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1.
Gene ; 766: 145158, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949694

RESUMO

The reproductive performance (e.g. fertility) of dairy cows, which declined over past few decades due to the intense and intensive selection, needs to be improved. Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of female Holstein screened the Adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5) as the candidate gene for cow fertility. As a member of the adenylyl cyclases family, adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5) is famous for regulating extrapyramidal motor system related various neuropsychiatric diseases, and its genetic variant is reported to associate with lower birth and placenta weight which leads to asymmetric fetal growth restriction. It was hypothesized that ADCY5 may affect the fertility of cows by regulating the processes of ovarian development. Herein, genomic DNA from 768 ovaries samples of healthy unrelated Holstein cow were used to screen potential insertion/deletion (indel) mutations using eight pairs of primers, and we found three novel polymorphic indel variants, namely, rs385624978 (P3-D11-bp), rs433028962 (P5-I19-bp) and rs382393457 (P8-D19-bp). The minor allelic frequencies (MAF) of P3-D11-bp, P5-I19-bp and P8-D19-bp loci were 0.188, 0.365 and 0.06, respectively, and there were 7 different haplotypes. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium analysis demonstrated no linkage among them. Importantly, P3-D11-bp locus was significantly related to both ovarian width (P = 1.0E-6) and corpus luteum diameter (P = 0.015); P5-I19-bp locus had a significant relation with corpus albicans diameter (P = 0.030) and ovaries with mutational homozygous genotype produced a superior corpus albicans diameter than those with other genotypes. Briefly, three novel indel mutations of bovine ADCY5 gene were identified and two of them were uncovered to be significantly correlated with ovarian phenotypic traits or corpus luteum or albicans traits. These findings contributed to the application of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in improving female fertility in cattle, which could accelerate the development of the cattle industry.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Ovário/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Mutação INDEL/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fenótipo , Reprodução/genética
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13467, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043536

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for first calving reproductive traits and growth curve characteristics in Japanese Black cattle. The Gompertz growth function was fitted to body weight-age data to obtain the mature weight (MWT) and rate of maturing (ROM) of cows. Data of reproductive traits including the first service conception rate (CR) for heifers, age at the first calving (AFC), and gestation length for the first calving were collected. Records of 3,204 animals were used for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated using a linear uni- and bivariate animal model. The heritability estimates were moderate (0.29 for ROM) and high (0.57 for MWT) for growth curve parameters and low (0.03-0.11) for reproductive traits. There was a negative genetic correlation between MWT and ROM (-0.26), suggesting that an animal with a faster ROM would show a lower MWT. CR was negatively correlated with MWT (-0.42) but significantly and positively correlated with ROM (0.91). There was a negative genetic correlation between AFC and MWT (-0.49). These results suggest that a heifer with a faster ROM and lower MWT would show a higher CR. Meanwhile, a heifer with a lower MWT would show a higher AFC.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Feminino , Fertilização/genética , Gravidez/genética
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111001, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888585

RESUMO

Environmental nanomaterials contamination is a great concern for organisms including human. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in a huge range of applications which might pose potential risk to organisms. This study investigated the in vivo transgenerational toxicity on development and reproduction with parental CuO NPs exposure in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The results showed that CuO NPs (150 mg/L) significantly reduced the body length of parental C. elegans (P0). Only about 1 mg/L Cu2+ (~0.73%) were detected from 150 mg/L CuO NPs in 0.5X K-medium after 48 h. In transgenerational assays, CuO NPs (150 mg/L) parental exposure significantly induced developmental and reproductive toxicity in non-exposed C. elegans progeny (CuO NPs free) on body length (F1) and brood size (F1 and F2), respectively. In contrast, parental exposure to Cu2+ (1 mg/L) did not cause transgenerational toxicity on growth and reproduction. This suggests that the transgenerational toxicity was mostly attributed to the particulate form of CuO NPs. Moreover, qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA levels of met-2 and spr-5 genes were significantly decreased at P0 and F1 upon only maternal exposure to CuO NPs (150 mg/L), suggesting the observed transgenerational toxicity was associated with possible epigenetic regulation in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111338, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956867

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is well-recognized for its great hazards to human and wildlife health. It has negative influences on multiple organs and systems of birds. Especially, lead exposure caused adverse impacts on bird reproduction. In this study, one week old female Japanese quails were randomly allocated into four groups and each group was respectively fed with 0, 50 ppm, 500 ppm and 1000 ppm Pb in drinking water for 36 days to determine the effects of chronic lead exposure on ovarian development and function. The results showed that Pb did accumulate in the ovary and ovarian development was delayed by high dose lead exposure (500 ppm and 1000 ppm). Moreover, high Pb dosage induced ovarian histopathological damages characterized by granulosa cells disorganization, follicle atresia and interstitial cell degeneration. Meanwhile, the concentration of estradiol (E2) was significantly decreased and mRNA levels of genes involved with ovarian steroidogenesis were significantly down-regulated by high concentration Pb. In addition, Pb exposure caused increasing cell apoptosis and significant changes of the expression of genes involved with cell death in the ovary. High dose Pb exposure also inhibited thyroid hormone release and disrupted ovarian thyroid deiodination apart from causing thyroid histopathological injury such as follicular deformation and atrophy. The study indicated that Pb might cause ovarian malfunction by inducing ovary and thyroid microstructural damages, thyroid hormone and estrogen release inhibition and ovarian steroidogenesis disruption.


Assuntos
Coturnix/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estradiol/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Coturnix/genética , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Estradiol/genética , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/patologia , Humanos , Chumbo/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética
5.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000838, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804933

RESUMO

In humans, most germline mutations are inherited from the father. This observation has been widely interpreted as reflecting the replication errors that accrue during spermatogenesis. If so, the male bias in mutation should be substantially lower in a closely related species with similar rates of spermatogonial stem cell divisions but a shorter mean age of reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we resequenced two 3-4 generation nuclear families (totaling 29 individuals) of olive baboons (Papio anubis), who reproduce at approximately 10 years of age on average, and analyzed the data in parallel with three 3-generation human pedigrees (26 individuals). We estimated a mutation rate per generation in baboons of 0.57×10-8 per base pair, approximately half that of humans. Strikingly, however, the degree of male bias in germline mutations is approximately 4:1, similar to that of humans-indeed, a similar male bias is seen across mammals that reproduce months, years, or decades after birth. These results mirror the finding in humans that the male mutation bias is stable with parental ages and cast further doubt on the assumption that germline mutations track cell divisions. Our mutation rate estimates for baboons raise a further puzzle, suggesting a divergence time between apes and Old World monkeys of 65 million years, too old to be consistent with the fossil record; reconciling them now requires not only a slowdown of the mutation rate per generation in humans but also in baboons.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Hominidae/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Papio/genética , Reprodução/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Divisão Celular , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fatores Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/citologia
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105556, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652413

RESUMO

Ribosomal (r)DNA is a highly dynamic, conserved, multigene family whose sequence homogeneity is thought to be maintained by intra- and interchromosomal recombination, which are capable of changing rDNA copy number. It is generally not known how environmental stress such as sublethal exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of metals impacts rDNA copy number. To determine how chronic metal exposure affects rDNA, we measured copy number of the 18S rRNA gene in 355 copper and nickel-exposed samples and 132 metal-free samples derived from 325 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of two genetically distinct Daphnia pulex lineages. The MA lines were sampled at four time points over 100+ generations of clonal propagation. The copy number of rDNA was also measured in 15 individuals sampled from a metal-free non-MA control population established from the same progenitor as one of the MA lineages. We found that mean rDNA copy number fluctuated across lines exposed to metals with a tendency to decrease over time. In contrast, mean rDNA copy number in the metal-free control lines and the non-MA population remained stable over time. It is generally accepted that extreme rDNA loss results in the loss of organism fitness. Thus, fluctuations in rDNA copy number, including losses, could affect the long-term viability of natural populations of Daphnia in metal-contaminated habitats.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Acúmulo de Mutações , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Daphnia/genética , Níquel/toxicidade , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/genética
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007553, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697802

RESUMO

Phylogenetic profiling is a computational method to predict genes involved in the same biological process by identifying protein families which tend to be jointly lost or retained across the tree of life. Phylogenetic profiling has customarily been more widely used with prokaryotes than eukaryotes, because the method is thought to require many diverse genomes. There are now many eukaryotic genomes available, but these are considerably larger, and typical phylogenetic profiling methods require at least quadratic time as a function of the number of genes. We introduce a fast, scalable phylogenetic profiling approach entitled HogProf, which leverages hierarchical orthologous groups for the construction of large profiles and locality-sensitive hashing for efficient retrieval of similar profiles. We show that the approach outperforms Enhanced Phylogenetic Tree, a phylogeny-based method, and use the tool to reconstruct networks and query for interactors of the kinetochore complex as well as conserved proteins involved in sexual reproduction: Hap2, Spo11 and Gex1. HogProf enables large-scale phylogenetic profiling across the three domains of life, and will be useful to predict biological pathways among the hundreds of thousands of eukaryotic species that will become available in the coming few years. HogProf is available at https://github.com/DessimozLab/HogProf.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Eucariotos , Filogenia , Reprodução/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Cinetocoros/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008898, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701961

RESUMO

There is currently a requirement for single-sex litters for many applications, including agriculture, pest control, and reducing animal culling in line with the 3Rs principles: Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement. The advent of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing presents a new opportunity with which to potentially generate all-female or all-male litters. We review some of the historical nongenetic strategies employed to generate single-sex litters and investigate how genetic and genome editing techniques are currently being used to produce all-male or all-female progeny. Lastly, we speculate on future technologies for generating single-sex litters and the possible associated challenges.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Animais , Feminino , Edição de Genes/métodos , Masculino
9.
Gene ; 758: 144967, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707299

RESUMO

Bivalve mollusks are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage and have successfully evolved unique strategies for reproduction. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive regulation in mollusks remain to be elucidated. In this study, transcriptomes of ovary at four reproductive stages in female Chlamys farreri were characterized by RNA-Seq. Regarding signaling pathways, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, Fanconi anemia pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and Hedgehog signaling pathway were enriched during ovarian development processes. In addition, pathways related to energy metabolism such as Nitrogen metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism were enriched at spawn stage. Interestingly, Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was significantly enriched involved in ovarian development and spawn, and indicated the potential functions of nervous system on reproductive regulation in C. farreri. What's more, this study identified and characterized fourteen genes involved in "sex hormones synthesis and regulation", "ovarian development and spawn" and "maternal immunity" during the four reproductive stages in C. farreri. We determined that CYP17 uniquely affected gamete release by influencing the physiological balance among the steroid hormones and showed that receptors of the 5-HT and GABA neurotransmitters were tightly associated with ovarian maturation. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the maternal effect gene Zar1 in bivalve mollusks, likewise the maternal immunity genes displayed coordinated and cooperative expression during reproductive periods, which strengthened the environmental adaptation mechanisms of bivalves. Taken together, this study provides the first dynamic transcriptomic analysis of C. farreri at four key reproductive stages, which will assist in revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying bivalves on reproductive regulation in ovarian development and spawn.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinidae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
10.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(9): 519-533, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620937

RESUMO

Reproductive function adjusts in response to environmental conditions in order to optimize success. In humans, this plasticity includes age of pubertal onset, hormone levels and age at menopause. These reproductive characteristics vary across populations with distinct lifestyles and following specific childhood events, and point to a role for the early-life environment in shaping adult reproductive trajectories. Epigenetic mechanisms respond to external signals, exert long-term effects on gene expression and have been shown in animal and cellular studies to regulate normal reproductive function, strongly implicating their role in these adaptations. Moreover, human cohort data have revealed differential DNA methylation signatures in proxy tissues that are associated with reproductive phenotypic variation, although the cause-effect relationships are difficult to discern, calling for additional complementary approaches to establish functionality. In this Review, we summarize how adult reproductive function can be shaped by childhood events. We discuss why the influence of the childhood environment on adult reproductive function is an important consideration in understanding how reproduction is regulated and necessitates consideration by clinicians treating women with diverse life histories. The resolution of the molecular mechanisms responsible for human reproductive plasticity could also lead to new approaches for intervention by targeting these epigenetic modifications.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Meio Ambiente , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Envelhecimento , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Fertilidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Puberdade/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Migrantes
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2885, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514036

RESUMO

The number of male gametes is critical for reproductive success and varies between and within species. The evolutionary reduction of the number of pollen grains encompassing the male gametes is widespread in selfing plants. Here, we employ genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify underlying loci and to assess the molecular signatures of selection on pollen number-associated loci in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Regions of strong association with pollen number are enriched for signatures of selection, indicating polygenic selection. We isolate the gene REDUCED POLLEN NUMBER1 (RDP1) at the locus with the strongest association. We validate its effect using a quantitative complementation test with CRISPR/Cas9-generated null mutants in nonstandard wild accessions. In contrast to pleiotropic null mutants, only pollen numbers are significantly affected by natural allelic variants. These data support theoretical predictions that reduced investment in male gametes is advantageous in predominantly selfing species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
12.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 36(2): 395-409, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534849

RESUMO

Reproductive disorders are genetically heterogeneous and complex; available genetic tests are limited to chromosome analysis and 1 susceptibility gene. Cytogenetic analysis should be the first test to confirm or rule out chromosomal aberrations. No causative genes/mutations are known. The only available genetic test for stallion subfertility is based on a susceptibility gene FKBP6. The ongoing progress in equine genomics will improve the status of genetic testing. However, because subfertile phenotypes do not facilitate collection of large numbers of samples or pedigrees, and clinical causes of many cases remain unknown, further progress requires constructive cross-talk between geneticists, clinicians, breeders, and owners.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/genética , Infertilidade/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Cavalos , Infertilidade/genética , Masculino , Reprodução/genética
13.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 76, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poecilogony, the presence of two developmental modes in the same animal species, is a rare phenomenon. Few cases of poecilogony have been suggested for marine invertebrates including molluscs and even less stood extensive testing, mostly revealing a species pair with differing developmental modes. We studied a textbook example of poecilogony in the viviparous snail Planaxis sulcatus (Gastropoda: Planaxidae), for the first time throughout its entire distribution range. RESULTS: In the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea this intertidal species is observed to have large, shelled juveniles, whereas in the Indo-West Pacific planktotrophic veliger larvae are released from a subhaemocoelic brood pouch. We uncovered a shift in developmental modes across its range: from west to east successively earlier developmental stages are released. Furthermore, genetic data based on mitochondrial DNA suggests to recognize P. sulcatus as a single species rather than a group of cryptic species. A reconstruction of the ancestral area of P. sulcatus based on molecular data outlines the Western Indian Ocean and the Indo-West Pacific as area of origin. CONCLUSION: The findings supporting Planaxis sulcatus as a single widespread species and the geographical shift from one reproductive mode to another suggest for this species to truly represent a case of geographic poecilogony, i.e. differing developmental modes between populations of the same species. Furthermore, the results of our ancestral range estimation imply the release of planktotrophic larvae as the ancestral developmental mode.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/genética
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15748-15754, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571943

RESUMO

Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and lifespan constrain animal life histories, leading to evolutionary diversification of life history cycles in different environments. In female mammals, gestation and lactation are expected to impose the major costs of reproduction, driving reproductive trade-offs, although mating also requires interactions with males that could themselves influence life history. Here we show that a male's presence by itself leads to lifelong alterations in life history in female mice. Housing C57BL/6J female mice with sterilized males early in life led to an increase in body weight, an effect that persisted across life even when females were later allowed to produce pups. We found that those females previously housed with sterile males also showed enhanced late-life offspring production when allowed to reproduce, indicating that earlier mating can influence subsequent fecundity. This effect was the opposite to that seen in females previously housed with intact males, which showed the expected trade-off between early-life and late-life reproduction. However, housing with a sterile male early in life came at a cost to lifespan, which was observed in the absence of females ever undergoing fertilization. Endocrinologically, mating also permanently reduced the concentration of circulating prolactin, a pituitary hormone influencing maternal care. Changes in hormone axes that influence reproduction could therefore help alter life history allocation in response to opposite-sex stimuli. Our results demonstrate that mating itself can increase growth and subsequent fecundity in mammals, and that responses to sexual stimuli could account for some lifespan trade-offs normally attributed to pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Lactação , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15724-15730, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571952

RESUMO

Inbreeding is often avoided in natural populations by passive processes such as sex-biased dispersal. But, in many social animals, opposite-sexed adult relatives are spatially clustered, generating a risk of incest and hence selection for active inbreeding avoidance. Here we show that, in long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus), a cooperative breeder that risks inbreeding by living alongside opposite-sex relatives, inbreeding carries fitness costs and is avoided by active kin discrimination during mate choice. First, we identified a positive association between heterozygosity and fitness, indicating that inbreeding is costly. We then compared relatedness within breeding pairs to that expected under multiple mate-choice models, finding that pair relatedness is consistent with avoidance of first-order kin as partners. Finally, we show that the similarity of vocal cues offers a plausible mechanism for discrimination against first-order kin during mate choice. Long-tailed tits are known to discriminate between the calls of close kin and nonkin, and they favor first-order kin in cooperative contexts, so we conclude that long-tailed tits use the same kin discrimination rule to avoid inbreeding as they do to direct help toward kin.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/genética , Aves Canoras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Endogamia , Masculino , Passeriformes/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/genética
16.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 67, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysteine-RIch Secretory Proteins (CRISP) are expressed in the reproductive tract of mammalian males and are involved in fertilization and related processes. Due to their important role in sperm performance and sperm-egg interaction, these genes are likely to be exposed to strong selective pressures, including postcopulatory sexual selection and/or male-female coevolution. We here perform a comparative evolutionary analysis of Crisp genes in mammals. Currently, the nomenclature of CRISP genes is confusing, as a consequence of discrepancies between assignments of orthologs, particularly due to numbering of CRISP genes. This may generate problems when performing comparative evolutionary analyses of mammalian clades and species. To avoid such problems, we first carried out a study of possible orthologous relationships and putative origins of the known CRISP gene sequences. Furthermore, and with the aim to facilitate analyses, we here propose a different nomenclature for CRISP genes (EVAC1-4, "EVolutionarily-analyzed CRISP") to be used in an evolutionary context. RESULTS: We found differing selective pressures among Crisp genes. CRISP1/4 (EVAC1) and CRISP2 (EVAC2) orthologs are found across eutherian mammals and seem to be conserved in general, but show signs of positive selection in primate CRISP1/4 (EVAC1). Rodent Crisp1 (Evac3a) seems to evolve under a comparatively more relaxed constraint with positive selection on codon sites. Finally, murine Crisp3 (Evac4), which appears to be specific to the genus Mus, shows signs of possible positive selection. We further provide evidence for sexual selection on the sequence of one of these genes (Crisp1/4) that, unlike others, is thought to be exclusively expressed in male reproductive tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We found differing selective pressures among CRISP genes and sexual selection as a contributing factor in CRISP1/4 gene sequence evolution. Our evolutionary analysis of this unique set of genes contributes to a better understanding of Crisp function in particular and the influence of sexual selection on reproductive mechanisms in general.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Mamíferos/genética , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
17.
Anim Genet ; 51(4): 511-520, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363588

RESUMO

Heat stress negatively impacts the reproductive performance of dairy cows. The main objective of this study was to dissect the genetic basis underlying dairy cow fertility under heat stress conditions. Our first goal was to estimate genetic components of cow conception across lactations considering heat stress. Our second goal was to reveal individual genes and functional gene-sets that explain a cow's ability to conceive under thermal stress. Data consisted of 74 221 insemination records on 13 704 Holstein cows. Multitrait linear repeatability test-day models with random regressions on a function of temperature-humidity index values were used for the analyses. Heritability estimates for cow conception under heat stress were around 2-3%, whereas genetic correlations between general and thermotolerance additive genetic effects were negative and ranged between -0.35 and -0.82, indicating an unfavorable relationship between cows' ability to conceive under thermo-neutral vs. thermo-stress conditions. Whole-genome scans identified at least six genomic regions on BTA1, BTA10, BTA11, BTA17, BTA21 and BTA23 associated with conception under thermal stress. These regions harbor candidate genes such as BRWD1, EXD2, ADAM20, EPAS1, TAOK3, and NOS1, which are directly implicated in reproductive functions and cellular response to heat stress. The gene-set enrichment analysis revealed functional terms related to fertilization, developmental biology, heat shock proteins and oxidative stress, among others. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of the genetics underlying the reproductive performance of dairy cattle under heat stress conditions and point out novel genomic strategies for improving thermotolerance and fertility via marker-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade/genética , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Fertilização/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
18.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(6): 1012-1022, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352843

RESUMO

Kisspeptin has been identified as a key regulatory protein in the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which subsequently increases gonadotropin secretion during puberty to establish reproductive function and regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of variants in the KISS1, KISS1R, and GNRHR genes and their possible association with assisted reproduction outcomes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to investigate the associations of the genetic diversity at the candidate loci for KISS1, KISS1R, and GNRHR with the hormonal profiles and reproductive outcomes in 86 women who underwent in vitro fertilization treatments. Variants in the KISS1 and KISS1R genes were associated with luteinizing hormone (rs35431622:T>C), anti-Mullerian hormone (rs71745629delT), follicle-stimulating hormone (rs73507529:C>A), and estradiol (rs73507527:G>A, rs350130:A>G, and rs73507529:C>A) levels, as well as with reproductive outcomes such as the number of oocytes retrieved (s35431622:T>C), metaphasis II oocytes (rs35431622:T>C), and embryos (rs1132506:G>C). Additionally, variants in the GNRHR UTR3' (rs1038426:C>A, rs12508464:A>C, rs13150734:C>A, rs17635850:A>G, rs35683646:G>A, rs35610027:C>G, rs35845954:T>C, rs17635749:C>T, and rs7666201:C>T) were associated with low prolactin levels. A conjoint analysis of clinical, hormonal, and genetic variables using a generalized linear model identified two variants of the KISS1 gene (rs71745629delT and rs1132506:G>C) that were significantly associated with hormonal variations and reproductive outcomes. The findings suggest that variants in KISS1, KISS1R, and GNRHR genes can modulate hormone levels and reproductive outcomes.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Kisspeptinas/genética , Receptores de Kisspeptina-1/genética , Receptores LHRH/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Infertilidade/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232747, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374765

RESUMO

The potential effects of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize on non-target organisms must be conducted before the Bt maize is commercially planted. Folsomia candida is one of the non-target organisms of Bt maize, also as an important indicator of soil quality and environmental pollution. In this study, a 90-day F. candida feeding test were conducted to evaluate the potential effects of two Bt maize lines IE09S034 and BT799 and their non-Bt conventional isolines Zong 31 and Zheng 58. The results show that Bt maize lines had no significant effects on the survival rate, reproduction, adult body length, larval body length, and the activities of acetyl cholinesterase, catalase and superoxide dismutase on the F. candida. Namely, Bt maize had no toxic effects on the F. candida.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Candida/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bioensaio/métodos , Catalase/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Larva , Reprodução/genética , Microbiologia do Solo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, it was found that 1% Phytagel plates used to conduct Arabidopsis thaliana seedling phenotypic analysis no longer reproduced previously published results. This Phytagel, which is produced in China (Phytagel C), has replace American-made Phytagel (Phytagel), which is no longer commercially available. In this study, we present the impact of Phytagel produced in the United States vs. China on seedling phenotypic analysis. As a part of this study, an alternative gelling agent has been identified that is capable of reproducing previously published seedling morphometrics. RESULTS: Phytagel and Phytagel C were investigated based on their ability to reproduce the subtle phenotype of the sob3-4 esc-8 double mutant. Fluence-rate-response analysis of seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel C plates failed to replicate the sob3-4 esc-8 subtle phenotype seen on 1% Phytagel. Furthermore, root penetrance analysis showed a significant difference between sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings grown on 1% Phytagel and 1% Phytagel C. It was also found that 1% Phytagel C was significantly harder than 1% Phytagel. As a replacement for Phytagel C, Gellan was tested. 1% Gellan was able to reproduce the subtle phenotype of sob3-4 esc-8. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in root penetration of the wild type or sob3-4 esc-8 seedlings between 1% Phytagel and 1% Gellan. This may be due to the significant reduction in hardness in 1% Gellan plates compared to 1% Phytagel plates. Finally, we tested additional concentrations of Gellan and found that seedlings on 0.6% Gellan looked more uniform while also being able to reproduce previously published results. CONCLUSIONS: Phytagel has been the standard gelling agent for several studies involving the characterization of subtle seedling phenotypes. After production was moved to China, Phytagel C was no longer capable of reproducing these previously published results. An alternative gelling agent, Gellan, was able to reproduce previously published seedling phenotypes at both 1% and 0.6% concentrations. The information provided in this manuscript is beneficial to the scientific community as whole, specifically phenomics labs, as it details key problematic differences between gelling agents that should be performing identically (Phytagel and Phytagel C).


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Géis/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômica , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética
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