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1.
Anesth Analg ; 131(1): 288-297, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inhalation anesthetics are potent greenhouse gases. To reduce the global environmental impact of the health care sector, technologies are sought to limit the release of waste anesthetic gas into the atmosphere. METHODS: Using a photochemical exhaust gas destruction system, removal efficiencies for nitrous oxide, desflurane, and sevoflurane were measured at various inlet concentrations (25% and 50%; 1.5%, 3.0%, and 6.0%; and 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%, respectively) with flow rates ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 L/min. To evaluate the economic competitiveness of the anesthetic waste gas destruction system, its price per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent was calculated and compared to other greenhouse gas abatement technologies and current market prices. RESULTS: All inhaled anesthetics evaluated demonstrate enhanced removal efficiencies with decreasing flow rates (P < .0001). Depending on the anesthetic and its concentration, the photochemical exhaust gas destruction system exhibits a constant first-order removal rate, k. However, there was not a simple relation between the removal rate k and the species concentration. The costs for removing a ton of carbon dioxide equivalents are <$0.005 for desflurane, <$0.114 for sevoflurane, and <$49 for nitrous oxide. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this prototype study, destroying sevoflurane and desflurane with this photochemical anesthetic waste gas destruction system design is efficient and cost-effective. This is likely also true for other halogenated inhalational anesthetics such as isoflurane. Due to differing chemistry of nitrous oxide, modifications of this prototype photochemical reactor system are necessary to improve its removal efficiency for this gas.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/química , Resíduos Perigosos/efeitos adversos , Fotoquímica/métodos , Anestesia por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Humanos
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 364-374, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081332

RESUMO

The leaching concentrations of different metals in stainless steel pickling residue (SSPR) were determined and the toxic metals were treated using Na2S∙xH2O, FeSO4∙6H2O, and phosphoric acid. A modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction was used to identify the speciation of the concerned metals. Results showed that SSPR contains a large amount of Ca (58.41%), Fe (29.44%), Cr (3.83%), Ni (2.94%), Mn (2.82%) and some of Al, Cu, Mg, Zn. Among them, Cr and Ni were the most toxic metals in SSPR, thus the raw SSPR falls into hazardous waste category due to the leaching amount of Cr. In addition, the leached Cr was identified as Cr6+ (MgCrO4) in the waste. BCR test revealed that risk assessment code (RAC) of Cr and Ni were 33.29% and 61.7%, indicating they posed "high" and "very high" risk to the environment, respectively. After fixing by Na2S∙xH2O and FeSO4∙6H2O, the leaching concentrations of Cr and Ni were less than 1.5 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. After fixing by Na2S∙xH2O and FeSO4∙6H2O the treated SSPR can be safely reused as roadbed materials, concrete and cement aggregates. This study provides a useful implication in treatment and beneficial reuse of heavy metal-containing hazardous wastes.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Metais Pesados , Aço Inoxidável , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136313, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923676

RESUMO

Hazardous waste landfills (HWLs) usually mean the end of non-reusable, non-recyclable and non-recoverable wastes derived from industrial activities. A number of hazardous compounds and toxic elements, such as PCDD/Fs, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and As, is associated to these wastes. The HWL of Castellolí (Catalonia, Spain) treats a variety of hazardous wastes, which include bottom ashes from waste incinerators and asbestos potentially containing those toxicants. In 2007, our group began a surveillance program inside the HWL and in nearby villages focused on assessing the environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and toxic elements. Here we summarize the most updated results, corresponding to data from samples collected between 2015 and 2018. The levels of most trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) in soils, as well as those of Cd and Pb in air, were significantly higher (p < 0.01) inside the HWL than outside. However, no relevant differences were noted in the concentrations of trace elements when comparing the results of villages near the HWL with those located farther. With respect to PCDD/Fs, a progressive decrease was observed between the first (2007) and most recent (2018) surveys. The human health risks associated with the exposure to trace elements and PCDD/Fs exposure were within acceptable ranges according to national and international legislations (HQ < 1 and Cancer risk < 10-5).


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Incineração , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Espanha , Oligoelementos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
4.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125351, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756654

RESUMO

Hazardous waste disposal is a serious environmental concern in China. Therefore, in this study, industrial trials were conducted in a low-temperature thermal degradation facility, a tunnel kiln, and a shaft kiln to effectively treat dioxins in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The results indicated that the low-temperature thermal degradation facility efficiently decomposed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the MSWI fly ash. Additionally, the concentrations of dioxins in the treated fly ash and exhaust gas were lower than the suggested standard limits and the degradation ratio of dioxins was ∼99%. Therefore, treated fly ash characterized by acceptable dioxin risks could be utilized for the production of non-fired building materials. The results from the tunnel kiln indicated complete decomposition of the dioxins in the firing and insulating sections. However, the addition of fly ash in the tunnel kiln increased the concentration of dioxins in the flue gas. This can be primarily attributed to the heterogeneous catalytic synthesis reaction in the low-temperature section of the tunnel kiln. The results from the shaft kiln indicated degradation of at least 22% of the dioxins in the ash. The dioxin concentration in the flue gas was lower than the national standard while that in the clinker was within a reasonable limit. Furthermore, the environmental risks were significantly reduced at fly ash addition ratios lower than 3%.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/química , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Incineração/métodos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/química , China , Cinza de Carvão , Materiais de Construção , Dibenzofuranos , Dioxinas , Indústrias , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos
5.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(1): 77-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011940

RESUMO

The assessment of heavy metal contents in environmental sectors is important to estimate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic doses and risks for the mankind associated with it. The present work deals with the assessment of the risk exposure related to heavy metal contents in groundwater and soil samples to two different age groups via three different transits, i.e., ingestion, inhalation and dermal. The concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and Cr) were measured in the villages of lower Himalayas of Reasi district by using microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer. The calculated mean contamination factors of heavy metals in soil samples were as: Zn, 0.73; Cu, 0.70; Pb, 0.74; and Cr, 0.33; which led to pollution load index less than unity. The overall carcinogenic risks have been varied from 6.4E-08 to 5.1E-07 in soil samples and from 7.3E-06 to 1.1E-04 in ground water samples and were found to be well within the range prescribed by USEPA (Screening level ecological risk assessment protocol for hazardous waste combustion facilities, appendix E: toxicity reference values, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., 1999). The mean values of heavy metal contents except lead and chromium in water samples were found to be less than the values prescribed by various agencies. Geo-accumulation Index showed that Pb contribute to the highest contamination (0 < Igeo < 1) among the other heavy metals. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis identified that Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr had a relationship and the presence of these heavy metals could be related to vehicle emissions, traffic sources and industrial sources. The overall mean values of the non-carcinogenic doses and associated hazard risks in soil and water samples calculated for children were found to be higher than the adults which may be due to hand to mouth activities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124885, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568939

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr)-bearing electroplating sludge is a hazardous solid waste and has a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. In this study, an alkali-activated slag binders, namely, formed by the reaction of blast furnace slag (BFS) with alkali, was applied to the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of electroplating sludge. The effects of liquid-solid ratio, water glass modulus ratio (molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O), water glass dosage, and electroplating sludge amount on the compressive strength and Cr leachability of binders were analyzed. The related mechanism of the S/S of electroplating sludge was discussed on the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Results showed that the compressive strength of the alkali-activated slag binder first increased and then remained stable with the increase in liquid-solid ratio, water glass modulus ratio, and water glass dosage. By contrast, the leaching concentrations of Cr(VI) and total Cr decreased with the increase in liquid-solid ratio, water glass modulus ratio, water glass dosage, and curing time. In addition, XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDS revealed that the hydration products of the binders were mainly low-crystallinity and dense calcium silicate hydrate gels, and Cr(VI) had been effectively immobilized in the structure. The reduction in Cr(VI) by the reductive components in the BFS boosted the stabilization of Cr-bearing electroplating sludge. Overall, the BFS binders containing electroplating sludge had relatively high compressive strengths and low Cr(VI) leaching concentrations. The physical encapsulation, chemical bonding, and absorption contributed the Cr immobilization during the S/S process of electroplating sludge.


Assuntos
Álcalis/química , Cromo/química , Galvanoplastia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Esgotos/química , Humanos
7.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(4): 415-426, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675350

RESUMO

Background This review intends to explore the household hazardous waste (HHW) generation rates, HHW management, and people's awareness regarding HHW in Asian countries based on the economic levels using the available published articles. Methods This is a systematic review of the scientific literature based on several databases, namely Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, Sage Journals, and Elsevier's Science Direct from 2008 to 2018. Results HHW generation rates in various Asian cities do not seem to be influenced by the countries' financial status, except for e-waste. The variety in HHW generation rates among Asian countries might be due to various reasons, which include differences in (1) sampling frame/locations; (2) sampling size; (3) study duration; (4) seasons; (5) study year; and (6) HHW definition/composition. Governmental intervention programs on HHW management have been implemented in some of the Asian countries, mostly in high and upper-middle income groups although misconducts are still found. There is a tendency for economically developed countries to ship their e-waste to less-developed countries, where the system relies heavily on the informal sectors where unsafe treatments are often discovered. Low level of awareness regarding HHW risks is mostly identified in the lower-middle income group. However, even though high and upper-middle income groups have a better awareness of HHW, many people do not entirely follow the recommended practices. Conclusion The lack of enforced regulation and proper treatment infrastructure may lead to HHW being mixed with general household waste, which is found in many Asian countries, despite their income levels. In addition, a good awareness of HHW does not guarantee proper handling of it.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Utensílios Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Ásia , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(6): 848-853, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667530

RESUMO

In the present study, biochar particles (BPs) produced by the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and corncobs at temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized. The Pb2+ adsorption properties and the heavy metal leaching toxicity rates of the BPs were investigated. It was found that the adsorption kinetics of the Pb2+ can be accurately described by a pseudo-second-order model, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well represented by both the Langmuir and the Freundilich Equations. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that the leaching concentrations of all the heavy metals were below the set limit of China's national standard (Identification Standard for Hazardous Waste Extraction Toxicity Identification, China National Standard, GB 5085.3-2007). The results of this study can successfully provide scientific support for future corncob treatment and sludge pollution control.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Chumbo/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/química , Adsorção , China , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Modelos Teóricos , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652534

RESUMO

Thousands of small clinics in Pakistan are generating dispersed medical waste, unlike large hospitals, small clinic waste management is often ignored. This study was conducted on 135 small clinics in Hyderabad, Pakistan, with the aim to determine small clinics' waste management practices in contrast to rules, level of knowledge, the environmental impact of disposal methods, and motivating factor analysis to understand the current situation from multiple perspectives. Overall, the waste generation rate was calculated to be 2.01 kg/clinic/day and the hazardous waste generation rate was 0.89 kg/clinic/day, whereas the general waste generation rate was 1.12 kg/clinic/day. The hazardous waste generation rate percentage is found to be higher than those found in large hospitals by 20%. The waste management practice among surveyed clinics was deplorable; none of the clinics were completely following hospital waste management rules of 2005 and thus the absence of proper segregation, storage, transportation, and disposal was commonly encountered during the study. Clinic staff possessed low level of knowledge and awareness, and acquired no training about waste management practice and rules, moreover, frequent employee turnover was noticed too. Additionally, two hypotheses were checked for creditability of motivating factors with an exploratory factor analysis to check their contribution to motivating clinic staff to practice sound healthcare waste management. Out of 10 indicators, nine were found in support of the hypotheses. Hence, it was discovered that active government involvement and financial support in providing training and inspecting small clinics could help in improving the condition. The findings of the present study can play a vital role in documenting evidence, and for policymakers and governments to plan solid waste management of small clinics and other healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Urbanização , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
10.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549666

RESUMO

More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic trace elements in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of trace elements from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from a mixture of soil and waste glass of particle sizes of less than 2 mm (given the name fine fraction) was characterized by analyzing the pH (7.3), total organic content (TOC < 2%), organic matter content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7%), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 163 mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high trace elements content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of waste glass, whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Vidro , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lepidium sativum/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Suécia , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277255

RESUMO

This study reports on the assessment of the impact of antimony mine wastes from Xikuangshan (XKS) Antimony Mine in Lengshuijiang City, Hunan Province. We focus on the leaching of a number of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from residues from the processing of antimony ore. The PTE content of ore processing waste and solutions generated by leaching experiments were determined for a suite of PTEs associated with the ore mineralization. These were Sb, As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn. As anticipated, high concentrations of the PTEs were identified in the waste materials, far exceeding the standard background values for soil in Hunan Province. For Sb and As, values reached >1800 mg·kg-1 and >1200 mg·kg-1, respectively (>600 and >90 times higher than the soil background). The leaching of Sb, As, Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn decreased with an increase in grain size and leachable portions of metal ranged between 0.01% to 1.56% of total PTE content. Leaching tests identified the release of PTEs through three stages: a. alkaline mineral dissolution and H+ exchanging with base cation; b. oxidation and acid production from pyrite and other reducing minerals; and c. the adsorption and precipitation of PTEs.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental
12.
Chemosphere ; 235: 308-315, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260871

RESUMO

This study evaluates the potential use of a new limestone calcined clay cement (LC3) for stabilization/solidification of zinc contaminated soil. LC3 is a new ternary blend manufactured by the replacement of 50% cement clinker by locally available two supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) - limestone and calcined clay. The incorporation of LC3 is evaluated on the soil spiked with 0.5% and 1% of Zinc (Zn) at curing times of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. pH, strength and leachability properties of the solidified/stabilised soil are measured for both mechanical and environmental conditions. Additionally, sequential extraction procedure (SEP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis are performed to elucidate the mechanisms of Zn immobilization in the soil. The results show that the leachable Zn concentrations in the stabilised soil are well below the corresponding hazardous waste management regulatory limit after the curing time of 14 days. The soil pH and unconfined compressive strength of the stabilised soil increase with curing time. The SEP results confirm that LC3 considerably reduces the acid soluble fraction (F1) and increase the residual fraction (F4). The XRD and SEM results indicate that formation of Tri-calcium Silicate 3CaO·SiO2, Portlandite Ca(OH)2, Ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26 H2O and Wulfingite Zn(OH)2 are the primary mechanisms for the immobilization of Zn in the LC3 stabilised soil.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Argila/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise , Força Compressiva , Materiais de Construção , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Minerais , Dióxido de Silício , Zinco/toxicidade
13.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 261-266, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314743

RESUMO

The Central and Eastern Europe region is faced with longstanding environmental health problems as well as emerging health threats from pollution caused by the region's recent period of rapid industrialization. As researchers in the region continue to work to address these problems, they could find unique approaches by increasing collaborations between biomedical and non-biomedical scientists and by more closely following the Superfund Research Program model of pursuing basic research, then connecting with stakeholders in the region to share and apply new knowledge. To build upon and leverage research in the region, researchers and stakeholders should work to formalize the bi-annual meeting of the Central and Eastern European Conference on Health and the Environment into a more cohesive organization and make efforts to connect to broader global networks that aim to spread research results and applications around the world. By taking these steps to connect to the broader world of environmental health research, the CEE region stakeholders can reduce pollution-related disease, minimize costs of hazardous waste remediation, and help grow the economy in their region.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Europa (Continente)
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195657

RESUMO

Reuse of waste is one of the main principles of sustainable development and circular economy. Secondary alkaline lead slag is a hazardous waste generated in the recycling process of lead-acid batteries that may be suitable in construction materials. The environmental impact of the use of lead slag as a partial replacement of fine aggregates in the cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) process for the preparation of concrete was studied in this paper. Solidified products containing 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% slag were laboratory tested by unconfined compressive strength (UCS) analyses and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At the same time, the leachability of toxic elements from solidified products with a high percent of slag was evaluated under environmental conditions for during one year. The results of the UCS and TCLP indicated that utilization of this type of slag in cement-based applications may be justified with its controlled addition. However, the described application of the slag was disputed due to the high release of As under high alkaline environmental conditions. Eh-pH analyses and the geochemical modeling using the software PHREEQC were evaluated, as well as the mechanism of pollutant (Pb, As) immobilization (precipitation, adsorption) as a function of pH conditions.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Chumbo/análise , Reciclagem , Adsorção
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 285, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the healthcare delivery process, hazardous wastes can be generated from the health facilities. Improper healthcare waste management is responsible for the transmission of more than 30 dangerous bloodborne pathogens. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the healthcare waste management practice and potential challenges in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Electronic databases and direct Google search yielded 1742 articles from which 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of hazardous waste generated in Ethiopian healthcare facilities was unacceptably high which ranged from 21 to 70%. Most studies indicated the absence of proper waste segregation practice at the source of generation. Treatment of the healthcare waste using low combustion incinerator and/or open burning and open disposal of the incinerator ash were very common. Lack of awareness from the healthcare staff, appropriate waste management utilities and enforcement from the regulatory bodies were mainly identified as a common factor shared by most of the studies. The healthcare waste management practice in Ethiopian healthcare facilities was unsatisfactory. There should be close supervision of the waste disposal process by the regulatory bodies or other stakeholders.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Etiópia , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incineração/ética , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/ética , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/ética
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(12): 11618-11630, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859444

RESUMO

Annually, over 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced worldwide, and it is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are still being littered in the world. The dispersal of the CBs has caused this hazardous waste to be considered as one of the most important litters and environmental risks all over the world. This systematic study with the search protocol definition and keyword identification was developed to find the CBs control and recycling methods by searching in five scientific databases. Founded articles were monitored and finally, 35 related articles were selected and studied by the authors. The results of this study showed that CBs recycling methods have been tested in 10 specific categories all over the world. The CBs have been applied without any pre-processing methods in the bricks and asphalt production. However, other applications of the CBs such as the absorbent material production, vector control, and use as a biofilm carrier in wastewater treatment need various processing methods. The researchers also presented models and suggestions such as taxes, penalties, and public education for the control of CBs littering. Despite the innovative methods applied for the CBs recycling in previous studies, CBs have not received much attention in terms of pollutant control and environmental issues in recycling processes.


Assuntos
Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Produtos do Tabaco , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Reciclagem , Fumar , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Chemosphere ; 225: 35-42, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856473

RESUMO

Emissions of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from the combustion of PCB-containing oil in a hazardous waste incinerator are characterized. Flue gas samples are simultaneously taken at three points, including the outlet of ultrasonic wet scrubber, the outlet of heat exchanger and stack. In addition, solid matter samples including incinerator bottom ash, wet scrubber sludge, heat exchanger ash and baghouse ash are also collected. The results indicate that TEQ concentration (PCDD/Fs + dl-PCBs) measured in stack from the combustion of PCB-containing oil is 0.51 ng WHO-TEQ/Nm3. For the solid matter, PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations of baghouse ash and wet scrubber sludge are significantly higher than those measured in bottom and heat exchanger ashes. The total removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs + dl-PCBs achieved with bag filtration (BF) + activated carbon injection (ACI) reaches 65.0%. The emission factors of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from incinerating PCB-containing oil are 1.05 and 0.08 ng WHO-TEQ/L, respectively. The overall PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs destruction efficiencies achieved with fluidized-bed incinerator reach 99.87% and 99.9998%, respectively, which demonstrates that incineration is an effective engineering practice for treating PCB-containing oil. Moreover, this is the first study suggesting the ratios of PCB-114/(PCB-126+ PCB-114) and PCB-157/(PCB-169+ PCB-157) as indicators to distinguish the emission source of dl-PCB from combustion process and technical mixture evaporation in diagnostic ratio analysis.


Assuntos
Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Incineração , Óleos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Óleos/efeitos adversos , Esgotos/análise
18.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 696-705, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849587

RESUMO

During the last 70 years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) has been one of the most extensively used pesticides. Only the gamma-isomer has insecticidal properties. For the marketing of gamma-HCH (lindane) the other 85% HCH isomers which are formed as by-products during HCH production had to be separated and became finally hazardous waste. For each tonne of lindane 8-12 tonnes of waste HCH isomers were produced and production of the approximately 600,000 t of lindane has therefore generated 4.8 to 7.2 million tonnes of HCH/POPs waste. These waste isomers were mostly buried in uncontrolled dumps at many sites around the world. The stockpiles and the large contaminated sites can be categorized as "mega-sites". Countries with HCH legacy problems include Albania, Argentina, Austria, Azerbaijan, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Macedonia, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, The Netherlands, UK, Ukraine and the USA. As lindane and alpha- and beta-HCH have been listed as POPs in the Stockholm Convention since August 2010, the problem of stockpiles of HCH waste is now documented and globally acknowledged. This article describes briefly the legacy of HCH and lindane that has been created. Three of the mega-sites are being discussed and demonstrate the increase in pollution footprint over time. Recent developments in the EU (including the Sabinanigo project in Aragon/Spain) and on a global level are presented. A short overview is given on lack of activities and on actions of countries within their obligations as Parties of the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, current country activities supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the "financing mechanism" of the convention, are listed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are formulated that will contribute to the solution of this problem over the next 25 years.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , América , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Hexaclorocicloexano/química , Isomerismo , África do Sul
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(3): 192, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810865

RESUMO

There is a pressing need for innovative waste management approaches as environmental regulations become more stringent worldwide alongside increasing demand for a more circular economy. Sequential chemical extraction (SE) analysis, which has previously been applied to environmental media such as soils and sediments, offers the potential to provide an understanding of the composition of solid steel processing by products, aiding the waste classification process and improving environmental protection. The definition of seven-phase associations through a SE method evaluated in this study were for (1) water soluble, (2) ion exchangeable, (3) carbonate, (4) amorphous Fe-Mn oxides, (5) crystalline Fe-Mn oxides, (6) sulphides and (7) silicate residues. Steel waste by-products (flue dust and filter cake) were evaluated for both extracted components (ICP analysis) and residual phases (using powder X-ray diffraction, SEM and FTIR), to model the transformations taking place during extraction. The presence and removal of important potentially toxic element (PTE) host solid phases were confirmed during extraction. The SE protocol provides key information, particularly for the association of potentially toxic elements with the first three extracts, which are most sensitive in waste management processes. The water-soluble phase is the most available followed by ion-exchangeable and carbonate fractions, all representing phases more sensitive to environmental change, in particular to pH. This study demonstrates that the distribution of potentially toxic elements such as zinc, lead and copper between sensitive and immobile phases can be reliably obtained in technological process by-products. We demonstrate that despite heterogeneity as a major variable, even for fine particulate matter, SE can provide more refined classification with information to identify reuse potential and ultimately minimise hazardous waste streams.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Aço , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Cobre/análise , Poeira/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Sulfetos/análise , Zinco/análise
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(2): 122, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706201

RESUMO

Nowadays, given the high production volume of industrial and dangerous materials and their impacts on the human society and environment, disposal of waste materials in the environment and finding the best disposal site for industrial and hazardous wastes, as the most significant managerial measure, have become one of the most important and complex decisions in urban management. In order to find a disposal site, analysis of spatial data, laws, and large socioeconomic and environmental criteria is required. Multi-criteria analysis techniques coupled with GIS capabilities can be a good solution for this. Due to numerous industrial units, especially refineries in Bushehr province, it is essential to find a management solution for hazardous wastes of this province. The main objective of this study is to find an optimal location which has the lowest environmental risk and economically favorable. For this purpose, ecological and socioeconomic criteria were identified and normalized by fuzzy method. The weight of the parameters was determined by analytical network process method combined with the weighted linear combination method. In the capability of the area to locate the hazardous waste disposal, the results showed that the highest weight belonged to ecological criteria (61.34%) and land use (0.27), respectively. Also, 6.13% of the province areas are identified with high potentials for disposal of hazardous wastes. The results of this study showed the importance and significant weight of environmental criteria in prioritizing the proposed areas for disposal of this type of waste. Efficiency of the employed models, integrated with GIS and MCDM, was also proven.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Software
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