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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 20, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955252

RESUMO

Vinasse is a waste from the alcohol industry that can support microalgal growth because of its mineral and organic contents. Growing microalgae on waste can be a means of its remediation and decrease culture costs. The physiological knowledge of microalgae on waste can generate subsidies to increase biomass productivity. However, few studies have explored the photosynthetic metabolism of microalgae on complex matrices such as vinasse. In the present research, we investigated some physiological aspects related to photosynthesis and growth of several microalgae in centrifuged and diluted vinasse. The species investigated were Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Desmodesmus spinosus, Haematococcus pluvialis, Monoraphidium sp., Scenedesmus quadricauda and Tetraselmis gracilis. Daily cell density, in vivo chlorophyll a and final cellular biovolumes (96 h) were monitored to infer about population growth. Maximum and operational photosynthetic yields (ϕM and ϕ'M), photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical (NPQ) quenchings, light saturation curves and related parameters (α, rETRm and EK), as well as theoretical carbon fixation were evaluated using pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry (PAM). The results showed that chlorophyll a, photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical (NPQ) quenchings were not affected in vinasse, but photosynthetic yields, light curves parameters and autotrophic carbon fixation decreased. Connecting these results to the increase in productivities in vinasse lead us to the rationale that mixotrophic metabolism was supporting microalgae growth on the waste. This study offers important insights into the understanding of microalgal photosynthetic physiology on complex organic wastes, generating subsidies for optimization of biotechnological use of vinasse related to microalgae production.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
2.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124689, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524624

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical effluents released from industries are accountable to deteriorate the aquatic and soil environment through indirect toxic effects. Microbes are adequately been used to biodegrade pharmaceutical industry wastewater and present study was envisaged to determine biodegradation of pharmaceutical effluent by Micrococcus yunnanensis. The strain showed 42.82% COD (Chemical oxygen demand) reduction before optimization. After applying Taguchi's L8 array as an optimization technique, the biodegradation rate was enhanced by 82.95% at optimum conditions (dextrose- 0.15%, peptone 0.1%, inoculum size 4% (wv-1), rpm 200, pH 8 at 25 °C) within 6 h. The confirmation of pharmaceuticals degradation was done by 1H NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) studies followed by elucidation of transformation pathways of probable drugs in the effluent through Q-Tof-MS (Quadrupole Time of Flight- Mass Spectrometry). The cytotoxicity evaluation of treated and untreated wastewater was analyzed on Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK 293) cells using Alamar Blue assay, which showed significant variance.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Micrococcus/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Linhagem Celular , Indústria Farmacêutica , Células HEK293 , Humanos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 772, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773282

RESUMO

The overburden dumps which are created during the process of mining are devoid of supportive and nutritive capacity for biomass development. Restoration of these overburden dumps requires the establishment of a self-sustaining soil-plant system, for which a restoration strategy is needed to accelerate the natural processes of ecosystem development. For eco-restoration of a coal mine spoil dump, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute developed an ecofriendly multidisciplinary approach to restore the fertility of the mine spoil overburden dump. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to restore the fertility of the overburden dump in an area of 20 ha at Durgapur in India. To reclaim the dump, the IBA (integrated biotechnological approach) was used. The integrated biotechnological approach involves the utilization of industrial waste ETP sludge (effluent treatment plant sludge) to support the nutritive capacity for vegetation establishment, inoculation, and isolation of Azotobacter, Bradyrhizobium, and VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza) spores of Gigaspora and Glomus species along with suitable indigenous trees of ecological and economic importance. The findings of the experimental study revealed that amendment of the mine spoil with organic amendment at 50 t/ha improved the nutrient, microbiological, and physicochemical properties of the coal mine spoil and reduced the toxicity of heavy metals due to increased organic carbon content of the organic amendment effluent treatment plant sludge. Thus, amendment of the effluent treatment plant sludge and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for the growth of different plant species which resulted into momentous biomass (aboveground biomass and belowground biomass) production thereby improving the productivity and fertility of the mine spoil dump in a short span. Thus, using IBA, the ecology and biodiversity of the area was conserved. It also helped to maintain the aesthetic environment surrounding the mine site.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Mineração , Biomassa , Índia , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Árvores
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35183-35197, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691169

RESUMO

The pollution of water resources due to the disposal of industrial wastes that have organic material like phenol is causing worldwide concern because of their toxicity towards aquatic life, human beings and the environment. Phenol causes nervous system damage, renal kidney disease, mental retardation, cancer and anaemia. In this study, magnetic palm kernel biochar is used for removal of phenol from wastewater. The effect of parameters such as pH, agitation speed, contact time and magnetic biochar dosage are validated using design of experiments. The statistical analysis reveals that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (93.39%) of phenol are obtained at pH of 8, magnetic biochar dosage of 0.6 g, agitation speed at 180 rpm and time of 60 min with the initial concentration of 10 mg/L. The maximum adsorption capacities of phenol were found to be 10.84 mg/g and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models match the experimental data very well and adsorption kinetic obeys a pseudo-second order. Hence, magnetic palm kernel can be a potential candidate for phenol removal from wastewater.


Assuntos
Fenol/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Cinética , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Fenóis/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
5.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113062, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622959

RESUMO

The major objective of the current study is to estimate the groundwater quality and identify the likely sources of contamination in Chandigarh, India. Total 80 groundwater samples were collected from different locations and at various depths. Further, physcio-chemical analysis was done to estimate pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids, total hardness (TH), total alkalinity (TA), Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, PO43- and NO3-. The groundwater samples collected from shallow water sources contain higher concentration of total dissolved salts. EC, TA, Cl-, TH, Na+, and K+ were found relatively higher in the shallow aquifer (<150 ft). Based on the location of pollution sources at the surface and consecutive geo-statistical distribution of physicochemical characteristics, this study suggests that non-scientific disposal of municipal solid waste, dumping of industrial waste and agricultural activities, in the nearby areas lead to the deterioration of groundwater of shallow aquifer. These observations were also confirmed using various water quality indices and outcomes of multivariate modeling, including principal component analysis. Health risk assessment for nitrates indicated that 29 groundwater samples pose non-carcinogenic health risk for children due to dermal and oral exposure. Hence, there is a need to establish a system for regularly assessing the groundwater quality to minimize public health risks.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Agricultura , Criança , Humanos , Índia , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Medição de Risco , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 155, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576428

RESUMO

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules produced by a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Unlike chemically synthesized surfactants, biosurfactants present advantages, such as biodegradability, low toxicity, high selectivity and activity under extreme temperature, pH and salinity conditions, as well as a low critical micelle concentration. Moreover, they can be produced from agro-industrial waste and renewable sources. Their structural diversity and functional properties mean that they have potential applications in various industrial processes as wetting agents, dispersants, emulsifiers, foaming agents, food additives and detergents, as well as in the field of environmental biotechnology. However, opportunities for their commercialization have been limited due to the low yields obtained in the fermentation processes involved in their production as well as the use of refined raw materials, which means higher cost in production. In an attempt to solve these limitations on the commercialization of biosurfactants, various research groups have focused on testing the use of inexpensive alternative sources, such as agro-industrial waste, as substrates for the production of different biosurfactants. In addition to enabling the economical production of biosurfactants, the use of such waste aims to reduce the accumulation of compounds that cause environmental damage. This review shows advances in biosurfactant production carried out using different waste materials or by-products from agro-industrial activities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biotecnologia , Fermentação , Leveduras/genética
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(10): 157, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576445

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of exogenous stress factors (sodium chloride as osmotic stressor, hydrogen peroxide as an inducer of oxidative stress, white light irradiation, and low temperature) on the biosynthesis of carotenoids and lipids by red yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis, R. mucilaginosa, and R. gracilis) during cultivation in media containing potato wastewater and glycerol. According to our results, the yeast were able to grow and biosynthesize lipids and carotenoids in the presence of the applied stress factors. Low temperature caused an increase in the biosynthesis of intracellular lipids and carotenoids. R. gracilis synthesized lipids (21.1 g/100 gd.w.) and carotenoids (360.4 µg/gd.w.) in greater quantities than that of other strains. Under these conditions, there was also an increase in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic acids. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (30.4%) was synthesized by the R. gracilis yeast after cultivation at 20°C. Their quantity was 2.5-fold greater than that of the biomass grown in control conditions. The contribution of individual carotenoid fractions depended both on the yeast strain and the culture conditions. Induction of osmotic stress and low temperature intensified the biosynthesis of ß-carotene (up to 73.9% of the total carotenoid content). In oxidative stress conditions, yeast synthesized torulene (up to 82.2%) more efficiently than under other conditions, whereas white light irradiation increased the production of torularhodin (up to 20.0%).


Assuntos
Carotenoides/biossíntese , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Rhodotorula/genética , Rhodotorula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533223

RESUMO

Detection and quantification of tread wear particles in the environment have been a challenge owing to lack of a robust method. This study investigated the applicability of a combination of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR), and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) in the detection and quantification of tire particles from formulated sediments. FTIR spectral data were obtained by heating 20 samples in STA. Among the 20 samples, 12 were tire granules in formulated sediments (TGIS) containing 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% by mass of tire granules, while the remaining eight contained 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg of tire granules only (TGO). The PARAFAC models decomposed the trilinear data into three components. Tire rubber materials in tire granules (RM) and a combination of water and carbon dioxide were the components identified in all samples. The linear regression analysis of score values from the PARAFAC models showed that the RM quantity predicted were comparable to measured values in both TGIS and TGO. Decomposing the overlying components in the spectral data into different components, and predicting unknown quantity in both sample types, the method proves robust in identifying and quantifying tire particles from sediments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Automóveis , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(30): 30836-30846, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446598

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the analytical and radiological characterization of scale TENORM waste produced from oil and natural gas productions in the western desert in Egypt and evaluates their radiological impacts. The mean activity concentration of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 224Ra, and 40K measured in scale TENORM samples is 660 ± 63, 1979 ± 435, 1399 ± 211, 645 ± 104, 794 ± 116, and 556 ± 86 Bq/kg, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters (Raeq, Hex, Hin, etc.) were estimated form the scale TENORM waste sample. All the calculated hazard parameters were found greater than the permissible and recommended safe levels. So the exposure to radiations released from the accumulation of the petroleum scale TENORM waste may cause health risks to the operators and who inhale radioactive radon gases and/or ingest contaminants by radiotoxic nuclides of U, Th, Ra, and Pb. Also, the risks may be extended to the near and/or the general environment.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes Radioativos/análise , Radiação de Fundo , Egito , Radioisótopos de Chumbo/análise , Gás Natural , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 454-461, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426180

RESUMO

This work is a first contribution to the knowledge of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 238U, 40K, and 232Th) activities in phosphate rock (NORM), phosphogypsum, and phosphogypsum foam (TENORM) from the coastal fertilizer plants of Gabes (Southeastern Tunisia) and the assessment of their radiation hazards on human health and the surrounding environment. In the three studied materials, activities were found to be in the range of 35.4 (40K)-375.1 (226Ra), 10.0 (40K)-220.2 (226Ra), and 79.2 (232Th)-1168.6 Bq kg-1 (226Ra), respectively. Considering the studied radionuclides and materials, the corresponding decreasing activity orders were found to be 226Ra > 238U > 40K > 232Th and PGF > PR > PG, respectively. All human health hazard indices exceeded the worldwide recommended safety limits, which show that the workers in Gabes phosphate fertilizer plants as well as the neighboring human community may potentially be exposed to significant radiation, which may cause several diseases and malformations. It is therefore recommended to avoid and/or reduce the potential fertilizer industry radioactive impact in the area.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Fosfatos/química , Resíduos Radioativos/análise , Radioisótopos/análise , Sulfato de Cálcio/análise , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/química , Medição de Risco , Tunísia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 575, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422469

RESUMO

Industrial effluents are one of the foremost concerns relating to the anthropogenic environmental pollution. The effluents from the tanning and textile industries in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were characterized chemically and physicochemically with multivariate statistical techniques. The concentrations of heavy metals viz., Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer while concentrations of anions viz., F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, and SO42- were measured by ion chromatograph. The physicochemical parameters viz., temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured by a multiparameter meter while total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured gravimetrically. This study showed that effluents from both industries demonstrated high levels of TSS, TDS, EC, and heavy metals. Tannery effluents have lower pH and DO, and higher BOD, Cl-, SO42-, and Cr concentrations while textile dyeing effluents have higher pH, NO2-, and NO3- concentrations, compared to the standard limits promulgated by the Bangladesh government. Multivariate statistical techniques such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis along with the correlation matrices showed significant association among the measured parameters and identified pollution sources as well as effluent types in the study area which could be linked to the processes used in textile dying and tanning industries. This study will be useful for identifying pollutants emanating from the two industries and will guide future industrial aquatic studies where multiple industrial runoffs are concerned.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Curtume , Indústria Têxtil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ânions/análise , Ânions/química , Bangladesh , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Análise Multivariada , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1607: 460442, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427137

RESUMO

This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction of the residues of five synthetic phenolic antioxidants (AOs): Ditertbutylphenol (DTF), Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Ethanox 330 and Cyanox 1790, from industrial water produced during the polypropylene (PP) deodorization process. In the deordorization process, PP is stored in a column for an average time of four hours and exposed to nitrogen and water vapor to remove inflammable compounds which may generate atypical odors in the PP. The samples of interest were taken in the desorber, followed by cleansing and pre-concentration using modified styrene divinylbenzene polymer cartridges. Liquid chromatography was performed with a reversed phase column and diode array. The method was validated for linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). The chromatographic method showed LOQ from 5.4 to 16 mg L-1 and LOD between 1.6 and 4.8 mg L-1. The worldwide challenge to develop an analytical methodology which incorporates SPE with HPLC to identify and quantify AOs in industrial wastewater is addressed in this study. The recovery percentages were above 90% for most AOs, except for Irganox 1076 which showed a value of 83.2%. The ability to separate these five AOs of most frequent use worldwide, permits precision of measurement of the degree of contamination, making it useful for environmental regulation and the protection of public health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polipropilenos/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Calibragem , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 578, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432272

RESUMO

A possible impact of sample preparation on the chemical fractionation results is generally underestimated in studies of forms of occurrence of heavy metals in river sediments. Our analysis of the recently published results of sequential extraction of chromium has revealed the effect of sample grinding on the result of determination of mobile chromium fractions in river sediments. This observation has been experimentally verified along with the analysation of potential effect of river sediment drying conditions on chromium distribution pattern. The studies were carried out on river sediments polluted with tannery effluents (Cr, 29.2-233 mg/kg). The determined content of chromium bound to carbonates in powdered samples was 2 to 7 times higher than those in raw river sediment samples. It was shown that the main reason was the different kinetic characteristics of chromium leaching in these sediments. Using the shrinking core model, it was found that diffusion through the "ash layer" was the rate-controlling step during the extraction of the carbonate fraction of chromium. It has been additionally confirmed that common air drying of sediment samples does not affect the results of chemical fractionation of chromium.The results of our studies are also vital for the assessment of environmental risk posed by river sediments polluted with heavy metals. In the case of sediment samples used in this study, powdering changed the risk category (RAC) from low risk to high risk. Hence, in order to achieve a realistic assessment of chromium mobility and environmental risk, it is advisable to use raw samples, despite their poorer homogeneity, and thus, lower precision of chemical fractionation results.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Polônia , Curtume
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 1152-1163, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412511

RESUMO

Fly ash (FA) from biomass combustion and biological sludge (S), both wastes from the pulp and paper industry, were granulated in different proportions (90% FA+10% S, and 70% FA+30% S w/w, dry weight basis, dw) and used to recover the functionality of soils affected by mining activities (Aljustrel, Iberian Pyrite Belt), with and without the application of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC). Application doses of both mixtures were 2.5, 5.0 and 10% (w/w, dw). These materials corrected soil acidity to circumneutral values and increased extractable P and K concentrations. A significant increase in soil organic matter (from 0.6 to 0.8-1.5% w/w, dw) and N content (from 0.04 to 0.09-0.12% w/w, dw) was also observed, but only when MSWC was applied. The soil was already heavily contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and the application of amendments did not increase their pseudo-total concentrations. The CaCl2 extractable fractions of both Cu and Zn decreased to very low values. The improvement in soil quality, compared to fertilizer only treatment, was further evidenced by the increase in some soil enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, ß-glucosidase and cellulase), with a better response for the granules with the higher proportion of biological sludge, as well as by the decrease in the soil-water extract toxicity towards different organisms (Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Agrostis tenuis germinated and grew during the first month only in the amended pots, but, after that, a considerable phytotoxic effect was evident. This was mainly attributed to salt stress or to some specific ionic toxicity. In conclusion, to establish a long-term plant cover in mining soils amended with biomass ash-based materials, the selection of plants with higher resistance to salinity and/or the stabilization of the amendments, to reduce their soluble salt content, is recommended.


Assuntos
Agrostis/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Mineração , Papel
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 888-892, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412526

RESUMO

Fiber cement composites (FCCs) containing natural cellulosic fibres are emerging materials in the building industry. At the end of life, FCCs are often disposed of as part of the C&DW in a landfill. The production of landfill gasses in landfills needs to be kept as low as possible. Generally, leaching of total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is used as a proxy for the biodegradability of a waste material and the subsequent production of landfill gasses, and is, therefore, used to evaluate biodegradability of waste. In this study, FCC samples with varying average diameter and varying age were subjected to both a batch leaching test (determine DOC leaching) and to a standardized biodegradability test. The batch leaching showed that the DOC leaching ranged between 520 and 1300 mg kg-1 for the tested samples, and that leaching of DOC decreases with increasing particle diameter and with increasing effects of ageing. Yet, the biodegradability results indicated that the leaching of DOC from FCCs does not result in the release of landfill gasses. This study hypothises that the DOC that leaches from the FCCs is being degraded to CO2, but that the formed CO2 is immediately captured by the material itself through the process of carbonation. An inpermeable layer is formed around the material that stops further leaching of DOC. The results of this study therefore suggest that leaching of DOC is a poor indicator for the biodegradability of FCCs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbonatos/química , Materiais de Construção/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
16.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 58: 104669, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450319

RESUMO

Powdered stone waste (PSW) obtained from a stone cutting industrial unit was applied as support for the immobilization of nano-sized ZnO to be utilized as an effective catalyst for the catalytic conversion of acetaminophen (ACE) under ultrasonication. The incorporation of ZnO nanostructures into PSW structure enhanced the specific surface area and pore volume of the as-prepared nanocompound. The change in the value of zero point of charge (pHzpc) of the PSW after being covered also demonstrated the good immobilization and distribution of ZnO nanostructures on the surface of PSW. The sonocatalysis of ACE over ZnO/PSW followed pseudo-first order kinetic (reaction rate of 2.27 × 10-2 1/min). The highest degradation efficiency of 98.1% was attained when the ZnO/PSW-contained sono-reactor was irradiated by UVC light. The presence of t-butanol led to the lowest degradation efficiency (57.7%), indicating that the sonocatalytic conversion of ACE was hydroxyl radical (OH)-dependent. Although the mineralization efficiency of ACE by the process was not excellent, bio-toxicity assessment on the effluent revealed decreasing the inhibition percent from 50.8 to 16.7% within reaction time of 240 min.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Óxido de Zinco/química , Catálise , Pós
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(28): 29267-29282, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396875

RESUMO

Sugarcane vinasse is the main waste stream of the Brazilian agroindustry. The typical composition of sugarcane vinasse gives it a high polluting potential that implies the necessity to define sustainable strategies for managing this waste. Knowledge of the inorganic and organic composition of vinasse and its seasonal variation is extremely important to conduct scientific research to define alternative managements for vinasse disposal other than fertigation. This study evaluated the variability of vinasse composition throughout the same harvesting season and among three harvesting seasons of one Brazilian annexed biorefinery (2015-2017). The contents of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total solids (TS), suspended solids (SS), salinity (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, F-), nutrients (N, P, S), trace metals (Al3+, As2+, Ba2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Co2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Hg2+, Mo2+, Ni2+, Se2+, Zn2+), and specific soluble organic compounds (sugars, alcohols, and organic acids), as well as pH and conductivity, were monitored in 13 samples. The results indicated that sugarcane vinasse is a suitable feedstock for biological treatments, such as anaerobic digestion processes for energy recovery, as well as substrate for biomass (e.g., microalgae, energy crops, lignocellulosic biomass) growth. The application of a previous treatment makes vinasse a more environmentally friendly natural fertilizer for land fertigation.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Saccharum/química , Álcoois/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Brasil , Indústria Alimentícia , Metais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Estações do Ano , Açúcares/análise
18.
Food Chem ; 301: 125259, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376691

RESUMO

Complex hydrocolloids have been isolated and fractionated using a consecutive elution process, starting from winery waste. These extracts consist mainly of polysaccharidic populations and of smaller protein molecules and they exhibit emulsifying, thickening and texture-modifying activity. This work is a systematic study of these individual populations, as fractionated with preparative size exclusion chromatography (Prep-SEC) in terms of their chemical identity, surface properties, and emulsification behavior. The fractions have been characterized via SEC-MALLS, FTIR, DLS, zeta potential, and interfacial tension measurements. The results highlight the antagonistic and synergistic effects of the individual components of the above-mentioned complex natural material (winery waste extract) towards its emulsifying behavior, and provide a model for the kinetics of the evolution of a Pickering interfacial layer.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Vinho , Coloides , Cinética , Tensão Superficial
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 504, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338610

RESUMO

Leaching of chromium ions causes a serious threat to groundwater around chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dump sites in many countries. As a result, detailed subsurface characterization of the affected region is crucial for assessing the associated risks as well as initiating remedial measures. Though the conventional approaches (e.g., drilling and water sampling) provide important information but are expensive and unable to decipher detailed subsurface scenario. Thus, in the present study, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) (a cost-effective and faster approach) method has been employed to assess the effect of unplanned COPR waste dump beside agricultural land at Umaran, Kanpur, India, in conjunction with the available geochemical information. Inverted 2-D ERT sections depicted resistivity variation in the subsurface, and its correlation with previous geochemical results reveals the resistivity boundary between contaminated and clean zones as ~ 15 Ω·m. The study also depicts that the contamination plume is slowly migrating towards NE direction below the agriculture land but rate of migration is faster along southern direction. Therefore, the agriculture land and corresponding groundwater at ~ 50 m away from the dump site in NE direction are not affected by COPR leachate. Vertically, the COPR leachate has affected mostly up to ~ 20 m depth in the region inside the dump boundary; however, at some places, it is migrating further downward. Thus, the study demonstrates the efficacy of ERT method in characterizing COPR dump site and provides crucial information in managing safe agriculture practices over the region as well as for initiating scientific remedial measures.


Assuntos
Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Eletricidade , Água Subterrânea/química , Índia , Tomografia
20.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124309, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344620

RESUMO

As it is well known, the textile industry generates a large amount of wastewater with varied composition that need to be treated. In particular, the Sergipe state, in Brazil, is a region that requires attention due the presence of several local textile industries. In this study, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) process applied in the samples of Brazilian textile industry effluents previously treated by physical-chemical process coagulation-flocculation (CF) was evaluated by the reduction in TOC parameter and by the ecotoxicity using Lactuca sativa and Raphidocelis subcapitata bioassays. The optimized experiments achieved for the CF ([Al2(SO4)3]0 = 1.5 mg L-1, pH = 6.0, alkalinity = 0.675 mg L-1, [flocculating agent] = 61 mg L-1, rapid mixing = 100 rpm for 1 min, slow stage = 20-60 rpm for 20 min) a reduction of 20% on TOC. The best results obtained for EO was using the DSA electrode (I = 300 mA) reaching a TOC removal efficiency of 82% after an electrolysis time of 180 min. The ecotoxicity experiments indicated that the proposed treatment (CF + EO, I = 300 mA) was effective to decrease the dissolved pollutants presented in the treated samples. In comparison with raw samples, the treatment achieved a reduction of 52% for IC5072h value using R. subcapitata as bioindicator, and a 98% reduction of LC50 (Lactuca sativa).


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Indústria Têxtil/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Floculação , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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