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1.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 283-298, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006076

RESUMO

Information on ecological systems often comes from diverse sources with varied levels of complexity, bias, and uncertainty. Accordingly, analytical techniques continue to evolve that address these challenges to reveal the characteristics of ecological systems and inform conservation actions. We applied multiple statistical learning algorithms (i.e., machine learning) with a range of information sources including fish tracking data, environmental data, and visual surveys to identify potential spawning aggregation sites for a marine fish species, permit (Trachinotus falcatus), in the Florida Keys. Recognizing the potential complementarity and some level of uncertainty in each information source, we applied supervised (classic and conditional random forests; RF) and unsupervised (fuzzy k-means; FKM) algorithms. The two RF models had similar predictive performance, but generated different predictor variable importance structures and spawning site predictions. Unsupervised clustering using FKM identified unique site groupings that were similar to the likely spawning sites identified with RF. The conservation of aggregate spawning fish species depends heavily on the protection of key spawning sites; many of these potential sites were identified here for permit in the Florida Keys, which consisted of relatively deep-water natural and artificial reefs with high mean permit residency periods. The application of multiple machine learning algorithms enabled the integration of diverse information sources to develop models of an ecological system. Faced with increasingly complex and diverse data sources, ecologists, and conservation practitioners should find increasing value in machine learning algorithms, which we discuss here and provide resources to increase accessibility.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Animais , Florida , Reprodução
2.
Oecologia ; 194(1-2): 75-86, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025265

RESUMO

Behavioural plasticity during habitat selection plays a key role in determining whether organisms may thrive under human-induced rapid environmental changes. As organisms rely on environmental cues to make decisions, these behavioural responses may be maladaptive. We studied the European stonechat Saxicola torquatus as a model open-habitat bird species breeding in three structurally different land-use types generated by agriculture and forestry activities. In this mosaic landscape, we compared the relative attractiveness and the breeding habitat quality of intensive grassland, Christmas tree plantations and clear-cut patches in plantation forests to test whether habitat selection was adaptive. We examined the settlement pattern of territorial males to evaluate habitat preference. We recorded key parameters reflecting reproductive performances, adult and first-year survival to estimate the individual fitness of the birds and assess the quality of the different land-use types for breeding. Stonechats preferentially settled in clear-cut patches, but their fitness was not found to be markedly different in comparison with the other occupied habitats. Although they produced slightly lower-quality offspring in clear-cut patches, we did not find a negative consequence on first-year survival probabilities or any among-habitat differences in adult survival. With our analysis integrating multiple components of individual fitness, we show that all occupied land-use types are similarly rewarding for the breeding stonechats. Our study shows that some species can benefit from novel land-use types emerging in the landscape as a result of human activities. Flexible habitat selection in the stonechat has most probably contributed to its recent population increase in Western Europe.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodução
3.
Science ; 370(6513)2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033187

RESUMO

Chen and Pfennig (Reports, 20 March 2020, p. 1377) analyze the fitness consequences of hybridization in toads but do not account for differences in survival among progeny. Apparent fitness effects depend on families with anomalously low survival, yet survival is crucial to evolutionary fitness. This and other analytical shortcomings demonstrate that a conclusion of adaptive mate choice is not yet justified.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reprodução
4.
Science ; 370(6513)2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033188

RESUMO

Braun et al contend that we did not account for survival, but we did. Differential survival does not alter our conclusions, which were also robust to removing anomalous families. They ignore the study system's natural history justifying our fitness measures, while failing to account for our behavioral data. We stand by our conclusion that females adaptively choose among heterospecific males.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reprodução
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 142032, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027874

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine environment. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the most toxic carcinogen of PAHs, is widely studied as a representative that interferes with lipid metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism by B[a]P interference towards bivalve, one of the marine-pollution bio-indicators have not been elucidated yet, especially during gonadal development which is closely associated with lipids. In this study, female scallops Chlamys farreri were cultured with natural and 4 µg/L B[a]P exposed seawater, respectively, and a multi-stage (proliferative, growth, mature, and spawn stage) ovarian transcriptome profiling was performed to decipher the reproductive stage-dependence disturbing mechanisms on lipid metabolism caused by B[a]P in bivalves. The results revealed the potential molecular mechanism of B[a]P-induced triglycerides (TGs) accumulation, which probably resulted from the collaboration of promoting synthesis and inhibiting metabolization of TGs, notably, this mechanism also occurred at spawn stage. Correspondingly, B[a]P and TGs contents measured in ovary offered direct biochemical evidences for the interference effects and stage-dependent accumulation patterns of B[a]P. Moreover, the gene expressions of fatty acids synthesis related enzymes were down-regulated cooperatively, illustrating the molecular compensatory mechanism that reduced susceptibility from oxidative damage. And these results further emphasized the important role of prostaglandins (PGs) in immune response mediated by arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, this study explored the underlying molecular mechanism affected by B[a]P on sterol metabolism, which possibly posed a threat to normal reproductive functions in bivalves. Taken together, our findings filled the gap of the stage-dependent interference molecular mechanisms on lipid metabolism behind bivalves, and provided a new perspective for investigating the adaptive mechanisms of bivalves under POPs stress.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno , Pectinidae , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Pectinidae/genética , Reprodução
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 837-840, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018115

RESUMO

Gastric motility is in part coordinated by bio-electrical slow waves. The wavefront orientation of the slow wave contains vital physiological information about the motility condition of the gastrointestinal system. Dysmotility was shown to be associated with dysrhythmic propagation of the slow wave. The most commonly used method to detect wavefront orientation is computationally expensive because of the involvement of activation time identification. The information of local directionality contained in bipolar slow wave recordings could be used to detect the wavefront orientation. An algorithm called bipolar direction detection was developed to utilize the information contained in the bipolar slow wave recordings. Bipolar recordings were constructed by subtracting the unipolar in vivo recordings of directional electrode pairs. Then, time delay information was used to detect the wavefront direction. The algorithm was verified using synthetic data and validated using experimental data. Ten high-resolution in vivo slow wave signals from 5 pigs were recorded for a duration of 2 minutes. The performance was compared against the semi-automated approach, resulting in an average angle error of 20° for the experimental data. The algorithm was able to detect slow wave wavefront orientation with minimal errors rapidly.Clinical relevance-The ability to rapidly detect slow wave propagation direction will enable effective analysis of large data sets, through which we can obtain a better understanding of functional motility disorders and help with diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Estômago , Algoritmos , Animais , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Eletrodos , Reprodução , Suínos
7.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 135-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965264

RESUMO

The purpose of this scientific work was to investigate the development of puberty in females-offspring born to mothers of different age with fetoplacental insufficiency (FPI) and to evaluate efficacy of base and combined drug therapy during pregnancy. Negative influence of FPI on the puberty genesis of females-offspring born to mothers of different reproductive age is considered to be the results of the investigation. In particular, the increased anogenital distance, which is the sign of estrogen deficiency, has been observed in females-offspring born to reproductively young mothers with FPI. Females-offspring born to reproductively matured mothers with FPI have demonstrated more negative changes of reproductive system development. That is, body mass and anogenital distance increasing amid accelerated sexual development have been detected. The increasing of testosterone level has caused inadequate ovaries stimulation which has led to steroid genesis disturbances. During histological investigation of ovarian structure of pubertal rats born to mothers of both groups of age, the decreasing of follicles density, the disturbance in follicles types ratio - early secondary follicles were prevailed, declining folliculogenesis reserve and increased number of atretical follicles have been observed. The introduction of pharmaceutical composition to pregnant rats of both groups of age amid fetoplacental insufficiency leads to stronger normalization of reproductive system development in females-offspring than using of drug of comparison.


Assuntos
Mães , Maturidade Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Ovário , Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 613, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875407

RESUMO

Many environmental monitoring programs include an assessment of the health of fish populations using a sentinel species and include an indicator of reproductive potential. Knowledge of the reproductive strategy of the fish species is critical for data interpretation but is not always known. The reproductive strategy of a species can be determined from detailed histological analyses of ovaries throughout the reproductive cycle; however, these studies can be costly and can delay the implementation of a monitoring program. Three quick and cost-effective methods of predicting the reproductive strategy (annual single spawning or annual multiple spawning) are evaluated in this study using predicted probabilities from binary logistic regression models as a means of classifying the reproductive strategies of 18 different fish species in Atlantic Canada. The first method was based on the hypothesis that the variability in the ovary weight-body weight relationship in prespawning females is higher in multiple spawners. This method did not have a good classification rate due to some multiple spawners having low variability. The other two methods involved predictor variables representing the proportion of oocytes in different stages of development and predictor variables representing the distribution of oocyte sizes during the prespawning season for 111 fish (25 different samples for species). Predicted probabilities from these regression models could be used to correctly classify the reproductive strategies of all 25 samples (development stage model) and all but one sample (oocyte size distribution model). These models can be used to estimate the reproductive strategy of a species from a single sample of fish collected during the prespawning period to support species selection and data interpretation in environmental monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Reprodução , Animais , Canadá , Feminino , Peixes , Ovário
9.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 201-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865912

RESUMO

Acute and chronic effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on human health have long been a concern. It is well known that acute UVR causes epidermal hyperplasia, erythema, delayed tanning, pigment darkening, and free-radical formation. Apart from acute effects of UVR, its chronic effects involve immunosuppression, photoaging, exacerbation, photodermatoses, and photocarcinogenesis. To protect skin from harmful effects of UVR, UV filters were developed. But these may cause harmful effects in humans and on the environment; adverse effects of these chemicals have been evaluated for > 20 yr. Studies show that UV filters may lead to endocrine disruption, hepatotoxicity, mutagenicity, and systemic toxicity. Literature on environmental effects of UV filters suggests that they are bioaccumulative, pseudopersistent, and possibly toxic to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this review is to summarize toxic effects and safety concerns of organic UV filters on human beings and the environment. We focus on UV filters' organic endocrine-disrupting effects by reviewing both in vivo and in vitro studies.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/toxicidade , Animais , Biotransformação , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacocinética , Protetores Solares/química , Protetores Solares/farmacocinética
11.
Urologiia ; (4): 157-164, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897031

RESUMO

The causes, some pathogenetic mechanisms and possibilities for correcting the decrease in male reproductive potential in Russia are discussed in the lecture. Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues. Some aspects of COVID-19 influence on the problems of reproductive medicine, andrology and urology are highlighted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Oligoelementos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Reprodução , Federação Russa , Selênio , Zinco
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111001, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888585

RESUMO

Environmental nanomaterials contamination is a great concern for organisms including human. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in a huge range of applications which might pose potential risk to organisms. This study investigated the in vivo transgenerational toxicity on development and reproduction with parental CuO NPs exposure in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that CuO NPs (150 mg/L) significantly reduced the body length of parental C. elegans (P0). Only about 1 mg/L Cu2+ (~0.73%) were detected from 150 mg/L CuO NPs in 0.5X K-medium after 48 h. In transgenerational assays, CuO NPs (150 mg/L) parental exposure significantly induced developmental and reproductive toxicity in non-exposed C. elegans progeny (CuO NPs free) on body length (F1) and brood size (F1 and F2), respectively. In contrast, parental exposure to Cu2+ (1 mg/L) did not cause transgenerational toxicity on growth and reproduction. This suggests that the transgenerational toxicity was mostly attributed to the particulate form of CuO NPs. Moreover, qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of met-2 and spr-5 genes were significantly decreased at P0 and F1 upon only maternal exposure to CuO NPs (150 mg/L), suggesting the observed transgenerational toxicity was associated with possible epigenetic regulation in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética
13.
Urologiia ; (4): 119-123, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897025

RESUMO

Approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age are infertile. Among patients with infertility, nearly 10-15% have azoospermia. The current treatment methods of non-obstructive azoospermia, in particular the use of mesenchymal stem cells, and the comparative analysis of the cost-effectiveness of different methods are discussed in the article.


Assuntos
Azoospermia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodução
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201238, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873206

RESUMO

To reduce the potential for sperm competition, male insects are thought to inhibit the post-mating reproductive behaviour of females through receptivity-inhibiting compounds transferred in the ejaculate. Selection is expected to favour phenotypic plasticity in male post-copulatory expenditure, with males investing strategically in response to their perceived risk of sperm competition. However, the impact that socially cued strategic allocation might have on female post-mating behaviour has rarely been assessed. Here, we varied male perception of sperm competition risk, both prior to and during mating, to determine if a male's competitive environment impacts the extent to which he manipulates female remating behaviour. We found that female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) mated to males that were reared under sperm competition risk emerged from a shelter in search of male song sooner than did females mated to males reared without risk, but only when mating occurred in a risk-free environment. We also found that females reared in a silent environment where potential mates were scarce emerged from the shelter sooner than females exposed to male calls during development. Collectively, our findings suggest complex interacting effects of male and female sociosexual environments on female post-mating sexual receptivity.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200941, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900317

RESUMO

Adaptive radiations (ARs) frequently show remarkable repeatability where single lineages undergo multiple independent episodes of AR in distant places and long-separate time points. Genetic variation generated through hybridization between distantly related lineages can promote AR. This mechanism, however, requires rare coincidence in space and time between a hybridization event and opening of ecological opportunity, because hybridization generates large genetic variation only locally and it will persist only for a short period. Hence, hybridization seems unlikely to explain recurrent AR in the same lineage. Contrary to these expectations, our evolutionary computer simulations demonstrate that admixture variation can geographically spread and persist for long periods if the hybrid population becomes separated into isolated sub-lineages. Subsequent secondary hybridization of some of these can reestablish genetic polymorphisms from the ancestral hybridization in places far from the birthplace of the hybrid clade and long after the ancestral hybridization event. Consequently, simulations revealed conditions where exceptional genetic variation, once generated through a rare hybridization event, can facilitate multiple ARs exploiting ecological opportunities available at distant points in time and space.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Reprodução
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201759, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933439

RESUMO

Male-only parental care, while rare in most animals, is a widespread strategy within teleost fish. The costs and benefits to males of acting as sole carer are highly variable among fish species making it challenging to determine the selective pressures driving the evolution of male-only care to such a high prevalence. We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis to examine the costs and benefits of paternal care across fish species. We found no evidence that providing care negatively affects male condition. In contrast with other taxa, we also found limited evidence that male care has evolved as a strategy to improve offspring survival. Instead, we found that males already caring for a brood are preferred by females and that this preference is strongest in those species in which males work harder to care for larger broods. Thus, in fish, investment in offspring care does not constrain a male's mating success but rather augments it, suggesting that the relatively high prevalence of male-only care in fish may be in part explained by sexual selection through female preference for caring males.


Assuntos
Peixes , Comportamento Paterno , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Pai , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Reprodução
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201661, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933445

RESUMO

The bivalved crustacean ostracods have the richest fossil record of any arthropod group and display complex reproductive strategies contributing to their evolutionary success. Sexual reproduction involving giant sperm, shared by three superfamilies of living ostracod crustaceans, is among the most fascinating behaviours. However, the origin and evolution of this reproductive mechanism has remained largely unexplored because fossil preservation of such features is extremely rare. Here, we report exceptionally preserved ostracods with soft parts (appendages and reproductive organs) in a single piece of mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber (approximately 100 Myr old). The ostracod assemblage is composed of 39 individuals. Thirty-one individuals belong to a new species and genus, Myanmarcypris hui gen. et sp. nov., exhibiting an ontogenetic sequence from juveniles to adults (male and female). Seven individuals are assigned to Thalassocypria sp. (Cypridoidea, Candonidae, Paracypridinae) and one to Sanyuania sp. (Cytheroidea, Loxoconchidae). Our micro-CT reconstruction provides direct evidence of the male clasper, sperm pumps (Zenker organs), hemipenes, eggs and female seminal receptacles with giant sperm. Our results reveal that the reproduction behavioural repertoire, which is associated with considerable morphological adaptations, has remained unchanged over at least 100 million years-a paramount example of evolutionary stasis. These results also double the age of the oldest unequivocal fossil animal sperm. This discovery highlights the capacity of amber to document invertebrate soft parts that are rarely recorded by other depositional environments.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina , Espermatozoides , Âmbar , Animais , Artrópodes , Feminino , Fósseis , Genitália , Masculino , Reprodução , Microtomografia por Raio-X
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201424, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933446

RESUMO

Social interactions are thought to be a critical driver in the evolution of cognitive ability. Cooperative interactions, such as pair bonding, rather than competitive interactions have been largely implicated in the evolution of increased cognition. This is despite competition traditionally being a very strong driver of trait evolution. Males of many species track changes in their social environment and alter their reproductive strategies in response to anticipated levels of competition. We predict this to be cognitively challenging. Using a Drosophila melanogaster model, we are able to distinguish between the effects of a competitive environment versus generic social contact by exposing flies to same-sex same-species competition versus different species partners, shown to present non-competitive contacts. Males increase olfactory learning/memory and visual memory after exposure to conspecific males only, a pattern echoed by increased expression of synaptic genes and an increased need for sleep. For females, largely not affected by mating competition, the opposite pattern was seen. The results indicate that specific social contacts dependent on sex, not simply generic social stimulation, may be an important evolutionary driver for cognitive ability in fruit flies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Fatores Sexuais , Sono , Comportamento Social
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201393, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962540

RESUMO

Frogs and toads (Amphibia: Anura) display diverse ecologies and behaviours, which are often correlated with visual capacity in other vertebrates. Additionally, anurans exhibit a broad range of relative eye sizes, which have not previously been linked to ecological factors in this group. We measured relative investment in eye size and corneal size for 220 species of anurans representing all 55 currently recognized families and tested whether they were correlated with six natural history traits hypothesized to be associated with the evolution of eye size. Anuran eye size was significantly correlated with habitat, with notable decreases in eye investment among fossorial, subfossorial and aquatic species. Relative eye size was also associated with mating habitat and activity pattern. Compared to other vertebrates, anurans have relatively large eyes for their body size, indicating that vision is probably of high importance. Our study reveals the role that ecology and behaviour may have played in the evolution of anuran visual systems and highlights the usefulness of museum specimens, and importance of broad taxonomic sampling, for interpreting macroecological patterns.


Assuntos
Anuros , Tamanho Corporal , Bufonidae , Ecossistema , Olho/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cruzamento , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução , Visão Ocular
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201462, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962542

RESUMO

Predation risk is a strong driver of prey distribution and movement. However, fitness-influencing behaviours, such as mating, can alter risk and influence predator-prey space-use dynamics. In tree crickets, Oecanthus henryi, mate searching involves acoustic signalling by immobile males and phonotactic movement by females. Space-use patterns in tree crickets relative to their primary predators, green lynx spiders (Peucetia viridans), should therefore depend on their current mate-searching state; whether males are calling or non-calling and whether females are phonotactic or non-phonotactic. We first measured the degree of spatial anchoring of crickets to specific bushes in the field and determined whether that influenced the probability of broad-scale spatial overlap with spiders. In the absence of spiders, all crickets, independent of sex or male calling status, were found to be spatially anchored to specific types of bushes and not uniformly distributed on the landscape. At the broad spatial scale, spiders were more likely to be found on bushes with female crickets and, to a lesser degree, calling male crickets. At a finer spatial scale within a bush, movement strategies of crickets not only varied depending on the presence or absence of a spider, but also on their current mate-searching state. Phonotactic females showed clear predator avoidance, whereas calling and non-calling males moved towards the spider instead of away, similar to predator inspection behaviour seen in many taxa. As the strongly selected sex, males are more likely to undertake risky mate-searching activities, which includes inspection of predator positions. Overall, we found that all crickets were predictably anchored at the landscape scale, but their sex and mate-seeking behaviour influenced the degree of overlap with predators and their antipredator movement strategies. Reproductive strategies within a prey species, therefore, can alter predator-prey space race at multiple spatial scales.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Feminino , Gryllidae , Masculino , Reprodução , Aranhas
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