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1.
In. Bermúdez Pérez, Regla; Verdera Hernández, Julia. Manual para la gestión integral de los desechos sólidos peligrosos. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2018. , tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71520
2.
In. Bermúdez Pérez, Regla; Verdera Hernández, Julia. Manual para la gestión integral de los desechos sólidos peligrosos. La Habana, Editorial Ciencias Médicas, 2018. , tab.
Monografia em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-71519
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 321: 316-325, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27639208

RESUMO

Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was treated with microorganisms (Sporosarcina pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus) to assess their capacity for cementing this waste material. Leaching tests on the samples treated with bacteria were also performed to assess the possibility of recovering and recycling trace elements from the fly ash. Sequential extractions combined with mineralogical studies demonstrated that Pb is mobile in water when associated with portlandite. Also, Cd, Pb, and Zn are primarily associated with carbonates and are mobile in acidic environments (up to 4.8, 13.9 and 248mg/l of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively, extracted with acetic acid). Microbial treatment of the fly ash, especially with Sporosarcina pasteurii, led to its cementation and stabilization, preventing its dispersion into the environment. But samples treated with bacteria exhibited a higher capacity for trace element leaching than did untreated fly ash. The ability of these bacteria to mobilize metals can be applied to recover those of economic interest. The use of low cost biotechnologies can be an alternative to chemical treatments currently utilized for the recovery and reuse of these wastes.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Metais Pesados/análise , Myxococcus xanthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sporosarcina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oligoelementos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental
4.
Environ Health ; 15: 8, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26786721

RESUMO

In the 1970s, there were many reports of toxic hazards at corporate subsidiaries in the developing world that were no longer tolerated in the corporations' "home" countries. Following the chemical disaster in Bhopal, India, in 1984, leading corporations then announced that they applied uniform standards of worker and environmental protection worldwide. With globalization, corporations should also be obliged to take responsibility for their separate supplier, contractor and distributor companies, and licensees of their technology.The asbestos industry today consists of national corporations. Individual countries must overcome the influence of the asbestos-exporting countries and asbestos companies and stop building with asbestos, as recommended by WHO, ILO, and World Bank. WHO precautions for limiting governmental interaction with the tobacco industry should be applied in dealing with the asbestos industry.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio , Saúde Global , Humanos , Índia , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Waste Manag ; 39: 246-57, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25716742

RESUMO

To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Telefone Celular , Tóquio , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 31(12): 1144-51, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23698903

RESUMO

Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals, is ubiquitous in environment. The adverse health impact of mercury on living organisms is well known. The health care facilities are one of the important sources of mercury release into the atmosphere as mercury items are extensively used in hospitals. To assess the awareness about mercury toxicity and the knowledge of proper handling and disposal of mercury-containing items in health care set-up, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out amongst doctors (n = 835), nurses (n = 610) and technicians (n = 393) in government hospitals, corporate hospitals and primary health care centres in the Indian states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. The study was conducted using a tool-containing pretested structured multiple-choice questionnaire. Analysis of the results using STATA 11.1 software highlighted that overall awareness was more in corporate sector. However, percentage range of knowledge of respondents irrespective of health care sector was only between 20 and 40%. Despite the commitment of various hospitals to be mercury free, mercury containing-thermometer/sphygmomanometer are still preferred by health professionals. The likely reasons are availability, affordability, accuracy and convenience in use. There is an urgent need for source reduction, recycling and waste minimization. Emphasis must be laid on mercury alternative products, education and training of health personnel and public at large, about correct handling and proper clean up of spills.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Ecotoxicologia/educação , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos/prevenção & controle , Educação em Enfermagem , Resíduos Perigosos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Hospitais com Fins Lucrativos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Índia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Autorrelato , Recursos Humanos
8.
São Paulo; SES-SP; 2015. 194 p. tab.(Coletânea Técnica CVS, 1).
Monografia em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: lil-773044

RESUMO

Eis aqui apresentado em coletânea um conjunto de normas e orientações técnicas que evidencia o rico universo temático relativo às questões ambientais a cargo da Vigilância Sanitária no Estado de São Paulo.Além de servir à consulta rápida dos profissionais das instâncias regionais e municipais do Sistema Estadual de Vigilância Sanitária (Sevisa), a coletânea tem o propósito de permitir uma visão em perspectiva dos modos de se regular os fatores ambientais de risco à saúde que se manifestaram de diferentes formas no território paulista nessas últimas duas décadas.Esta visão panorâmica remete à necessária reflexão a respeito do ofício voltado ao controle do risco sanitário e à proteção da saúde da população paulista. Pois assim, a coletânea expressa algum tanto dos desafios que o Estado de São Paulo enfrenta para o pleno desenvolvimento e bem-estar de sua gente.Ao agregar as normas e orientações mais representativas de temática ambiental elaboradas pelo CVS num período de 23 anos (1991 a 2014), a publicação retrata modos de se abordar problemas sanitários que coincidem com o processo de estruturação da Vigilância Sanitária em São Paulo, em consonância com as diretrizes constitucionais de descentralização hierarquizada das ações do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS)...


Assuntos
Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Normas Técnicas , Saúde Ambiental , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental , Monitoramento da Água , Normas de Qualidade da Água , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Saneamento de Hospitais
11.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 14(4): 766-9, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24309364

RESUMO

Eco-friendly dentistry is currently transforming the medical and dental field to decrease its affect on our natural environment and reduce the amount of waste being produced. Eco-friendly dentistry uses a sustainable approach to encourage dentists to implement new strategies to try and reduce the energy being consumed and the large amount of waste being produced by the industry. Many reasonable, practical and easy alternatives do exist which would reduce the environmental footprint of a dental office were it to follow the 'green' recommendations. Dentist should take a leading role in the society by implementing 'green' initiatives to lessen their impact on the environment. This article provides a series of 'green' recommendations that dentists around the world can implement to become a leading Stewards of the environment.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Odontólogos , Sistemas Computacionais , Amálgama Dentário , Equipamentos Odontológicos , Consultórios Odontológicos/organização & administração , Resíduos Odontológicos/prevenção & controle , Política Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/instrumentação , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/instrumentação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos
13.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 63(7): 788-95, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23926848

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: A study was conducted to observe the changes in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) levels and congener profiles in the flue gas of a hazardous waste incinerator during two start-up periods. Flue gas samplings were performed simultaneously through Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) (including boiler outlet, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, wet scrubbers (WS) outlet, and activated carbon (AC) filter outlet) in different combustion temperatures during a planned cold (long) start-up and an unplanned warm (short) start-up. The results showed that PCDD/F concentrations could be elevated during the start-up periods up to levels 3-4 times higher than those observed in the normal operation. Especially lower combustion temperatures in the short start-ups may cause high PCDD/F concentrations in the raw flue gas. Assessment of combustion temperatures and Furans/Dioxins values indicated that surface-catalyzed de novo synthesis was the dominant pathway in the formation of PCDD/Fs in the combustion units. PCDD/F removal efficiencies of Air Pollution Control Devices suggested that formation by de novo synthesis existed in ESP also when in operation, leading to increase of gaseous phase PCDD/Fs in ESP Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were removed mainly by ESP and WS, while gaseous phase PCDD/Fs were removed by WS, and more efficiently by AC filter. IMPLICATIONS: This paper evaluates PCDD/F emissions and removal performances of APCDs (ESP, wet scrubbers, and activated carbon) during two start-up periods in an incinerator. The main implications are the following: (1) start-up periods increase PCDD/F emissions up to 2-3 times in the incinerator; (2) low combustion temperatures in start-ups cause high PCDD/F emissions in raw gas; (3) formation of PCDD/Fs by de novo synthesis occurs in ESP; (4) AC is efficient in removing gaseous PCDD/Fs, but may increase particle-bound ones; and (5) scrubbers remove both gaseous and particle-bound PCDD/Fs efficiently.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Benzofuranos/análise , Incineração/métodos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/química , Turquia
14.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 45(2): 143-5, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23930387

RESUMO

The project goal was to reduce waste disposal volume, costs and minimize the negative impact that regulated waste treatment and disposal has on the environment. This was accomplished by diverting bypass circuits from the traditional regulated medical waste (RMW) to clear bag waste, or municipal solid waste (MSW). To qualify circuits to be disposed of through MSW stream, the circuits needed to be void of any free-flowing blood and be "responsibly clear." Traditionally the perfusion bypass circuit was emptied through the cardioplegia pump starting shortly after decannulation and heparin reversal. Up to 2000 mL of additional prime solution was added until the bypass circuit was rinsed clear. Three hundred sixty of 400 procedures (90%) had a complete circuit rinse and successful diversion to MSW. An additional 240 mL of processed cell salvage blood was available for transfusion. No additional time was spent in the operating room as a result of this procedure. Based on our procedure case volume and circuit weight of 15 pounds, almost 15,000 pounds (7.5 tons) of trash will be diverted from RMW. This technique represents another way for perfusionists to participate in sustainability efforts. Diverting the bypass circuit to clear bag waste results in a reduced environmental impact and annual cost savings. The treatment of RMW is associated with various environmental implications. MSW, or clear bag waste, on the other hand can now be disposed of in waste-to-energy facilities. This process not only releases a significantly less amount of carbon dioxide into the environment, but also helps generate renewable energy. Therefore, the bypass circuit diversion pilot project effectively demonstrates decreases in the carbon footprint of our organization and overall operating costs.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Máquina Coração-Pulmão , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Cidades , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , New York
15.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 63(5): 521-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23786143

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The growing demand for silicon solar cells in the global market has greatly increased the amount of silicon sawing waste produced each year. Recycling kerf Si and SiC from sawing waste is an economical method to reduce this waste. This study reports the separation of Si and SiC using a ramp settling tank. As they settle in an electrical field, small Si particles with higher negative charges have a longer horizontal displacement than SiC particles in a solution of pH 7, resulting in the separation of Si and SiC. The agreement between experimental results and predicted results shows that the particles traveled a short distance to reach the collection port in the ramp tank. Consequently, the time required for tiny particles to hit the tank bottom decreased, and the interference caused by the dispersion between particles and the fluid motion during settling decreased. In the ramp tank, the highest purities of the collected SiC and Si powders were 95.2 and 7.01 wt%, respectively. Using a ramp tank, the recycling fraction of Si-rich powders (SiC < 15 wt%) reached 22.67% (based on the whole waste). This fraction is greater than that achieved using rectangular tanks. IMPLICATIONS: Recycling Si and SiC abrasives from the silicon sawing waste is regarded as an economical solution to reduce the sawing waste. However, the separation of Si and SiC is difficult. This study reports the separation of Si and SiC using a ramp settling tank under an applied electrical field. As they settle in an electrical field, small Si particles with higher negative charges have a longer horizontal displacement than SiC particles in a solution of pH 7, resulting in the separation of Si and SiC. Compared with the rectangular tanks, the recycling fraction of Si-rich powders using a ramp tank is greater, and the proposed ramp settling tank is more suitable for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/química , Compostos Inorgânicos de Carbono/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos Industriais/prevenção & controle , Reciclagem/métodos , Compostos de Silício/química , Compostos de Silício/isolamento & purificação , Silício/química , Silício/isolamento & purificação , Energia Solar , Condutividade Elétrica , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle
16.
Waste Manag Res ; 31(5): 502-9, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539347

RESUMO

The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE) for a system serving 56 000 inhabitants), but significant environmental loads are caused by air emissions from the incinerators and leachate from the landfills. Several alternative management scenarios were modelled and results show that increased use of incineration, full utilization of the heat production for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland's waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration and the long transport of the recyclables to markets. Export of waste to Denmark for incineration at modern waste incinerators with advanced flue gas cleaning could also be considered as a means to achieve better environmental performance of the waste management system.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Groenlândia , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Incineração , Modelos Teóricos , Reciclagem , Eliminação de Resíduos/instrumentação , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/instrumentação
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 20(4): 2087-97, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23417361

RESUMO

The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.


Assuntos
Segurança Química/legislação & jurisprudência , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Substâncias Perigosas , Resíduos Perigosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fortalecimento Institucional , Segurança Química/métodos , Segurança Química/normas , Egito , União Europeia , Alemanha , Guias como Assunto , Substâncias Perigosas/classificação , Resíduos Perigosos/classificação , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Nações Unidas , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 20(4): 2081-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22961560

RESUMO

The unsustainable life cycle management of pesticides in the last 60 years has created large pesticide stockpiles. The two major working areas of the International HCH and Pesticide Association (IHPA; www.ihpa.info ) address a part of these legacies and are shortly introduced here: (1) The assessment and support of the management of the worlds single largest POPs stockpile: the globally dumped 4 to 7 million tonnes hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) wastes from lindane production, and (2) the support for the management of the obsolete pesticides legacy in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries of ~240,000 t, leaving these pesticides in unregulated storages without adequate safety control being a huge risk to the environment and human health. The integrative approach IHPA takes-promoting international cooperation and the exchange of knowledge and experiences-is shortly explained. IHPA has developed various supporting tools for its work: the IHPA web page and newsletter informing on the threats and challenges, but also on the progresses of managing pesticide stockpiles; the joint GIZ-PAN-IHPA exhibition on awareness of the pesticide stockpile challenge; and the 'International HCH and Pesticides Forum' as most important tool to progress the integrative work and mission of IHPA. Finally, a summary of the 11th International HCH and Pesticides Forum held in Gabala, Azerbaijan is given which brought together more than 120 scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental and international organisations, industry and students from more than 40 countries to progress the obsolete pesticides and hazardous chemical waste challenge in EECCA countries. The event finished with adoption of 'Gabala Declaration', which aims to mobilise efforts of all stakeholders for prevention and elimination of POPs, obsolete pesticides, and hazardous chemical waste in the region.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos , Hexaclorocicloexano , Resíduos Industriais , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Ásia Central , Indústria Química , Política Ambiental , Europa Oriental , Saúde Global , Resíduos Perigosos/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Perigosos/análise , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Resíduos Industriais/prevenção & controle , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Cooperação Internacional , Organizações/organização & administração , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade
20.
J Environ Manage ; 115: 175-8, 2013 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23262405

RESUMO

The current technologies available for recycling fluorescent lamps do not completely remove the phosphor powder attached to the surface of the glass. Consequently, the glass contains the mercury diffused through the glass matrix and the mercury deposited in the phosphor powder that has not been removed during treatment at the recycling plant. A low-cost process, with just one stage, which can be used to remove the layer of phosphor powder attached to the surface of the glass and its mercury was studied. Several stirring tests were performed with different extraction mixtures, different liquid-solid ratios, and different agitation times. The value of the initial mercury concentration of the residual glass was 2.37 ± 0.50 µg/g. The maximum extraction percentage was 68.38%, obtained by stirring for 24 h with a liquid-solid ratio of 10 and using an extraction solution with 5% of an acid mixture prepared with HCl and HNO(3) at a ratio of 3:1 by volume. On an industrial scale the contact time could be reduced to 8 h without significantly lowering the percentage of mercury extracted. In fact, 64% of the mercury was extracted.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Vidro/química , Utensílios Domésticos , Iluminação , Mercúrio/química , Resíduos Perigosos/prevenção & controle , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação
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