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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049710, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the extent and nature of pharmaceutical industry payments related to fertility and assisted reproduction in Australia. DESIGN AND SETTING: This retrospective observational study employed four databases compiled from publicly available pharmaceutical industry transparency reports on educational event sponsorship (October 2011-April 2018), payments to healthcare professionals (October 2015-April 2018) and patient group support (January 2013-December 2017). Analyses were restricted to fertility-related payments by two major manufacturers of fertility medicines in Australia: Merck Serono and Merck, Sharp and Dohme (MSD). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics on fertility-related payments and other transfers of value (counts, total and median costs in Australian dollars) for educational events and to healthcare professionals and patient groups. RESULTS: Between October 2011 and April 2018, Merck Serono and MSD spent $A4 522 263 on 970 fertility-related events for healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses and fertility scientists. 56.8% (551/970) events were held by fertility clinics and 29.3% (284/970) by professional medical associations. Between October 2015 and April 2018, Merck Serono spent $A403 800 across 177 payments to 118 fertility healthcare professionals, predominantly for educational event attendance. Recipients included obstetricians and gynaecologists (76.3% of payments, 135/177), nurses (11.3%, 20/177) and embryologists/fertility scientists (9.6%, 17/117). The highest paid healthcare professionals held leadership positions in major fertility clinics. Merck Serono provided $A662 850 to fertility-related patient groups for advocacy and education (January 2013-December 2017). CONCLUSIONS: The pharmaceutical industry sponsored a broad range of fertility clinicians and organisations, including doctors, nurses, embryologists, professional medical organisations, fertility clinics and patient groups. This sponsorship may contribute to the overuse of fertility services.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica , Ginecologia , Austrália , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodução
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495081

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus disease 2019 has had a wide range of effects on human health. This paper summarizes the data related to the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection on human reproduction. Both the male and female reproductive tract express high levels of receptors and proteins needed for viral cell entry. There is presently no evidence that gametes are affected by the infection. Male fertility may be temporarily reduced due to inflammatory responses following infection. The endometrium is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 cell entry; however, it remains unclear whether this could alter receptivity and embryo implantation. Menstrual cycle changes were reported in women who experienced severe infection; however, they tended to be reversible. For couples undergoing assisted reproduction treatment, the pandemic led to a significant psychological burden, with changes in lifestyle that could directly affect the success of the treatment. Human reproduction societies recommend screening all patients prior to cycle initiation and avoiding treatment of women with severe comorbidities until the pandemic is under control. Finally, for pregnant women, it is expected that the infection is more severe in women in the third trimester and in those with comorbidities. Those who are symptomatic for SARS-CoV-2 are more likely to have increased rates of prematurity and intrapartum fetal distress than those who are asymptomatic. Vertical transmission cannot be completely ruled out, but neonatal infection rates are low. Vaccination appears to be safe and is indicated for use in pregnant and lactating women because the benefits outweigh the risks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Reprodução , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17649, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480051

RESUMO

The ubiquitous activity of humans is a fundamental feature of urban environments affecting local wildlife in several ways. Testing the influence of human disturbance would ideally need experimental approach, however, in cities, this is challenging at relevant spatial and temporal scales. Thus, to better understand the ecological effects of human activity, we exploited the opportunity that the city-wide lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic provided during the spring of 2020. We assessed changes in reproductive success of great tits (Parus major) at two urban habitats affected strikingly differently by the 'anthropause', and at an unaffected forest site. Our results do not support that urban great tits benefited from reduced human mobility during the lockdown. First, at one of our urban sites, the strongly (- 44%) reduced human disturbance in 2020 (compared to a long-term reference period) did not increase birds' reproductive output relative to the forest habitat where human disturbance was low in all years. Second, in the other urban habitat, recreational human activity considerably increased (+ 40%) during the lockdown and this was associated with strongly reduced nestling body size compared to the pre-COVID reference year. Analyses of other environmental factors (meteorological conditions, lockdown-induced changes in air pollution) suggest that these are not likely to explain our results. Our study supports that intensified human disturbance can have adverse fitness consequences in urban populations. It also highlights that a few months of 'anthropause' is not enough to counterweight the detrimental impacts of urbanization on local wildlife populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ecossistema , Quarentena , Reprodução/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Science ; 373(6559): 1086-1087, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516850

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].


Assuntos
Lipídeos , Reprodução
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336770

RESUMO

Policymakers require consistent and accessible tools to monitor the progress of an epidemic and the impact of control measures in real time. One such measure is the Estimated Dissemination Ratio (EDR), a straightforward, easily replicable, and robust measure of the trajectory of an outbreak that has been used for many years in the control of infectious disease in livestock. It is simple to calculate and explain. Its calculation and use are discussed below together with examples from the current COVID-19 outbreak in the UK. These applications illustrate that EDR can demonstrate changes in transmission rate before they may be clear from the epidemic curve. Thus, EDR can provide an early warning that an epidemic is resuming growth, allowing earlier intervention. A conceptual comparison between EDR and the commonly used reproduction number is also provided.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodução , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 164, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancements in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and policy development have enabled more people to have biologically related children in Canada. However, as ART continues to focus on infertility and low fertility of heterosexual couples, ART access and research has been uneven towards meeting the reproductive needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, two-spirit, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQ2SIA +) people. Furthermore, experiences of reproduction are impacted by intersectional lived realities of race, gender, sexuality, and class. This commentary utilizes a reproductive justice (RJ) framework to consider reproductive access for LGBTQ2SIA + Black, Indigenous, and people of colour (BIPOC), while simultaneously engaging through a critical lens RJ has on ART. An RJ framework considers the constitutive elements of reproductive capacity and decision making that are not often at the forefront of reproductive health discussions. Additionally, this commentary discusses reproductive rights violations and reproductive violence such as coerced and forced sterilizations that have and are currently occurring in Canada. This article considers systems of access and structures of regulation that seek to control the reproductive capacities of marginalized communities, while empowering accessibility and upholding white supremacy and heteronormativity. In thinking through research and access in ART, who are ART users and whose reproduction is centered in research and access in Canada? CONCLUSION: A reproductive justice framework is urgently needed to address inequities of sexual and reproductive health access in Canada.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Justiça Social , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
8.
Soins ; 66(857): 16-19, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366065

RESUMO

While human life continues thanks to the difference between sexes, women carry alone the fruit of reproduction. This female power arouses in male progenitors a need to dominate which can go as far as violence and murder. The institution, instead of representing a third party helping to facilitate exchange and transfer, proposes separating the sexes through the possibility of intervening medically in the species' reproduction process.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Violência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 2): e20200635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378645

RESUMO

Geometric morphometric methods are powerful tools to discriminate between closely related ostracods taxa as well as to study the relationship between their morphological variations, taxonomy and paleoecology. In this study, valve outline analysis allows the discrimination between the non-marine ostracod C. silvestrii and R. whatleyi juveniles, pointing out differences in the posterior valve area and surface ornamentation. Modern female specimens of C. silvestrii from 23 sites located in a spatial transect (41 to 51 °S) exhibited extensive morphological variability, on the basis of which three morphotypes (acuminated, transitional, subtruncated) were determined. Multivariate analyses showed that acuminated and transitional shapes are not arranged in groups but the subtruncated morphotype, previously described as E. cecryphalium, seems to be associated with low water conductivity (372 µS cm-1), dominant cold (5 ºC) and windy (8.6 m s-1) climatic conditions. The fossil cluster which included nine cores spanning the last 15.6 kyr, only covered acuminated and transitional shapes, which may indicate that these lineages might be older than the subtruncated morphotype. In addition, morphological differences between reproduction modes suggested that parthenogenetic females exhibit de posterior margin more acuminate than sexual females. These results set the ground for more precise ecological and paleoenvironmental studies in Patagonia.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Fósseis , Animais , Feminino , Análise Multivariada , Reprodução
10.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210261, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343437

RESUMO

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important environmental threat for organisms in aquatic systems, but its temporally variable nature makes the understanding of its effects ambiguous. The aim of our study was to assess potential fitness costs associated with fluctuating UVR in the aquatic zooplankter Daphnia magna. We investigated individual survival, reproduction and behaviour when exposed to different UVR treatments. Individuals exposed to fluctuating UVR, resembling natural variations in cloud cover, had the lowest fitness (measured as the number of offspring produced during their lifespan). By contrast, individuals exposed to the same, but constant UVR dose had similar fitness to control individuals (not exposed to UVR), but they showed a significant reduction in daily movement. The re-occurring threat response to the fluctuating UVR treatment thus had strong fitness costs for D. magna, and we found no evidence for plastic behavioural responses when continually being exposed to UVR, despite the regular, predictable exposure schedule. In a broader context, our results imply that depending on how variable a stressor is in nature, populations may respond with alternative strategies, a framework that could promote rapid population differentiation and local adaptation.


Assuntos
Daphnia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Humanos , Reprodução
11.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(4): 352-358, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342956

RESUMO

A new species of brittle star, Ophiodelos okayoshitakai, is described from two specimens collected in Sagami Bay, central-eastern Japan. Photographic examination of the holotype specimen of the sole other congener, Ophiodelos insignis Koehler, 1930, indicates that Ophiodelos okayoshitakai sp. nov. is distinguished from O. insignis by i) the disc stumps covering on the dorsal side of the disc, ii) the dorsal and ventral arm plates being separated from each other on the proximal arm regions, iii) the dorsal arm plate being smooth, iv) the arm spines at proximal portion of the arm being six in number and smooth in shape, and v) the number and shape of the tentacle scales at proximal portion of the arm being up to two and spine-shaped adradially and oval abradially. Detailed morphological observations of this new species suggest the inclusion of Ophiodelos, whose familial affiliation remains unclear, in the suborder Ophiacanthina. More than 10 juveniles of various sizes were found in the disc of Ophiodelos okayoshitakai sp. nov., indicating a brooding reproduction. This is the first report of the genus Ophiodelos from Japanese waters. We also provided a nucleotide sequence for part of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in O. okayoshitakai sp. nov. for future studies of DNA barcoding and phylogeny.


Assuntos
Equinodermos/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Japão , Oceano Pacífico
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148322, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412380

RESUMO

It remains unclear how sub-lethal effects of contaminants play out in relation to other stressors encountered by free-ranging populations. Effects may be masked or influenced by interactions with field stressors such as food availability. We predicted that (1) including food availability, and particularly its interaction with Hg, would reveal or enhance associations between Hg and breeding endpoints. We further predicted that (2) breeding impairment associated with Hg would be higher under food stress conditions. We monitored Hg and nest success of great egrets (Ardea alba) in eight breeding colonies in the Florida Everglades over 11 years. We characterized variation in local food availability among colonies and years using fish biomass and recession range -a proxy to fish vulnerability. We used two Hg exposure indicators (egg albumen Hg and nestling feather Hg) and six breeding endpoints (clutch-size, brood-size, fledged-size, hatching success, post-hatching success and fledglings per egg) to assess whether variation in food availability influenced associations between Hg and these endpoints. Accounting for interactions between Hg and food availability, we identified statistically significant associations in all 12 indicator-endpoint combinations, while only three were detectable without food. Further, 10 combinations showed interactions between Hg and components of food availability. Our results also indicated an endpoint-specific affinity, with albumen [Hg] explaining more variation in hatching success while nestling feather [Hg] explained more variation in post-hatching survival. Both Hg indicators accounted for relevant (6-10%) amounts of variation in fledglings produced per egg laid, an integrative endpoint. Increased Hg exposure resulted in overall reduced reproductive success when food availability was low, but our models predicted low or no effects of increasing Hg exposure when food availability was high. Our results indicate that Hg induced impairment is strongly driven by food availability, providing a framework that accommodates previously contradictory results in the literature.


Assuntos
Aves , Mercúrio , Animais , Plumas , Alimentos , Reprodução
13.
Theriogenology ; 173: 73-82, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339906

RESUMO

Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs, which are approved for male dogs and ferrets, have been used off-label to suppress estrus in bitches predisposed to the side effects of spaying. Health data from the past 12 years were evaluated from bitches without progestogen pretreatment that received deslorelin acetate (DA) to suppress estrus for the first time before the age of 4.5 years. The study population included 32 client-owned bitches repeatedly treated with either 4.7 mg or 9.4 mg DA implants for a period of 5.3 ± 3.4 years (range 0.5-11.3 years). Follow-up information concerning immediate side effects of DA occurring within five months after the first DA treatment (n = 23) as well as long-term side effects of sustained gonadal suppression occurring after five months up to three years (n = 2), three years up to five years (n = 2) or more than five years (n = 8) were assessed through a questionnaire. Treatment was considered successful if no major side effects requiring medical treatment occurred, which applied to 26 out of 32 (81 %) bitches. In the six remaining bitches, the following major side effects led to treatment discontinuation: persistent urinary incontinence (n = 1), reoccurring induced heat (n = 1), uterine disease (n = 3) and/or ovarian tumor (n = 3). The bitches recovered completely after surgical spaying and/or DA implant removal. Minor side effects that did not require therapy or affect animal welfare included body weight changes (n = 18), subtle behavioral changes (n = 13), induced heat (n = 12), coat changes (n = 11), pseudocyesis (n = 6), transient urinary incontinence (n = 4), and/or temporary thickening of the uterine wall with little anechogenic content (n = 2). To examine a possible causal relationship between adverse side effects and DA treatment, further studies should compare the frequency of pathologies between groups of GnRH-treated, intact and spayed bitches of similar breeds and ages. Nevertheless, DA application before the age of 4.5 years may be a means of postponing surgical spaying for several years in breeds at high risk for developing urinary incontinence. Before DA is used in bitches, owners should be fully informed regarding possible side effects.


Assuntos
Estro , Furões , Animais , Cães , Implantes de Medicamento , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/análogos & derivados , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia
14.
Theriogenology ; 173: 128-132, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375939

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in µ-calpain (CAPN1) that beneficially associate with beef tenderness are reported to antagonistically associate with calving day in beef heifers and post-partum interval to estrus in beef cows. We, therefore, hypothesized that a molecular breeding value for slice shear force, calculated based on CAPN1 and calpastatin (CAST) genotypes, would demonstrate an antagonistic relationship between genomically predicted slice shear force and ordinal calving date in replacement beef heifers. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the association of a polymorphism in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) with reproductive traits in beef heifers. One hundred eighty-seven MARC III heifers (» Angus, » Hereford, » Red Poll, and » Pinzgauer) that had been selectively bred to increase the frequency of these polymorphisms were submitted for monthly ultrasound exams beginning at 333 d of age and continuing until the start of breeding to determine pubertal status. At the last exam before breeding, all antral follicles were counted, and the length and height of each ovary was measured to determine if genomic selection for slice shear force associated with ovarian follicle number. Calving date, calf gender, and calf birth weight were recorded at parturition. Regression analysis of the molecular breeding value for slice shear force of the heifers on ordinal calving date indicated no association between genomic prediction of tenderness and calving date (P = 0.16); however, there was a tendency for age at puberty to be delayed in heifers as genetic merit for tenderness improved (P = 0.09). The results of the present study indicate that within experimental precision, selecting for tenderness using genomic predictions had minimal or no antagonistic association with reproductive performance in heifers. Further analysis of reproductive performance as cows is needed within this population but applying these genetic markers to select for tenderness in steers does not antagonize reproductive traits influencing conception or first calf birth date and birth weight in replacement beef heifers.


Assuntos
Embaralhamento de DNA , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Embaralhamento de DNA/veterinária , Feminino , Parto , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Desmame
15.
Theriogenology ; 173: 261-268, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403971

RESUMO

Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for male and female reproductive traits and their genetic correlations with body weight and carcass traits, evaluate the genetic trends over the years, and verify the effect of inbreeding on the phenotypes of Brahman cattle. The traits evaluated were body weights at 120, 210, 365, and 450 days of age (W120, W210, W365, and W450); scrotal circumference at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450), age at first calving (AFC), gestation length (GL), stayability (STAY), ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Direct heritability estimates ranged from 0.10 ± 0.03 (AFC) to 0.43 ± 0.06 (GL). Maternal heritability estimates for body weights, scrotal circumferences, and GL ranged from 0.07 ± 0.02 to 0.15 ± 0.03. The proportion of the maternal permanent environment for W120 and W210 was equal to 0.11 ± 0.02. Genetic correlations varied between -0.60 ± 0.25 (STAY and BFT) to 0.97 ± 0.01 (W365 and W450). Except for AFC, all genetic trends were significant (p < 0.05) and presented favorable annual genetic gains. Unfavorable effects due to the increase of inbreeding coefficients were observed for body weights and AFC, suggesting greater attention be paid to the applied mating systems to control inbreeding. Reproductive traits, such as AFC and STAY, could be assisted indirectly by scrotal circumference selection. The emphasis applied to body weight selection, especially at W210, may assist REA. The BFT and RFT traits presented genetic variability and have responded to selection, although not included in the Brahman selection index.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Escroto , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução/genética
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358953

RESUMO

The amount and timing of growth are important factors that affect age at first egg, body conformation, reproductive performance, and hunger in broiler breeders. To investigate the effect of growth pattern on feeding motivation and reproductive performance, 10 unique growth trajectories were designed with 2 levels of the amount of early growth and 5 levels of timing of growth around puberty. A 3-phase Gompertz model that described growth in phase 1 (prepubertal), phase 2 (pubertal), and phase 3 (postpubertal) was used to design the growth trajectories. Second growth phase inflection point (I2) was advanced by 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the coefficient estimated from the breeder-recommended target BW. The growth trajectories were designed with 2 discrete levels of total gain in the prepubertal phase (g1); g1 was either the prepubertal phase gain coefficient, estimated from the breeder-recommended BW (Standard g1) target, or 10% higher (High g1). Forty females were randomly assigned to the growth trajectories using a precision feeding (PF) system. Analysis of covariance was conducted on dependent variables in ten 4-wk periods with g1 and periods as discrete fixed effects, I2 as a continuous fixed effect, and age as a random effect. Differences were reported at P ≤ 0.05. For every week of earlier I2, body weight at photostimulation (BWPS) increased by 126 g; BW at first egg (BWFE) increased by 94 g; 24 wk shank length increased by 0.038 and 1.495 mm in the Standard g1 and High g1 treatments; 24 wk body fat increased by 0.38%; pullets came to lay earlier by 0.49 d; egg weight (EW) increased by 0.27 g; egg production and egg mass (EM) increased by 0.33 egg/hen/d and 0.916 g/d in the High g1 treatment but decreased by 0.27 egg/hen/d and 0.29 g/d in the Standard g1 treatment, respectively. Increasing g1 reduced feeding motivation index by 1.6 and 0.8 visits/meal during rearing and laying phase, respectively. Earlier pubertal growth showed prominent effects on the reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Motivação , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Maturidade Sexual
17.
J Environ Radioact ; 237: 106708, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358897

RESUMO

We succeeded at numerical reproduction of dissolved U concentrations from column experiments with PO4-treated Hanford 300 Area sediment using a simple ion exchange and immobile domain model. The time-series curves of dissolved U concentrations under various Darcy flow rate conditions were reproduced by the numerical model in the present study through optimization of the following parameters: the mass of U in mobile domain (on surface soil connected to the stream) to fit the starting U concentration at the column exit, and the rest of the total U was left as precipitation in immobile domain (isolated in deep soil); the mixing ratio between immobile and mobile domains, to fit the final recovering curve of concentration; and the cation exchange capacity (CECZp) and equilibrium constant (kZp) of the exchange reaction of UO22+ and H+ on simulated soil surface (Zp), to fit the transient equilibrium concentration, forming the bed of the bathtub curve. Numerical setting of no U in immobile domain or no mixing between immobile and mobile domains caused all U flushed out of the column exit, and setting of no CEC on Zp, formed no transient equilibrium concentration. The ion exchange immobile domain model is so common that it has become a standard process in the general-purpose geochemical program Phreeqc. Optimization of this model led to the development of the model presented here, which was capable of explaining the fluctuations in dissolved U concentration well and reproducing column experiments under various conditions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Urânio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Troca Iônica , Reprodução , Urânio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient malnutrition is a form of undernutrition that causes diseases, and this is mainly due to insufficient intake of nutrients in daily foods. The status of micronutrients for people in Sudan remains scarce, and information is limited. The aim of this study is to highlight the status of micronutrients among women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age) and their children in Sudan. METHODS: This manuscript is a quantitative descriptive study, based on the data from Sudan Micronutrient Survey (SMS); it is part of the second round of the Simple Spatial Survey Method (S3M II) in Sudan (a total of 93,882 households). RESULTS: The level of consumption of vitamin A-rich foods was found to be moderate at 67.36% for reproductive-age women and low at 23.44% for under-five children. Similarly, consumption rate of vitamin B-rich foods among reproductive-age women was 62.13%, and low for children at 11.02%. The consumption of iron-, calcium-, and zinc-rich foods was moderate among women (66.75%, 47.69%, 69.72%, respectively) and very low in children (12.28%, 17.62%, 14.99%, respectively). The iron deficiency prevalence was 47% in non-pregnant women, 58% in pregnant women, and 54% in children. The prevalence of anemia was 30% in non-pregnant women, 37% in pregnant women, and 48% in children. Generally, urinary iodine concentration was inadequate in lactating and non-pregnant women as well as in pregnant women. Most indicators of micronutrients in Sudan for children and women of reproductive age were highly significant. Sudan needs more efforts to create an enabling environment through legislation, policies, and strategies to strengthen the nutrition-sensitive and specific interventions and improving status of micronutrients among women and children, focusing on food fortification, food supplements, and counseling on micronutrients intake for mothers during antenatal and postnatal services as well as raising community awareness.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1956): 20211069, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344179

RESUMO

Conditional strategies occur when the relative fitness pay-off from expressing a given phenotype is contingent upon environmental circumstances. This conditional strategy model underlies cases of alternative reproductive tactics, in which individuals of one sex employ different means to obtain reproduction. How kin structure affects the expression of alternative reproductive tactics remains unexplored. We address this using the mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus, in which large males develop into aggressive 'fighters' and small males develop into non-aggressive 'scramblers.' Because only fighters kill their rivals, they should incur a greater indirect fitness cost when competing with their relatives, and thus fighter expression could be reduced in the presence of relatives. We raised mites in full-sibling or mixed-sibship groups and found that fighters were more common at higher body weights in full-sibling groups, not less common as we predicted (small individuals were almost exclusively scramblers in both treatments). This result could be explained if relatedness and cue variability are interpreted signals of population density, since fighters are more common at low densities in this species. Alternatively, our results may indicate that males compete more intensely with relatives in this species. We provide the first evidence of kin-mediated plasticity in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Ácaros , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1956): 20211375, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344183

RESUMO

The near-globally distributed ecto-parasitic mite of the Apis mellifera honeybee, Varroa destructor, has formed a lethal association with Deformed wing virus, a once rare and benign RNA virus. In concert, the two have killed millions of wild and managed colonies, particularly across the Northern Hemisphere, forcing the need for regular acaricide application to ensure colony survival. However, despite the short association (in evolutionary terms), a small but increasing number of A. mellifera populations across the globe have been surviving many years without any mite control methods. This long-term survival, or Varroa resistance, is consistently associated with the same suite of traits (recapping, brood removal and reduced mite reproduction) irrespective of location. Here we conduct an analysis of data extracted from 60 papers to illustrate how these traits connect together to explain decades of mite resistance data. We have potentially a unified understanding of natural Varroa resistance that will help the global industry achieve widespread miticide-free beekeeping and indicate how different honeybee populations across four continents have resolved a recent threat using the same suite of behaviours.


Assuntos
Vírus de RNA , Varroidae , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Reprodução
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