consequent weakening of cellular immunity, and EBV reactivation has been shown to occur in a subset of individuals with each of a variety of cancers, autoimmune diseases, the autoimmune-like disease, chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis and under other circumstances such as being an inpatient in an intensive care unit. Chronic EBV reactivation is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of many such diseases, yet is rarely tested for in immunocompetent individuals. This review summarises the pathogenesis of EBV infection, EBV reactivation and its role in disease, and methods which may be used to detect it. Known inhibitors of EBV reactivation and replication are discussed, including drugs licensed for treatment of other herpesviruses, licensed or experimental drugs for various other indications, compounds at an early stage of drug development and nutritional constituents such as vitamins and dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Vitaminas , Linfócitos B/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/psicologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Latência Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 622, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-surface mucins are expressed in apical epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, and contribute a crucial part of the innate immune system. Despite anti-inflammatory or antiviral functions being revealed for certain cell-surface mucins such as MUC1, the roles of other mucins are still poorly understood, especially in viral infections. METHODS: To further identify mucins significant in influenza infection, we screened the expression of mucins in human nasal epithelial cells infected by H3N2 influenza A virus. RESULTS: We found that the expression of MUC15 was significantly upregulated upon infection, and specific only to active infection. While MUC15 did not interact with virus particles or reduce viral replication directly, positive correlations were observed between MUC15 and inflammatory factors in response to viral infection. Given that the upregulation of MUC15 was only triggered late into infection when immune factors (including cytokines, chemokines, EGFR and phosphorylated ERK) started to peak and plateau, MUC15 may potentially serve an immunomodulatory function later during influenza viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that MUC15 was one of the few cell-surface mucins induced during influenza infection. While MUC15 did not interact directly with influenza virus, we showed that its increase coincides with the peak of immune activation and thus MUC15 may serve an immunomodulatory role during influenza infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Mucinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cães , Células Epiteliais/classificação , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Mucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Mucinas/genética , Cavidade Nasal/citologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Nat Immunol ; 20(8): 1059-1070, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308541

RESUMO

Dysfunction of virus-specific CD4+ T cells in chronic human infections is poorly understood. We performed genome-wide transcriptional analyses and functional assays of CD4+ T cells specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from HIV-infected people before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A follicular helper T cell (TFH cell)-like profile characterized HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in viremic infection. HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from people spontaneously controlling the virus (elite controllers) robustly expressed genes associated with the TH1, TH17 and TH22 subsets of helper T cells. Viral suppression by ART resulted in a distinct transcriptional landscape, with a reduction in the expression of genes associated with TFH cells, but persistently low expression of genes associated with TH1, TH17 and TH22 cells compared to the elite controller profile. Thus, altered differentiation is central to the impairment of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells and involves both gain of function and loss of function.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th17/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Microbiol Immunol ; 63(9): 359-366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301156

RESUMO

Umesu phenolics were obtained from the salt extracts of Japanese apricot (Nanko-mume cultivar of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) as purified phenolics. The antiviral activities of umesu phenolics obtained were then examined against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), enveloped DNA viruses. The phenolics inhibited the multiplication of these viruses when added to the culture media of the infected cells. This inhibition occurred at phenolic concentrations at which they showed no severe cytotoxicity. One-step growth experiments showed that the eclipse period in the HSV-1 multiplication process was extended in the presence of umesu phenolics and that the addition of phenolics after the completion of viral DNA replication did not affect their multiplication. More drastic effects were observed on virucidal activities against HSV-1 and HSV-2; the infectivity decreased to 0.0001 when infected cells were incubated with 3 mg/ml phenolics at 30°C for 5 min. These results demonstrate the antiviral and virucidal activities of umesu phenolics and suggest a potential pharmacological use for these phenolics as a sanitizing or preventive medicine against superficial HSV infections.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus armeniaca/química , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Japão , Simplexvirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Vero , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 128: 49-58, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186110

RESUMO

Human interferon alpha 2b (IFN α2b) is a type I interferon exhibiting antiviral, anti-proliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The clinical outcome of the approved recombinant human IFN α2b drugs in the market suffers from short plasma half-life, rapid clearance and other side effects. Human IFN α2b expression in mammalian cell lines results in significant heterogeneity in glycan moieties, inconsistent product quality and high production cost. Potential scope exists for the design and development of a successful expression platform for enhanced human IFN α2b production with improved pharmacokinetic property. Glycoengineering strategy was employed to construct IFN α2b with potential N-glycosylation site to evade the drawbacks of approved recombinant human IFN α2b drugs. Heterogeneity of glycosylation and hypermannosylation in the wild-type strains of Pichia pastoris was circumvented by employing glycoengineered strain (SuperMan5) to produce glycosylated IFN α2b with human type N-glycans. Recombinant SuperMan5 strain expressed human type N-glycosylated IFN α2b with greater homogeneity elucidated by glycan analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). The purified glycosylated IFN α2b was biologically active, inhibiting the viral replication of HCV and HEV at 85% and 66%, respectively. Pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats revealed 1.3 fold increase in plasma half-life for glycosylated IFN α2b compared to standard IFN α2b produced by E. coli.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Interferon alfa-2/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Pichia/metabolismo , Animais , Glicosilação , Meia-Vida , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Interferon alfa-2/química , Interferon alfa-2/farmacocinética , Interferon alfa-2/farmacologia , Pichia/genética , Plasma/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(6): 977-981, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155594

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in 50-80% of the cases. Interferons (IFNs) and the nucleoside analog ribavirin form the basis of the treatment of this infection but are not considered sufficiently effective and cause several side effects. In this study, we developed a novel viral-specific drug delivery method. Enveloped viruses, including HCV, expose an anionic phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PS), on their surface to mediate their binding and entry into cells for infection. To target such exposed PS on HCV, we developed a chimeric recombinant protein containing human IFN and mouse lactadherin (also known as milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8), which binds with high affinity to PS. The IFN-lactadherin fusion protein showed a high binding affinity toward PS and HCV and consequently blocked viral replication in the infected cells more efficiently than conventional IFN. Overall, these data suggest that conjugation with lactadherin facilitates the delivery of any protein drug to PS-exposing enveloped viruses.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície , Antivirais/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon beta , Proteínas do Leite , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/metabolismo , DNA Complementar , Células HEK293 , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Humanos , Interferon beta/genética , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/genética , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(15): 6071-6079, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175428

RESUMO

Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) has great prospect in medical therapies and diagnostic applications due to its binding affinity and low immunogenicity. However, the application of scFv is limited by its heterologous expression facing challenges of insoluble aggregation. sfGFP has been developed as fusion tag to facilitate the solubility of fusion partner in Escherichia coli. We designed fusion protein of anti-influenza PB2 scFv at C-terminus of sfGFP and successfully obtained soluble expression of sfGFP-scFv-His in Escherichia coli. The expression level of sfGFP-scFv-His reached at 20 mg/L of bacterial culture when the culture was induced with 0.1 mM IPTG at 18 °C for 16 h. And 6 mg scFv-His was obtained from the cleavage of 10 mg pure sfGFP-scFv-His with TEV protease. In addition, we found that sfGFP-scFv-His was more stable than scFv-His in chicken serum, suggesting that sfGFP not only facilitated the solubility of scFv in Escherichia coli, but also promoted the stability of scFv. The immunologic activity of sfGFP-scFv-His was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA; the results showed that anti-PB2 sfGFP-scFv-His exhibited specific binding to PB2. Hemagglutination and comparative real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that sfGFP-scFv-His and scFv-His inhibited the replication of H1N1 influenza virus in the infected A549 cells. These results further develop the application of scFv as an agent, such as anti-influenza. Furthermore, soluble expression of scFv using sfGFP as fusion partner provide a cost-effective preparation model for manufacturing scFv against pandemic disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/biossíntese , Células A549 , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Western Blotting , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/imunologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/química , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Cultura de Vírus , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151219

RESUMO

A series of oxime Cyclohexyl (E)-4-(hydroxyimino)-4-phenylbutanoates and their ethers were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities with HepG 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. Most of these compounds possessed anti-HBV activities, and among them, compound 4B-2 showed significant inhibiting effects on the secretion of HBsAg (IC50 = 63.85 ± 6.26 µM, SI = 13.41) and HBeAg (IC50 = 49.39 ± 4.17 µM, SI = 17.34) comparing to lamivudine (3TC) in HBsAg (IC50 = 234.2 ± 17.17 µM, SI = 2.2) and HBeAg (IC50 = 249.9 ± 21.51 µM, SI = 2.07). Docking study of these compounds binding to a protein residue (PDB ID: 3OX8) from HLA-A2 that with the immunodominant HBcAg18-27 epitope (HLA-A2.1- restricted CTL epitope) active site was carried out by using molecular operation environment (MOE) software. Docking results showed that behaviors of these compounds binding to the active site in HLA-A protein residue partly coincided with their behaviors in vitro anti-HBV active screening.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Desenho de Drogas , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/síntese química , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oximas/síntese química , Oximas/química , Oximas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 297, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Host factors of influenza virus replication are often found in key topological positions within protein-protein interaction networks. This work explores how protein states can be manipulated through controllability analysis: the determination of the minimum manipulation needed to drive the cell system to any desired state. Here, we complete a two-part controllability analysis of two protein networks: a host network representing the healthy cell state and an influenza A virus-host network representing the infected cell state. In this context, controllability analyses aim to identify key regulating host factors of the infected cell's progression. This knowledge can be utilized in further biological analysis to understand disease dynamics and isolate proteins for study as drug target candidates. RESULTS: Both topological and controllability analyses provide evidence of wide-reaching network effects stemming from the addition of viral-host protein interactions. Virus interacting and driver host proteins are significant both topologically and in controllability, therefore playing important roles in cell behavior during infection. Functional analysis finds overlap of results with previous siRNA studies of host factors involved in influenza replication, NF-kB pathway and infection relevance, and roles as interferon regulating genes. 24 proteins are identified as holding regulatory roles specific to the infected cell by measures of topology, controllability, and functional role. These proteins are recommended for further study as potential antiviral drug targets. CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal outbreaks of influenza A virus are a major cause of illness and death around the world each year with a constant threat of pandemic infection. This research aims to increase the efficiency of antiviral drug target discovery using existing protein-protein interaction data and network analysis methods. These results are beneficial to future studies of influenza virus, both experimental and computational, and provide evidence that the combination of topology and controllability analyses may be valuable for future efforts in drug target discovery.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(5): e1007798, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116799

RESUMO

Cellular antiviral programs encode molecules capable of targeting multiple steps in the virus lifecycle. Zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a central and general regulator of antiviral activity that targets pathogen mRNA stability and translation. ZAP is diffusely cytoplasmic, but upon infection ZAP is targeted to particular cytoplasmic structures, termed stress granules (SGs). However, it remains unclear if ZAP's antiviral activity correlates with SG localization, and what molecular cues are required to induce this localization event. Here, we use Sindbis virus (SINV) as a model infection and find that ZAP's localization to SGs can be transient. Sometimes no apparent viral infection follows ZAP SG localization but ZAP SG localization always precedes accumulation of SINV non-structural protein, suggesting virus replication processes trigger SG formation and ZAP recruitment. Data from single-molecule RNA FISH corroborates this finding as the majority of cells with ZAP localization in SGs contain low levels of viral RNA. Furthermore, ZAP recruitment to SGs occurred in ZAP-expressing cells when co-cultured with cells replicating full-length SINV, but not when co-cultured with cells replicating a SINV replicon. ZAP recruitment to SGs is functionally important as a panel of alanine ZAP mutants indicate that the anti-SINV activity is correlated with ZAP's ability to localize to SGs. As ZAP is a central component of the cellular antiviral programs, these data provide further evidence that SGs are an important cytoplasmic antiviral hub. These findings provide insight into how antiviral components are regulated upon virus infection to inhibit virus spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/prevenção & controle , Antivirais/farmacologia , Grânulos Citoplasmáticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/farmacologia , Vírus Sindbis/patogenicidade , Estresse Fisiológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Alphavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Alphavirus/virologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/virologia , Transporte Proteico , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
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