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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMO

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia
3.
Med Hypotheses ; 128: 13-16, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203901

RESUMO

Since the nineteenth century, clinicians and investigators have systematically evaluated the origin of delusions and psychotic thinking. One major clue to understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of delusions is the emergence of false narratives from brain disease. In addition to delusions themselves, there are a range of other false narratives not due to deliberate lying and resulting from neurological disorders, including provoked confabulations, fantastic confabulations, false memories, magical thinking, dream delusions, and "fantastic thinking". A comparison of their characteristics, similarities, and differences suggest a hypothesis: despite different sources for their false narrative experiences, such as unusual thoughts or perceptions, all false narratives from brain disease involve erroneous or mismatched "affective biases" applied to the experiences. Affective labels usually signal the sense of rightness, sense of familiarity, and the external vs. internal origin of an experience, and they can be altered by limbic neuropathology. The location and involvement of neuropathology that facilitates false narratives involves frontolimbic regions and their connections, particularly on the right. Future investigations can focus on frontolimbic mechanisms involved in the provision of the intrinsically-linked affective biases, which indicate the nature and external/internal origin of experiences.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Delusões/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Sistema Límbico/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Repressão Psicológica , Viés de Atenção , Sonhos , Fantasia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia
4.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(5): 549-558, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037308

RESUMO

Recent research has revealed that the cerebellum plays a critical role in social reasoning and in particular in understanding false beliefs and making trait attributions. One hypothesis is that the cerebellum is responsible for the understanding of sequences of motions and actions, which may be a prerequisite for social understanding. To investigate the role of action sequencing in mentalizing, we tested patients with generalized cerebellar degenerative lesions on tests of social understanding and compared their performance with matched healthy volunteers. The tests involved understanding violations of social norms making trait and causal attributions on the basis of short behavioral sentences and generating the correct chronological order of social actions depicted in cartoons (picture sequencing task). Cerebellar patients showed clear deficits only on the picture sequencing task when generating the correct order of cartoons depicting false belief stories and showed at or close to normal performance for mechanical stories and overlearned social scripts. In addition, they performed marginally worse on trait attributions inferred from verbal behavioral descriptions. We conclude that inferring the mental state of others through understanding the correct sequences of their actions requires the support of the cerebellum.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Cognição , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mentalização/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Desempenho Psicomotor , Repressão Psicológica , Percepção Social , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Degenerações Espinocerebelares/psicologia , Teoria da Mente
5.
Am J Psychoanal ; 79(2): 196-211, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068642

RESUMO

Psychoanalytic therapy is not supposed to cure man from death, nor to help him forget about it. It is supposed to deal with the soul, and it is up to the soul to deal with death. Death is actually not an issue for psychoanalytic therapy-its only problem can be the soul. On the other hand, only for the soul is death an authentic problem. Only the soul can authentically bring death into question. Psychoanalysis has indebted humanity by finding the strength and critical prudence in a crucial moment for civilization to remove the veil of prohibition and shame from sexuality, which had been repressed for centuries. Today, sexuality is no longer repressed (it may be even too present in the media for some)-but death became repressed. This paper considers death as an essential topic for psychoanalysis.


Assuntos
Morte , Vida , Terapia Psicanalítica , Teoria Freudiana , Humanos , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo , Filosofia , Repressão Psicológica
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 126: 51-59, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010500

RESUMO

Memory is a complex cognition that plays a critical role in daily functioning. This review discusses the dynamic effects of acute exercise on memory function, via a hypothesized exercise-memory interaction model, taking into consideration multiple memory systems and exercise parameters.


Assuntos
Exercício , Intenção , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Memória , Animais , Cognição , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Memória Episódica , Qualidade de Vida , Repressão Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico
7.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(4): 352-363, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973243

RESUMO

To advance what is known about how emotions affect memory in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we examined emotional false memory for negative, positive, and neutrally valenced photographs comprising scripts of everyday events in a verbal IQ-case matched sample of youth ages 8-14 with ASD (N = 38) and typical development (TYP, N = 38). The groups exhibited many similarities. Their task performance during a recognition task including previously seen and unseen photographs was largely comparable. They evidenced high hit rates for previously viewed photographs, and low false alarm rates for lure photographs that were inconsistent with the scripts. Both ASD and TYP groups showed relatively higher false alarms for lure photographs depicting previously unseen causes of scenario outcomes (causal errors) compared to errors for script-consistent lure photographs that showed extra potentially related events (gap-filling errors). In both groups, task performance was associated with verbal working memory, but not attention deficit hyperactivity, anxiety, or depression symptoms. However, the ASD group made more causal and gap-filling errors on negative and positive, but not neutral, lures compared to TYP, indicating that viewing emotionally valenced stimuli made it harder to discriminate previously seen and unseen photographs. For the ASD group, task performance was associated with compulsive, ritualistic, and sameness behaviors and stereotypic and restricted interests. Findings suggest that the integration of cognition and emotion in ASD is altered and associated with the presence of repetitive behaviors. The impact of these results on the lives of individuals with ASD and implications for psychosocial interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Emoções , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Comportamento Estereotipado
8.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 187-205, jan.-abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-999356

RESUMO

A proibição do uso de drogas é um fenômeno essencialmente moderno, pautada numa postura intolerante e repressiva, um discurso de terror e punição que acaba por gerar violência e sofrimento para os usuários de substâncias ilícitas. Mostramos por meio de alguns teóricos o quanto os discursos e práticas ideologizados colocam as pessoas que utilizam drogas ilícitas como inimigos sociais sem considerar as contradições e riscos a que são submetidos cotidianamente, além de ir em direção oposta à tendência à atualização e ao potencial do indivíduo. O presente estudo se caracteriza por ser uma pesquisa bibliográfica, de cunho qualitativo. A literatura consultada sugere que o fenômeno das drogas é complexo e se configura como pertencente à condição humana, bem como o único meio de contribuir com a ampliação de sentidos existências é por meio da política de Redução de Danos.(AU)


The prohibition of drug use is an essentially modern phenomeno, based on an intolerant and repressive stance, a discourse of terror and punishment, which generates violence and suffering to users of illicit substances. We have shown through some theorists how ideological discourses and practices place people who use illicit drugs as social enemies without considering the contradictions and risks they are submitted daily, in addition to going in the opposite direction as to the tendency to update and the potential of the individual. The present study is characterized by a qualitative bibliographical research. With the elaboration of such a study it is able to perceive that the phenomenon of drugs is complex, and is configured as belonging to the condition, as well as the only way to contribute to the expansion of existent senses is through the Harm Reduction policy.(AU)


La prohibición del uso de drogas es un fenómeno esencialmente moderno, pautado en una postura intolerante y represiva, un discurso de terror y castigo que acaba por generar violencia y sufrimiento para los usuarios de sustancias ilícitas. Mostramos por medio de algunos teóricos cuánto los discursos y prácticas ideologizados colocan a las personas que utilizan drogas ilícitas como enemigos sociales sin considerar las contradicciones y riesgos a que son sometidos cotidianamente, además de ir en dirección opuesta a la tendencia a la actualización y al potencial del individuo. El presente estudio se caracteriza por ser una investigación bibliográfica, de cuño cualitativo. La literatura consultada sugiere que el fenómeno de las drogas es complejo, y se configura como perteneciente a la condición humana, así como el único medio de contribuir con la ampliación de sentidos existencias es por medio de la política de Reducción de Daños.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Redução do Dano , Psicotrópicos , Política Pública , Punição/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tráfico de Drogas
9.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(9): 1480-1493, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829522

RESUMO

Numerous studies indicate that an episodic specificity induction (ESI)-brief training in recollecting the details of a past experience-enhances performance on subsequent tasks that rely on episodic retrieval, including autobiographical memory, imagination, problem solving, and creative thinking. In 5 experiments, we examined whether these benefits of the ESI extend to reducing susceptibility to false memory, or whether they are accompanied by a cost in the form of increased susceptibility to false memory. To assess how ESI impacts false memory generation, we used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, a reliable procedure for generating false memories. When an ESI was administered after DRM list presentation and just before a free recall test, rates of false recall for critical lures were significantly enhanced relative to a control induction. These findings support the hypothesis that ESI operates to boost recollection of illusory episodic details associated with critical lures in the DRM, and suggest that constructive rather than reproductive episodic retrieval processes support the wide-ranging effects of ESI on a range of cognitive tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 135: 95-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527597

RESUMO

Several studies investigating psychophysiological correlates of false memories suggest that psychophysiology may provide incremental information to subjectively reported memory. Based on previous findings in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, we examined three components of event-related EEG potentials of memory in a misleading information paradigm. 39 participants watched a video that included eight randomized details (e.g., the color of an envelope). After a retention interval of one week, four out of eight details were replaced by misleading details in a narrative text. Afterward, EEG was derived during a recognition test. First, we found that the amplitude at parietal electrodes did not differ between true and false memories. Instead, parietal positivity was more pronounced during yes- compared to no-responses, indicating parietal positivity reflects subjectively reported memory. Second, we found more positive frontal amplitudes associated with false compared to true memories in late time windows. Consequently, our findings indicate that false memories differ from true memories with respect to late frontal activation. In conclusion, we assume that parietal positivity reflects subjectively experienced memory, whereas late frontal activation holds incremental information to the subjectively experienced and reported memory.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(2): 387-400, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264239

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that sleep aids in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes involved in memory processing; however, the conditions under which sleep influences memory may be substantially constrained. In a meta-analysis, we examined the effects that sleep has on both veridical (accurate) and false memory consolidation, in studies using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm for memory of thematically related words. The meta-analysis revealed that, whereas there was no overall effect of sleep on either accurate or false memories, the effect of sleep on overall memories was moderated by two constraints. First, sleep effects were influenced by the number of words within each themed word list, relating to differences in processing of the associative network of related words. Second, sleep effects were greater in recall than in recognition tests. Thus, whether sleep consolidation increased or decreased DRM veridical or false memory effects depended on the specific features of the memory task.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Memória , Repressão Psicológica , Sono , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vigília , Testes de Associação de Palavras
12.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(8): 1312-1334, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550338

RESUMO

False memories are well-established long-term memory (LTM) phenomena. Recent reports of false recognition at short term suggest that working memory (WM) could also give rise to false memories, supporting the unitary view of memory. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the emergence of false memories at short term results from the impairment of WM maintenance, memory performance relying then on LTM. More specifically, we assumed that false memories rely on the retrieval of gist traces of the memory items while their verbatim traces that could block false memories are no longer accessible. To test this proposal, we reported a series of 4 experiments in which the availability of 2 WM maintenance mechanisms, articulatory rehearsal and attentional refreshing, was manipulated, and the reliance of recognition performance on gist and verbatim traces was also assessed. In line with our hypothesis, the occurrence of false memories in immediate recognition test was accompanied by the reduction of verbatim memory retrieval resulting from the impairment of rehearsal. By contrast, false memories in the delayed test depended on gist memory, which was strengthened by the use of refreshing. These findings support an integrated account of false memories at short and long term, shed light on the nature of mental representations generated by WM maintenance mechanisms and on the relationships between WM and LTM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(3): 395-402, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, premorbid expectations for other cognitive abilities have received less attention. The current study sought to develop and validate premorbid estimates for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). METHOD: Using demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect, premorbid performance on the RBANS was predicted in a sample of 143 community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults. RESULTS: On all six Indexes of the RBANS, premorbid intellect was the best predictor of current cognitive functioning, with gender adding to one of the prediction models (R2 = 0.04-0.16, ps < .02). These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 122 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current RBANS scores. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current RBANS scores in the intact sample, large, and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample, especially on the Immediate Memory Index (discrepancy = -29.00, p < .001), Delayed Memory Index (discrepancy = -32.28, p < .001), and Total Scale score (discrepancy = -25.58, p < .001). CONCLUSION: Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid RBANS abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Repressão Psicológica
14.
Psychol Rep ; 122(4): 1313-1326, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890899

RESUMO

Research demonstrates that acute exercise can enhance retrospective episodic memory performance. However, limited research has examined the effects of acute exercise on prospective memory, and no studies have examined the effects of exercise on false memory performance. This study examined the potential effects of acute exercise on prospective memory and false memory performance. A between-group randomized controlled trial was employed, with participants (college students; Mage = 20 years) randomized into an exercise group (15-minute acute bout of treadmill walking; N = 25) or a control group (15 minutes of sitting; N = 26). Prospective memory was assessed from two laboratory and two naturalistic assessments outside the lab. False memory was assessed using a word-list trial. There were no statistically significant differences in prospective memory based on group allocation (FGroup×Time = 1.17; P = 0.32; η2 = 0.06). However, the control group recalled more false words and had a higher rate of false memory recognition (FGroup×Time = 3.15; P = 0.01; η2 = 0.26). These findings indicate that acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise is not associated with prospective memory performance but provides some suggestive evidence that acute exercise may reduce the rate of false memories.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Repressão Psicológica , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Psychol ; 110(4): 686-706, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592299

RESUMO

Emotional events have been shown to protect individuals against false memory when remembering scripted material. Whether the same is true also for older adults, however, is unclear, and it has been investigated in the present study. Seventy-six older adults (age range 65-89 years) were presented with a series of photographs depicting scripted events. Each event included the consequence of an action whose corresponding cause was not presented; the consequence was either neutral, negative, or positive. False recognitions of unseen causes of the consequences (i.e., 'causal errors') were calculated. A Bayesian inferential approach was adopted in order to include evidence from previous studies and to use it as a benchmark for newly collected information. Older adults showed enhanced false memories and lower accuracy than previously reported in studies on young adults. Compared to neutral ones, both negative and positive events were associated with fewer false memories in older adults. The emotional false memory 'profile' of older adults was very similar, in terms of the effect size, to the one previously found in young adults, although the overall chances of older adults incurring errors were higher. Results are discussed considering both cognitive and socioemotional hypotheses on emotional memory in late adulthood.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Gen Psychol ; 145(4): 377-391, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30457039

RESUMO

False memories of one's past are often created by unconscious influences of previous experiences. This study examined whether action sequences, scripts that are frequent in everyday life, might induce false beliefs of having visited a location. Participants were shown photos of places they had not previously visited. Next, they rated how strongly they felt that they had visited the locations in the target scenes. Results indicated that when typical actions were presented in canonical order before the target scene, the feeling of having previously visited the location increased, relative to a condition with a random ordering of typical actions or to one with no presented actions. This study suggests that activation of script knowledge and misattribution of the source of feelings of familiarity elicit false beliefs of having visited a specific location, even if one understands that one has never previously visited the location.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Repressão Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychogeriatrics ; 18(4): 276-282, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Confabulations are often observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can increase family caregivers' burdens. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between confabulation and cognitive ability. However, few studies have investigated the association between confabulation and familial factors. Here, we aimed to examine whether confabulation relates to familial factors, such as the level of family caregivers' expressed emotion or the level of functioning of the family. METHODS: Twenty-seven outpatients with AD and their family caregivers participated in this study. We examined confabulations about episodic memory, semantic memory, and future planning using the Modified Confabulation Battery (MCB). We investigated correlations between scores on the MCB and scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Family Attitude Scale (FAS), and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale. Multiple regression analyses were performed using the total scores on the MCB and domain-specific scores on the MCB as dependent variables, and the scores on the MMSE, GDS, and FAS as independent variables. RESULTS: MCB scores were positively related to FAS scores (P < 0.01) and negatively to GDS scores (P < 0.05), but not to MMSE scores. Regarding the three domains the MCB measured, confabulation about episodic memory and future planning showed a positive relationship with FAS scores. CONCLUSIONS: Family attitude was the factor most related to confabulation in our study. Patients with AD may attempt to avoid confronting family caregivers' high emotional expression through confabulation, or confabulation itself might result in high emotional expression among family caregivers. Psychoeducational or therapeutic approaches for family caregivers might reduce confabulation in patients with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Repressão Psicológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10117, 2018 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973601

RESUMO

We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of word list consistency and group collaboration on false memory. Using the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm, the first experiment (n = 121) examined false memory in a group; participants collaborated to select keywords using a between-subject condition of a consistent or randomized word list. The proportion of false responses was larger than that of error responses, especially for the consistent word list condition (p < 0.001), and group collaboration increased false recognition for both word lists (p < 0.001). Using an applied within-subject word list condition, the second experiment (n = 119) confirmed the results of Experiment 1. Furthermore, individual differences Euclidean distance model analysis revealed a difference in the shared cognitive dimension related to group false memory.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Memória , Repressão Psicológica , Comportamento Social , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 188: 148-176, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940535

RESUMO

Cognitive experimental and neuroscientific research in adults indicates that an important property of face perception is its specificity and reliance on configural processing. In addition, individual differences in face perception between adults cannot be entirely explained through general cognitive functioning and object cognition. Although recent years have witnessed growing interest in the development of face perception through childhood and adolescence, as yet, little is known about individual differences in configural face perception in this period of life, and whether these differences are face-specific. Here, we addressed these questions in a large sample (N = 338) drawn continuously from age six to 21. We applied a face composite task and a spatial manipulation task including stimulus inversion. Immediate and delayed face memory were assessed as covariates of configural face perception. Content specificity in configural face perception was tested by analogous tasks with houses as stimuli. In addition, we measured working memory and fluid intelligence. Our results show that there are large individual differences in configural face perception across the entire age range from six to 21 years. Supporting theories of early maturation, configural face perception was almost adult-like already at age six. Individual differences in configural face perception were related with immediate and delayed face memory and fluid intelligence across the whole age range. In sum, we provide novel evidence on large individual differences in configural face and object perception already in middle childhood, complementing findings from aging studies and providing new perspectives for further research.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Reconhecimento Facial , Individualidade , Adolescente , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Repressão Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cogn Neurosci ; 9(3-4): 139-150, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898628

RESUMO

Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results suggest that true memories, but not false memories, activate early sensory cortex. It is thought that false memories, which reflect conscious processing, do not activate early sensory cortex because these regions are associated with nonconscious processing. We posited that false memories may activate the earliest visual cortical processing region (i.e., V1) when task conditions are manipulated to evoke conscious processing in this region. In an fMRI experiment, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation during encoding. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants characterized each shape as previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure"-"sure"-"very sure" confidence rating. False memories for spatial location (i.e., "right"/left or "left"/right trials with "sure" or "very sure" confidence ratings) were associated with activity in bilateral early visual regions, including V1. In a follow-up fMRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment that employed the same paradigm, we assessed whether V1 activity was necessary for false memory construction. Between the encoding phase and the retrieval phase of each run, TMS (1 Hz, 8 min) was used to target the location of false memory activity (identified in the fMRI experiment) in left V1, right V1, or the vertex (control site). Confident false memories for spatial location were significantly reduced following TMS to V1, as compared to vertex. The results of the present experiments provide convergent evidence that early sensory cortex can contribute to false memory construction under particular task conditions.


Assuntos
Repressão Psicológica , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
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