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1.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113897, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926394

RESUMO

Anthropogenic fibers, gathering synthetic fibers, artificial fibers and natural fibers are ubiquitous in the natural environment. Tremendous concentrations of anthropogenic fibers were previously measured in the tropical Saigon River (Vietnam), i.e. a river impacted by textile and apparel industries. In the present study, we want to examine the role of contrasted seasonal variation (e.g., dry and rainy seasons), via the rainfall and monthly water discharges, and of water's physico-chemical conditions on the concentrations of anthropogenic fibers in the surface water. The one year and half monthly survey evidenced that concentrations of anthropogenic fibers varied from 22 to 251 items L-1 and their variations were not related to rainfall, water discharge or abiotic factors. However, their color and length distribution varied monthly suggesting variations in sources and sinks. Based on the 2017 survey, we estimated an annual emission of anthropogenic fibers from the river to the downstream coastal zone of 115-164 × 1012 items yr-1.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Chuva , Rios/química , Indústria Têxtil , Clima Tropical , Vietnã , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(4): 345-350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850861

RESUMO

The Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research defines national priority contaminated sites (NPCSs) as land where hazardous substances are likely to pose a risk to human health. SENTIERI was the first national project evaluating the health status of residents in NPCSs. We have extended, for the site of Sesto San Giovanni, the evaluation to cancer incidence and congenital anomalies (CAs). We have found an overall significant negative association between living in the NPCS and overall cancer incidence in all ages and no association in paediatric, adolescent and young adults' population. We have found an excess risk for bladder cancer, leukaemia, lymphoid leukaemia and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men and for lung and breast cancer in women. For the paediatric and adolescent population, we have found an excess in embryonic tumours. Total CAs were not different from expected, while we have found excesses regarding ear, face and neck, digestive system and chromosomal defects.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Metalurgia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Distribuição por Sexo , Aço , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856201

RESUMO

Slag, waste from the steel-making process, contains large amounts of calcium, magnesium, iron and other heavy metals. Because of its composition, high pH and low water retention ability, slag is considered inhospitable to plants. Nevertheless, the spontaneously generated plant communities on slag are surprisingly diverse, but the assembly and structure of such communities are poorly studied. Previous studies suggest reduced rates of succession due to low growth rate and slow accumulation of topsoil. To investigate whether slag communities display similar patterns, we used two former industrial sites on the South Side of Chicago, IL, both with high pH (8-9.2) sand content (80%) and calcium concentration (> 9000 ppm). We removed all vegetation from both slag and non-slag plots to test whether recovery differed over one growing season (4 months). To directly assess plant growth, selected focal species were planted on both sites and harvested. We show that recovery from removal differed at slag and non-slag sites: the recruitment process on slag, measured by percent vegetative cover and number of species in plots, was significantly slower at 6-8 weeks of the manipulation and beyond, suggesting a potential stage-dependent effect of slag on plant growth. Certain slag plots recorded less cover than non-slag plots by >30% at maximum difference. Functional trait analysis found that graminoid and early successional species preferentially colonized slag. Overall, slag plots recovered more slowly from disturbance, suggesting a slow succession process that would hinder natural recovery. However, slag also has the potential to serve as plant refugia, hosting flora of analogous habitats native to the area: one of our industrial sites hosts nearly 80% native species with two species of highest Floristic Quality Index (10). Restoration efforts should be informed by the slow process of natural recovery, while post-industrial sites in urban areas serve as potential native plant refugia.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Solo/química , Chicago , Ecossistema , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/química , Plantas
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 903-914, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412527

RESUMO

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) as a by-product of olive oil extraction process has significant polluting properties mainly related to high organic load, increased COD/BOD ratio, high phenolic content and relatively acidic pH. Raw OMW from Slovenian Istria olive oil mill and its polar fraction were investigated in this study. Chemical characterization of OMW polar fraction identified tyrosol as the most abundant phenolic product, followed by catechol. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of OMW matrix and its polar fraction were tested using a battery of bioassays with model organisms: bacteria Vibrio fischeri, algae Chlorella vulgaris, water fleas Daphnia magna, zebrafish Danio rerio embryos, clover Trifolium repens and wheat Triticum aestivum. Raw OMW sample was the most toxic to V. fischeri (EC50 = 0.24% of OMW sample final concentration), followed by D. magna (EC50 = 1.43%), C. vulgaris (EC50 = 5.20%), D. rerio (EC50 = 7.05%), seeds T. repens (EC50 = 8.68%) and T. aestivum (EC50 = 11.58%). Similar toxicity trend was observed during exposure to OMW polar fraction, showing EC50 values 2.75-4.11 times lower comparing to raw OMW. Tested samples induced also sub-acute effects to clover and wheat (decreased roots, sprouts elongation); and to zebrafish embryos (increased mortality, higher abnormality rate, decreased hatching and pigmentation formation rate). A comprehensive approach using a battery of bioassays, like those used in this study should be applied during ecotoxicity monitoring of untreated and treated OMW.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Azeite de Oliva , Fenóis/toxicidade , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Chlorella vulgaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/análise , Testes de Toxicidade , Trifolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(2-3 Suppl 1): 1-208, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This volume provides an update of the health status of the populations living in the National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) included in the SENTIERI Project. This update is part of an epidemiological surveillance programme carried out in NPCSs, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Health as a further step of a project started in 2006, when the health status of residents in contaminated sites was first addressed within the National Strategic Program "Environment and Health". The Report focuses on five health outcomes: mortality, cancer incidence, hospital discharges, congenital anomalies, and children, adolescents and young adults' health. A key element of SENTIERI project is the a priori evaluation of the epidemiological evidence of a causal association between the considered cause of disease and the exposure. When an a priori evidence is identified, it is given a greater importance in the comment of the study findings. METHODS: The present update of the SENTIERI Project concerns 45 NPCSs including in all 319 Italian Municipalities (out of over 8,000 Municipalities), with an overall population of 5,900,000 inhabitants at the 2011 Italian Census. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios (SHRs), referring to a time window of 2006-2013, were computed for all the 45 NPCSs, using as a reference the corresponding mortality and hospitalization rates of the Regions where each NCPS is located. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed by the Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) for the 22 NPCSs served by a Cancer Registry. AIRTUM covers about 56% of Italy, with partly different time-windows. SIRs have been estimated using as reference population the 4 macroareas in which Italy is divided (North-West, North-East, Centre, South). Prevalence of congenital anomalies was computed for 15 NPCSs. RESULTS: An all-cause excess of 5,267 and 6,725 deaths was observed, respectively, in men and women; the cancer death excess was of 3,375 in men and 1,910 in women. It was estimated an excess of cancer incidence of 1,220 case in men and 1,425 in women over a five-year time window. With regard to the diseases with an a priori environmental aetiological validity, an excess for malignant mesothelioma, lung, colon, and gastric cancer, and for non-malignant respiratory diseases was observed. Cancer excess mainly affected NPCSs with presence of chemical and petrochemical plants, oil refineries, and dumping hazardous wastes. An excess of non-malignant respiratory disease was also detected in NPCSs in which steel industries and thermoelectric plants were present. An excess of mesothelioma was observed in NPCSs characterized by presence of asbestos and fluoro-edenite; it was also observed where the presence of asbestos was not reported in the legislative national decrees which define the NPCS areas. It is worth noting that, even if the presence of asbestos is not reported in many NPCSs legislative decrees, petrochemical plants and steel industries, for instance, are often characterized by the presence of a large amount of this mineral that, in the past, was extensively used as an insulating material. For the first time, the present Report includes a focus on the health status of children and adolescents (1,160,000 subjects, aged 0-19 years), and young adults (660,000 subjects, aged 20-29 years). Among infants (0-1 year), an excess of 7,000 hospitalizations was observed, 2,000 of which due to conditions of perinatal origin. In the age class 0-14, an excess of 22,000 hospitalizations for all causes was observed; 4,000 of them were due to acute respiratory diseases, and 2,000 to asthma. Data on cancer incidence for subjects aged 0-24 years were derived from general population cancer registries for twenty NPCSs, and from children cancer registries (age group: 0-19 years) for six NPCSs; 666 cases where diagnosed in the age group 0-24 years, corresponding to an excess of 9%. The main contributions to this excess are from soft tissue sarcomas in children (aged 0-14 years), acute myeloid leukaemia in children (aged 0-14 years) and in the age group 0-29 years, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer in young adults (aged 20-29 years). In seven out of 15 NPCSs, an excess prevalence rate of overall congenital anomalies at birth was observed. Congenital anomalies excesses included the following sites: genital organs, heart, limbs, nervous system, digestive system, and urinary system. CONCLUSIONS: The main findings of SENTIERI Project have been the detection of excesses for the diseases which showed an a priori epidemiological evidence of a causal association with the environmental exposures specific for each considered NPCS. These observations are valuable within public health, because they contribute to priority health promotion activities. Looking ahead, the health benefits of an improved environmental quality might be appreciated in terms of reduction of the occurrence of adverse health effects attributable to each Site major pollutant agents. Due to the methodological approach of the present study, it was not possible to adjust for several confounding factors reported to be risk factors for the studied diseases (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity). Even if excesses of mortality, hospitalization, cancer incidence, and prevalence of congenital anomalies were found in several NPCSs, the study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered diseases do not permit, for all of them, to draw conclusions in terms of causal links with environmental contamination. Moreover, it must be taken into consideration that economic factors and the availability of health services may also play a relevant role in a diseases outcome. A few observations regarding some methodological limitations of SENTIERI Project should be made. There is not a uniform environmental characterisation of the studied NPCSs in term of quality and detection of the pollutants, because this information is present in different databases which at present are not adequately connected. Moreover, the recognition of a contaminated site as a National Priority Site is based on soil and groundwater pollution, and the available information on air quality is currently sparse and not homogenous. Another limitation, in term of statistical power, is the small population size of many NPCSs and the low frequency of several health outcomes. A special caution must be paid in data interpretation when considering the correspondence between the contaminated areas and the municipality boundaries, as they do not always coincide perfectly: in some cases, a small municipality with a large industrial site, while in other settings only a part of the municipality is exposed to the sources of pollution. Furthermore, all available health information systems are currently accessible at municipality level. The real breakthrough is essentially comprised of the development and fostering of a networking system involving all local health authorities and regional environmental protection agencies operating in the areas under study. The possibility to integrate the geographic approach of SENTIERI Project with a set of ad hoc analytic epidemiological investigations, such as residential cohort studies, case control studies, children health surveys, biomonitoring surveys, and with socioepidemiological studies, might greatly contribute to the identification of health priorities for environmental remediation activities. Finally, as discussed in the last section of the report, there is a need to adopt, in each NPCS, a two-way oriented communication plan involving public health authorities, scientific community, and resident population, taking into account that the history, the cultural frame and the network of relationships specific of each local context play a major role in the risk perception perspective.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Int ; 131: 104985, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Production of crystal glass and colored art glassware have been going on in the south-eastern part of Sweden since the 1700s, at over 100 glassworks and smaller glass blowing facilities, resulting in environmental contamination with mainly arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH). High levels of metals have been found in soil, and moderately elevated levels in vegetables, mushrooms and berries collected around the glassworks sites compared with reference areas. Food in general, is the major exposure source to metals, such as Cd and Pb, and PAHs. Exposure to these toxic metals and PAH has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects in humans including cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in a cohort from the contaminated glasswork area in relation to long-term dietary intake of locally produced foods, while taking into account residential, occupational and life styles factors. METHODS: The study population was extracted from a population cohort of 34,266 individuals who, at some time between the years 1979-2004, lived within a 2 km radius of a glassworks or glass landfill. Register information on cancer incidence and questionnaire information on consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), life-time residence in the area, life style factors and occupational exposure was collected. Furthermore, blood (n = 660) and urine (n = 400) samples were collected in a subsample of the population to explore associations between local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations in blood (Cd, Pb, As) and urine (PAH metabolite 1-OHPy) as well as environmental and lifestyle factors. The concurrent exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from food was also considered. A case-control study was performed for evaluation of associations between intakes of local food and risk of cancer. RESULTS: Despite high environmental levels of Cd, Pb and As at glasswork sites and landfills, current metal exposure in the population living in the surrounding areas was similar or only moderately higher in our study population compared to the general population. Reported high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher Cd and Pb, but not As, concentrations in blood, and 1-OHPy in urine. An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer, obesity, and residence in glasswork area before age 5 years. Also, a long-term high consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), i.e. fish and meat (game, chicken, lamb), was associated with increased risk of various cancer forms. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher contaminant exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than before. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Metais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Int ; 130: 104735, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260930

RESUMO

High antibiotic releases from manufacturing facilities have been identified as a risk factor for antibiotic resistance development in bacterial pathogens. However, the role of antibiotic pollution in selection and transferability of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is still limited. In this study, we analyzed effluents from azithromycin-synthesis and veterinary-drug formulation facilities as well as sediments from receiving river and creek taken at the effluent discharge sites, upstream and downstream of discharge. Culturing showed that the effluent discharge significantly increased the proportion of antibiotic resistant bacteria in exposed sediments compared to the upstream ones. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that effluents from both industries contained high and similar relative abundances of resistance genes [sul1, sul2, qacE/qacEΔ1, tet(A)], class 1 integrons (intI1) and IncP-1 plasmids (korB). Consequently, these genes significantly increased in relative abundances in receiving sediments, with more pronounced effects being observed for river than for creek sediments due to lower background levels of the investigated genes in the river. In addition, effluent discharge considerably increased transfer frequencies of captured ARGs from exposed sediments into Escherichia coli CV601 recipient as shown by biparental mating experiments. Most plasmids exogenously captured from effluent and polluted sediments belonged to the broad host range IncP-1ε plasmid group, conferred multiple antibiotic resistance and harbored class 1 integrons. Discharge of pharmaceutical waste from antibiotic manufacturing sites thus poses a risk for development and dissemination of multi-resistant bacteria, including pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Resíduos Industriais , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Indústria Farmacêutica , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Rios/química
8.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(2): 171-186, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990788

RESUMO

In developing countries, one of the most severe modern-day dilemmas is the management of industrial wastewater. In these countries, industrial wastewater effluents are directly discharged into the natural drain, a sewer system, an internal septic tank or a nearby field. Some of these industrial wastewater effluents are inadequately treated or untreated before being discharged. In recent years, in developing countries, urbanization and industrial activities have led to environmental deterioration. This paper was designed to review the health and environmental impacts of inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan. The quality of industrial wastewater effluents is responsible for the degradation of the receiving water bodies. This is due to the reason that inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewater effluents may cause eutrophication in the receiving water bodies and also form a favorable condition for toxin-producing waterborne pathogens. In order to comply with the wastewater guidelines and legislations, there is a need for proper treatment before discharge. In order to minimize the risk to the environment and public health, there is a need for proper treatment processes for industrial wastewater effluents. To achieve unpolluted discharge of industrial wastewater into the receiving water bodies, regular monitoring, proper and suitable treatment, careful planning and appropriate legislation are recommended.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutrofização , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Paquistão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(5): 677-682, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994242

RESUMO

Produced water is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production operations. Most produced water generated onshore is managed by permitted injection in deep underground wells, but alternative disposal options including reuse are increasingly being considered. However, insufficient understanding of the composition and toxicity of produced water imposes significant constraints on effective management of potential short-term and long-term risks associated with such alternative uses. As interest builds for management options, such as surface discharge, livestock watering, irrigation, and other industrial uses, research is needed to assess produced-water hazards and exposures to both humans and the environment. This challenge affords an opportunity to capitalize on emerging risk assessment tools. Innovative and comprehensive approaches to filling data gaps and assessing produced water risks will be imperative. A group of experts from industry, academia, and government were assembled to define research needs to support objective decision making on the acceptability, or lack thereof, of produced water disposal alternatives. Presented here are key outcomes from that workshop and recommendations for a research framework to assess toxicity of produced water and associated risks from above ground discharge and reuse options. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;15:677-682. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluição Química da Água/efeitos adversos
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 211: 202-216, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029991

RESUMO

The pulp paper industries release wastewater containing very complex organic and inorganic pollutants. These pollutants are discharged mainly pulping and bleaching process during paper manufacturing. The main gaseous pollutants hydrogen sulfides, sodium sulfide, methyl mercaptan, sulfur, and chlorine dioxide is reported for chronic, respiratory disorder and irritation to skin, eyes and cardiac problem along with nausea and headache. The major inorganic pollutants include ferrous, copper, zinc, nickel, and magnesium, which is reported for neurotoxicity, toxic to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and Accumulation to gill > liver > ovary > muscle. The detected major organic and inorganic pollutants are hexadecanoic acids, octacosane, ß-sitosterol trimethylsilyl ether, 1-tetradecane, 2-methoxy phenol, trichlorocatechol, tetrachlorocatechol, chlorophenols, chloroguaiacols, chlorosyringols, chlorocatechols, terpenes, methanol, phenol, alkylated phenols, decalone, benzoic acid, abietic acid, and dehydroabietic acid. Several of these compounds are reported as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Therefore, direct toxicity of effluent to the reproductive system in aquatic flora and fauna are reported. Several reports have highlighted reduced gonad size, change in secondary sexual character, delayed maturity and suppression of sex hormone in fish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) further the in-vitro studies of organic compounds on fish, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio fischeri, and Saccharomyces have shown inhibition in growth and luminescence properties. The presence of organic and inorganic pollutants in pulp paper industry wastewater causes phytotoxicity chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa. Thus the manuscript has concluded that detected pollutants produced foul odors and cause hermaphroditism in fish, hepatotoxicity and mutagenic effect. In addition, the growth of coliform bacteria in River and other aquatic resources has been reported due to contamination of PPI effluent. The studies also highlighted the presence of tannins, chlorophenols, dioxins, furans, biocide, fatty acids, and resin acids along with chlorolignine compounds as persistent organic pollutants (POP), which needs special attention for pollution prevention of rivers, lakes and other aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Papel , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo
11.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(4): 584-595, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884124

RESUMO

In 2012, the Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Commission adopted Recommendation 2012/5 for a risk-based approach (RBA) to the management of produced water discharges from offshore installations. As part of this recommendation, OSPAR requires that the environmental risk of the discharge of produced water is characterized based on whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies and/or on a substance-based assessment. In this paper we describe an assessment of the likelihood that the environmental risk of produced water discharges is adequately controlled based on WET data for 19 oil- and gas-producing platforms and their discharge volumes. Our analysis shows that, with the selected risk criterion of predicted exposure concentration (PEC)/predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) should not exceed 1 at 500 m, there is a mean likelihood of 99.5% (or more) that the environmental risk from the produced water discharges is adequately controlled for installations that discharge 30 × 103 m3 /y (or less). The method presented in this paper can be used for screening purposes to ensure that efforts are directed toward installations with a high likelihood that risk is not adequately controlled. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;15:584-595. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco/métodos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 174: 630-636, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875556

RESUMO

Pollution generated by deposition of industrial activity waste in the environment without due care can lead to serious environmental consequences. Bioassays in higher plants are means of understanding the cytogenotoxic effects of these substances. In the present work, Allium cepa L. was used as a model species to assess nucleolar changes induced by environmental pollutants. The substances used were Methyl Methane Sulfonate (MMS), cadmium (Cd), Spent Potliner (SPL) and the herbicide Atrazine. Water was used as a negative control. The silver-stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) assay was used making it possible to evaluate how nucleolar parameters (number of nucleoli per nucleus and nucleoli area) behave when facing stress caused by such pollutants. The results obtained showed a variation in the observed parameters: an increase in the number of nucleoli in the treated cells and tendency to a reduction in nucleolar area, indicating that the tested pollutants may have impaired nucleolar activity. In addition, it was possible to establish a relationship between the behavior of the nucleolus with other changes as plantlet growth, cell proliferation, and DNA damage.


Assuntos
Nucléolo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Nucléolo Celular/patologia , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/citologia , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(4): 575-583, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790447

RESUMO

Marine tailings disposal from mineral production is expected to have an environmental impact. In this case study we use a discharge of limestone processing tailings to a Norwegian fjord to describe an adaptive management process. The aim of the paper is to describe the development of an environmental adaptive management system (EAMS), contrasted with management simply based on the quantity of the discharge. The main driver for developing a new management system for the submarine tailings deposits was a desire to establish a system based on what was perceived as important to all stakeholders, that is, environmental impact. Involvement of stakeholders is essential, and a resource group with members from fisheries, local interest organizations, scientists, independent experts, and managers from the mining company jointly defined common sets of acceptance criteria to evaluate impact. Introduction of an EAMS has resulted in a change in the company's view of the impact their activity has on the environment and in an increased willingness to initiate monitoring and research to reduce knowledge gaps and uncertainty and impact on the marine environment. Environmental adaptive management has facilitated the development of a more ecologically relevant, integrated, and focused submarine tailings deposits management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;15:575-583. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Mineração , Poluição Química da Água/efeitos adversos , Estuários , Noruega
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11224-11233, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796663

RESUMO

In attempts to evaluate the environmental risk produced by plastic markets, the levels and congener profiles of phthalate esters (PAEs) in soil, vegetable, and sediment samples collected from the plastic market in China, where numerous plastic products are exchanged every year, were investigated. The concentrations of ∑22PAEs ranged from 2131 to 27,805 ng g-1 in agricultural soils, from 8023 to 37,556 ng g-1 in vegetables and from 9031 to 87,329 ng g-1 in sediments. The predominant PAE pollutants were di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP). The mean percentages of the predominant PAEs in the soil, vegetable, and sediment samples accounted for 98.4%, 97.3%, and 99.5% of the total PAEs, respectively. The concentrations of PAEs at the sites around the plastic market were significantly higher than those at other pollution sites, such as sites contaminated by agricultural plastic film, electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites, and industrial parks, indicating that the plastic market was an important pollution source. The DEHP concentrations in the soils, vegetables, and sediments and the DnBP concentrations in the vegetables all exceeded the environmental risk levels (ERL) or the environmental allowable levels (EAL), indicating that the plastic market posed potential environmental risks.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/química , China , Dibutilftalato/análogos & derivados , Dibutilftalato/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/economia , Plásticos/análise , Plásticos/economia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 171: 256-263, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612013

RESUMO

Bioactive substances in the Biobio River Basin in Chile were examined by deploying Semi Permeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) upstream and downstream of 4 pulp mill effluent discharges. Androgenic and estrogenic activity of SPMD extracts were then evaluated using in vitro fish sex steroid receptor binding assays. The results indicated the occurrence of estrogenic type compounds associated with one of the mill discharges. A significant correlation among the presence of these compounds, an increase in gonadosomatic index GSI and induction of hepatic EROD activity of two native fish species was observed. However, no significant presence of mature oocytes in female gonads was detected. Although EROD induction was observed in sites impacted by mill effluents, an increase of its activity occurred towards the downstream areas, suggesting other non-mill sources. More research is needed to understand the environmental changes in context of the new technological improvements in treatment systems to MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) recently implemented by the pulp mill industries.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Peixes/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Chile , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Indústrias , Ligantes , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
16.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(1): 48-61, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411229

RESUMO

We evaluated the toxicity of the winery effluent and the efficiency of a symbiotic depuration system by means an experiment with Rhinella arenarum tadpoles. The studied effluent was taken from warehouses during the cleaning season. These effluents subsequently subjected to the purification treatment under evaluation. The effluent samples differentiated into two treatment levels: "raw" where the effluent was evaluated with field conditions and "treated" where the effluent was previously filtered with the symbiotic depuration system. The results of the bioassays compared with the physicochemical parameters determined in the effluent samples. The lethal response had a clear-cut correspondence with the effluent quality assessed utilizing physicochemical parameters. In all cases, dilution of the samples resulted in a significant reduction of their toxicity. It concluded that (a) winery effluents could be harmful to tadpoles of R. arenarum, (b) the symbiotic purification system used to treat wine effluents it would produce a significant reduction in the contaminant levels of the effluent. However, this reduction in contaminant levels does not provide sufficient safety for the release of the effluents into the environment.


Assuntos
Bufo arenarum , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Vinho , Animais , Filtração , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 648: 1440-1452, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340289

RESUMO

The transformation of skin in-natura into leather in tannery industries generates large volumes of organic matter that attract small mammals. i.e., rodents living close to these facilities. Animals foraging in the backyards of such industries get exposed to the effluent produced by them; however, attention has not been given to the impacts of such exposure on the reproductive biology of these animals. Thus, our study assessed whether the direct exposure to this effluent for periods longer than 90 days leads to reproductive loss in male Swiss mice. We assessed animals' sexual behavior at the end of the experimental period and analyzed their testicular histology, as well as semen quality and volume, besides measuring pro-inflammatory markers and assessing the reproductive performance of the exposed animals. Based on the herein collected data, mice exposed to the gross effluent collected in the backyard of a tannery industry, as well as to the effluent diluted in 5% of water, presented behavioral and histological changes in the testes, disorganized germinal cells in the seminiferous tubules and inflammatory process in intertubular spaces. The inflammatory process resulted from increased proinflammatory cytokine (IFN-gamma and CCL2) concentrations in the testes, fact that explained the larger number of sperm abnormalities and the reduced number of produced sperms. These factors, along with the previously reported changes, may have led to the low reproductive performance of animals exposed to the tested pollutant, which was assessed through the lethal dominant test. This pioneering article addressed the reproductive impact caused by the direct exposure of small rodents to tannery effluents. The research helped better understanding how these pollutants can influence natural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Curtume , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/patologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 10-17, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195126

RESUMO

With an increasing amount of industrial wastewater being discharged and the numerous chemicals existed in, methods to identify toxicants in such complex matrices are urgently needed for source control and quality management. In vivo toxicity to Daphnia magna was evaluated in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). An extended suspect screening strategy was performed by bioassay-directed fractionation, accompanied with suspect screening of 228 suspect chemicals in toxic fractions based on their mass characteristics and chromatography characteristics. A toxicity evaluation of the original samples, organic components extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the filtered samples showed that organic compounds extracted by SPE were the main toxic components. Four of the 26 fractions of the organic extracts exhibited a toxic unit (TU) > 1.0, with hydrophobic organic compounds contributing most to the toxicity. Twenty-eight of the 228 suspects were identified in four toxic fractions, with 53.6% of the suspects elucidated by spectrum interpretation based on mass characteristics and 53.8% more false positive suspects removed based on chromatography characteristics. Finally, 6 pollutants, including imazalil, prometryn, propiconazole, tebuconazole, buprofezin and diazinon, were further confirmed and explained 48.79% of the observed toxicity. With 2.48 times more of the toxicity explained and 90% of the labor saved, the extended suspect screening strategy enabled more efficient and reliable identification compared to traditional quantitative analysis and non-target screening, especially for identification of characteristic toxicants in complex environmental matrices.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Indústria Química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(36): 36355-36367, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368706

RESUMO

Although the toxic effects of tannery effluent (TE) on tanning-industry workers have been reported in many studies, its effects on females' reproductive system are unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effects of direct contact with TE on the "emotional" status, estrous cycle (during 15 consecutive exposure days), and ovarian follicular dynamics of female Swiss mice at the end of the experiment to broaden the knowledge about the toxicity of this pollutant. The herein adopted exposure protocol simulated tanning-industry workers' exposure to TE. The test animals were subjected to 45 exposure days, for 1 h a day, 5 days a week (from Monday to Friday). Based on the collected data, female mice exposed to TE recorded high anxiety index in the elevated plus maze test, although we did not observe changes in their estrous cycle. The smaller total and specific number of ovarian follicles (types 1 to 6) and the higher frequency of degenerating follicles (atresic) in female mice exposed to TE marked the folliculogenesis reduction in them. Therefore, our study was the first to provide evidences that the exposure to TE can cause reproduction issues in female mice, as well as the first experimental insight about the impact of unhealthy work activities in tanning industries on women's reproductive system.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Curtume , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(20): 1058-1065, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303455

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine ecotoxicological parameters for biomonitoring of environmental risk of native soils from a ceramic industrial area that had been contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) by using the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Initially, lab tests were conducted to compare earthworm (Eisenia fetida) growth, survival, morphology, behavior, and reproduction rates following exposure to six concentrations of contaminated soil at 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% mixed in artificial soil and cow dung following a 28-d incubation period. The second experiment consisted of utilizing Eisenia fetida in a predetermined lowest observed effect concentration to measure heavy metals bioaccumulation from superficial soil collected from a ceramic industrial area following a 56-d exposure. Data demonstrated that in the lab earthworms maintained at 6.25% of contaminated soil, exhibited significant increase in mean weight, bioaccumulation of Cd and Cr associated with a significant decrease in the amount of Cd and Cr in the soil. At field testing, similar results that were observed as in the lab as evidenced by rise in mean weight, higher levels of Cd and Cr in the earthworm tissue accompanied by significant fall in soil levels of Cd and Cr. In conclusion, at tested relevant environmental concentrations, the use of Eisenia fetida for assessing ecotoxicological risk arising from contaminated soil due to ceramic industrial pollutant emissions was found to be an effective tool for biomonitoring program.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/toxicidade , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Cerâmica , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade
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